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HISTORY 



OF 



MONROE AND SHELBY COUNTIES, 

MISSOURI, 



WRITTEN AND COMPILED 



FROM THE MOST AUTPIENTIC OFFICIAL AND PRIVATE SOURCES, 



INCLUDING A HISTORY OF THEIR 



TOWNSHIPS, TOWNS AND VILLAGES 



TOGETHER WITH 



^ ^^^f™^"" HISTORY OF MISSOURI; A RELIABLE AND DETAILED HISTORY OF 

MONROE AND SHELBY COUNTIES-THEIR PIONEER RECORD, RESOURCES 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PROMINENT CITIZENS ; GENERAL 

AND LOCAL STATISTICS OF GREAT VALUE; 

INCIDENTS AND REMINISCENCES. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



ST. LOUIS: 
NATIONAL HISTORICAL COMPANY. 

1884. 



v\\ 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by 

O. P. WILLIAMS & CO., 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 






^ 



St. Louis Mo.: 
Pregs of Nixon- Jones Printing Co. 



St. Louis, Mo '^ 

Becktold cj- Co., Book-binder*. 



\5 



PREFACE. 



The compiler of a county history has a task which may seem to be- 
comparatively easy, and the facts which come within the legitimate 
scope of the work may appear commonplace, when compared with 
National events ; the narration of the peaceful events attending the 
conquests of industry, as — 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way," 

may seem tame when compared with accounts of battles and sieges. 

Nevertheless, the faithful gathering, and the truthful narration of 
facts, bearing upon the early settlement of the country and the dan- 
gers, hardships and privations, encountered by the early pioneers 
engaged in advancing the standard of civilization, is a work of no 
small magnitude, and the facts thus narrated are such as may chal- 
lenge the admiration and arouse the sympathy of the reader, albeit, 
they have nothing to do with the feats of arms. The History of 
Monroe and Shelby counties has been written, in many respects,, 
under trying circumstances. There has been no lack of material, but 
the work of collecting and compiling the same into one homogeneous 
record has been attended with many obstacles and perplexities, and 
in presenting this history to the citizens of these counties, we do so 
with the full knowledge that errors will be found within its pages. 
If this were not so it would be different from any work yet completed 
by human hands, absolute perfection never having been attained 
either in the historical or any other field of earthly labor. The facts 
and incidents herein treated have been gleaned from the memories of 
old settlers, from the files of old newspapers, from the records of 
early courts, and from a host of public and private citizens, and from 
all other sources whence there could be derived any thing that would 
assist in the preparation of this history, 
(iii) 



IV 



PREFACE. 



The publishers are especially indebted to the officials of these coun- 
ties for their kindness and courtesies, and to the Press, and the people 
generally, they extend their thanks for the many courtesies shown 
them and their representatives while sojourning in their midst, assur- 
ing them that without their friendly aid and good will this history 
would have remained beneath the debris of time, unwritten and 
unpreserved. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 




CONTENTS. 



HISTOKY OF MISSOUEI. 



CHAPTER I. 

LOUISIANA PURCHASE 
Brief Historical Sketch 1-7 

CHAPTER II. 

DESCRIPTIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL. 

Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popula- 
tion by Counties 7-13 

CHAPTER III. 

GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. ' 

Classification of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretacious — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Zinc — Building Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Povper 13-21 

CHAPTER IV. 

TITLE AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties vrith Indians — First Settle- 
ment — Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — 
Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County — 
Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — " Boone's Lick " — Cote Sans Dessein — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized . 21-27 

CHAPTER V. 

TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION. 

Organization 1812 — Council — House of Representatives — William Clark First Terri- 
torial Governor — Edward Hempstead First Delegate — Spanish Grants — First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory — Vote of Territory — Riifus Easton — Absent Members — Third 
Assembly — Proceedings — Application for Admission . . . 27-31 

(V) 



VI CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Application of Missouri to be Admitted into the Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — " Missouri Compromise " — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitution Presented to Congress — Further resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted 31-37 

CHAPTER VII. 

MISSOURI AS A STATE. 

First Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in 
Congress — Supreme Court Judges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Official Record of Territorial and State Officers . . 37-43 

CHAPTER VIII. 

CIVIL WAR IN MISSOURI. 

Fort Sumpter Fired Upon — Call for 75,000 Men — Gov. Jackson Refuses to Furnish a 
Man — U. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — 
General Order No. 7 — Legislature Convenes — Camp Jackson Organized — Sterling 
Price Appointed Major-General — Frost's Letter to Lyon — Lyon's Letter to Frost — 
Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gen. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney Superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. 
Jackson Burns the Bridges behind Him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. 
Blair Takes Possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at 
Springfield — State Offices Declared Vacant — Gen. Fremont Assumes Command — 
Proclamation of Lieut. -Gov. Reynolds —-Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov, 
Jackson — Death of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCul- 
loch antl Gamble — Martial Law Declared — Second Proclamation of Jeff. Thomp- 
son — President Modifies Fremont's Order — Fremont Relieved by Hunter — Proc- 
lamation of Price — Hunter's Order of Assessment — Hunter Declares Martial 
Law — Order Relating to Newspapers — Halleck Succeeds Hunter — Halleck's 
Order No. 18 — Similar Order by Halleck — Boone County Standard Confiscated — 
Execution of Prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — Gen. Ewing's Order No. 11 — 
Gen. Rosecrans Takes Command — Massacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Ander- 
son — Gen. Dodge Succeeds Gen. Rosecrans — List of Battles . . 43-53 

CHAPTER IX. 

EARLY MILITARY RECORD. 
Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War . 53-59 

CHAPTER X. 

AGRICULTURE AND MATERIAL WEALTH. 

Missouri jas an Agricultural State — The Different Crops — Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and Other Cattle — Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — 
Missouri Adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broom Corn and Other Products — 
Fruits — Berries — Grapes — Railroads — First Neigh of the " Iron Horse " in Mis- 
souri — Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. Louis . 59-65 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHAPTER XI. 

EDUCATION. 

Public School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Offi- 
cers of Public School System— Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri— 
Schools — Colleges — Institutions of Learning — Location — Libraries — News- 
papers and Periodicals— No. of Sfchool Children — Amount Expended — Value of 
Grounds and Buildings — " The Press " 65-73 

CHAPTER XH. 

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded — Its History — 
Christian Church — Its History — C umberland Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History — United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Catholic Church — Its 
History 73-79 

CHAPTER Xin. 

ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNOR CRITTENDEN. 

Nomination and Election of Thomas T. Crittenden — Personal Mention — Marmaduke's 
Candidacy — Stirring Events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Fords — Pardon of the Gamblers 79-85 



HisTOEY OF mo:n^koe coukty, missouki. 



CHAPTER I. 



Introductory — What Time has Done — Importance of Early Beginnings — First Settle- 
ments made in the Timber —Parts of the County first Settled— Names of Pioneers— 
Pestal and Mill Facilities — County Organized and Named — The Name 87-98 

CHAPTER II. 

PIONEER LIFE. 

The Pioneers' Peculiarities — Conveniences and Inconveniences — The Historical Log 
Cabin — Agricultural Implements — Household Furniture — Pioneer Corn-bread — 
Hand Mills and Hominy Blocks— Going to Mill — Trading Points — Hunting — Bee 
i;Trees — Shooting Matches and Qulltings 98-110 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

Early Eecords and Public Buildings — First County Court — Its Proceedings — First 
Circuit Court — First, Second and Ttiird Grand Juries — First Deed Recorded — 
Early Marriages" — Public Buildings — First Court House and Jail — Second Court 
House and Jail ' 110-121 

CHAPTER IV. 

TOWNSHIP SYSTEM AND GOVERNMENT SURVEYS. 

County and Township Systems — Government Surveys — Organization of Town- 
ships — Physical Features - . . . . 121-129 

CHAPTER V. 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP. 

Physical Features — Old Settlers — William Goodlovv — A Sad Incident — Caldwell 
Opens a Store — Paris — When Laid Out — Names of Commissioners — Florida a 
Candidate — Paris named by Mrs. J. C. Fox — Donations for County Seat — Sale 
of Town Lots — Names of Some of the Purchasers — Parties Associated in Laying 
Out the Town — Spotted Fawn — Pioneer Business Men — Old Race Track — Secret 
Orders — Banks and Bankers — Woolen Mills and Carding Machines — Flouring 
Mills — Paris Baud — Dedicatory Services of the New Christian Church — Public 
Schools of Paris — Business Directory 129-151 

CHAPTER VI. 

JEFFERSON AND INDIAN CREEK TOWNSHIPS. 

Jefferson and Indian Creek Townships — Physical Features — Old Settlers — Flo- 
rida — Its History — Mills — Mark Twain — Early Business Men — Professional 
Men — Sketch of Mark Twain — The Town Incorporated — Secret Orders — ■ 
Picnics — Stoutsville — Its History — Business Houses — Pottery Manufactory — 
Shipments — Indian Creek Township — Physical Features — Elizabethtown — 
Clapper Station 151-160 

CHAPTER VII. 

MONROE TOWNSHIP. 

Physical Features — Railroads — More Northern People in This Township Than in Any 
Other — Large Farmers — Old Settlers — Monroe City — Its History — Advance- 
ment — Surrounding Country — Pioneer Business and Business Men — Manufac- 
turing Establishments — Monroe Institute — Its History — Names of Stockhold- 
ers — Success of the Institute — Teachers and Officers — Public Schools — Secret 
Societies — Monroe City Bank — Churches — Laying of Corner Stone of New Bap- 
tist Church — Catholic Church — Hereford Association — Shipments. . 160-173 

CHAPTER VIII. 

MARION AND UNION TOWNSHIPS. 
Marion Township — Physical Features — Old Settlers — Madison — Secret Orders — 
HoUiday — Union Township — Old Settlers — Primitive Justice — Middle Grove — 
Secret Orders 173-180 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER IX. 

SOUTH FORK TOWNSHIP. 

Its Physical Features — Farmers — Cemetery — Pioneers — Santr Fe — Its History — 
Secret Orders — Strother — Strother Institute — Its History — Extracts From 
Catalogue — Long Branch Post-office 180-185 

CHAPTER X. 

WASHINGTON, CLAY AND WOODLAWN TOWNSHIPS. 

Washington Township — Physical Features — Early Settlers — Clinton — Jonesburg — 
Churches — Farmers — Clay Township — Physical Features — Farmers — Old Set- 
tlers — Granville — Woodlawn Township — Physical Features — Early Settlers — 
Woodlawn — Duncan's Bridge 185-188 

CHAPTER XI. 

Political History and Official Record 188-197 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Press and Public Schools 197-205 

CHAPTER XIII. 

BENCH AND BAR — CRIMES AND ACCIDENTS. 

Introductory Remarks — Priestly H. McBride — David Todd — Austin A. King — Ezra 
Hunt — A. B. Chambers — Albert G. Harrison — John Anderson — James R. Aber- 
nathy — Present Members of the Bar — Crimes and Accidents — Miss Jennie Searcy 
Killed by a Train of Cars — W.T.Johnson — JepthaHeathman — George Stayton — 
Robert Cummings — "William Rouse — W. O. Creasou .... 205-222 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Mexican War — Call for Volunteers — Monroe County Men — California Emigrants — 
The Scenes in '49 and '50 — Emigrants from Monroe County — Incideilt — Death 
of Emigrants — The Civil War of 18G1 — Number of Men Entering Southern Army 
from the County — The Battle at Monroe City — Capture of Paris — Grant's Expe- 
dition v. Harris — 3ferci(r?/ Suspended — Skirmish Near Elliott's Mills — Florida 
Fight —Bott's Bluff Fight —Lieutenant killed by One of His Men . 222-240 

CHAPTER XV. 

RAILROADS. 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas and the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroads . 240-266 

CHAPTER XVI. 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

Old Landmarks — Maj, William N. Penn — Fielding Combs — James C. Fox — Major 
James M. Bean — Death Rates — Births — Hurricane — Agricultural Societies — 
Monroe County Immigration Society — Monroe City Immigration Society — Patrons 
of Husbandry — Census of Monroe County in 1848 — 18G0 — Population by Town- 
ships in 1880 — Beef Cattle — Bridges, Their Location and Cost . . 260-278 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Ecclesiastical History 278-292 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Monroe County inl 884 292-307 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Monroe Township 307-359 

South Fork Township 359-396 

Union Township 396-408 

Indian Creek Township 408-419 

Washington Township 419-431 

Marion Township 431-439 

Clay Township 439-457 

Woodlawn Township 457-474 

Jefferson Township 474-504 

Jackson Township 504-019 

ADDENDA 620-623 



HISTORY OF SHELBY COUNTY, MISSOURI. 



CHAPTER I. 

PIONEER SETTLERS AND SETTLEMENTS AND EARLY HISTORY. 

The First Cabins, Norton's Hog-Keeper's, Maj. Dickerson's, and Others — The Set- 
tlers of 1833 — Surveying — Cholera — First Death in the County — First Store and 
Post-office — First Election — Sketch of Maj. Dickerson — Miscellaneous Historic 
Incidents up to 1839 — The Indians — Game and Wild Animals — Early Marriages — 
Pioneer Preaching and Preachers — Pioneer Life Generally . . . 625-641 

CHAPTER 11. 

EARLY OFFICIAL HISTORY. 

When Shelby Belonged to Marion County — First Division of the Territory into 
Townships by the Marion County Court — Organization of the County — The 
Organizing Act — First Sessions of the County Court — The First Roads — Mis- 
cellaneous Proceedings — First Circuit Courts — First Grand Jury and First 
Indictments — A Fight Between Lawyers — Miscellaneous Items — The First 
Elections 641-651 



CONTENTS. Xi 

CHAPTEE III. 

HISTOKY OF THE COUNTY FROM 1835 TO 1840. 

The Settlers of 1835 — When the County was Organized — Naming the Streams — 
Fatal Accidents — Got Lost— "New York" — The "Pottawatomie War" — 
Building the Court House — Pioneer Mills —The "Bee Trails " — List of the Set- 
tlers in 1837 — The Mormon War — The "Iowa War"— The First Bridge— The 
First Homicide, Killing of John Bishop by John L. Faber . . . 651-666 

CHAPTEE IV. 

HISTORY OF THE COUNTY FROM 1840 TO 1850. 

Miscellaneous Matters — Killing of Daniel Thomas by Philip Upton — The Sixteenth 
Sections— Stock Raising and Shipping — Crops — Hard Times — The First Jail 
and Its Inmates — During the Mexican War- The Gold Fever and the Argonauts 
of 1849 — Elections 666-680 

CHAPTEE V. 

HISTORY OF THE COUNTY FROM 1850 TO 1861. 

Miscellaneous — The Election of 1852 — The Political Campaign of 1856 — Know 
Nothings — Election of 1858 — Slavery Days — The Presidential Campaign of 1860 — 
After the Presidential Election — The War Cloud on the Horizon . 680-695 

CHAPTEE VI. 

HISTORY OF THE COUNTY DURING 1861. 

The Legislature of 1861 — Election of Delegates to the State Convention —The work of 
the Convention — The Winter of 1861 —After Fort Sumpter— Public Meetings — 
The First Federal Troops — First Union Military Company — Burning of the Salt 
River Bridge —The Campaign against Mart Green — The Fight at Shelbina — Fre- 
mont's "Annihilation" of Green's Rebels — Miscellaneous Military Matters — 
Capt. Foreman's Company Visits Shelbyville— Arrest of Hon. John McAfee — Tom. 
Stacy's Company — Gen. Grant's First Military Services in the Civil War are Per- 
formed in Shelby County — Bushwhacking — Missouri Secession — The Gamble 
Government and Its Oath — Turning Out the " Disloyal " Officers . . 695-725 

CHAPTEE VII. 

MISCELLANEOUS HISTORY DURING 1862. 

Organization of the Missouri State Militia — Go's. A and H, of the 11th M. S. M — 
Bushwhacking in the Spring of 1862 — The Murderous Affair at Walkersville — Two 
Soldiers and One Citizen Killed — Pursuit of the Bushwhackers, and Killing of Two 
of Their Number — Execution of Rowland Harvey — Glover's Campaign in the 
Spring — Miscellaneous — Execution of Frank Drake and Ed. Riggs — Capture of 
Capt. Tom Sidener — Burning" Rebel Houses " — The November Election. 

725-741 



XI 1 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

COL. JOE PORTER'S RAID. 

Who Joe Porter was — His First Appearance in North-east Missouri in the Summer of 
1862 — Passes through the Country into Schuyler and is defeated at Cherry Grove — 
Retreats South — Raids Newark and Monticello — Is Pursued by the Federals 
under John McNeil — The Fight at Pierce's Mill — Death of Tom Stacy — Porter Re- 
treats to the South, Crosses the Railroad and goes into Monroe County — The 
Fights at Bott's Bluff and at Moore's Mill — Back to North-east Missouri — Effect 
of the Enrolling Order — Recruits, 2,000 Men — The Fight at Newark and Capture 
of 75 Prisoners under Gapt. Lair — McNeil and Benjamin pursue —Total Defeat of 
Porter at Kirksville — He Retreats and Fights his Way to the Log Cabin Bridge, in 
Shelby County, where he Disbands— McNeil shoots IG Prisoners — Porter in Mon- 
roe with Another Force — Back into Marion County — Captures Palmyra — McNeil 
Pursues — The Rout of Whaley's Mill — Porter Disbands Finally at Bragg's 
School House — Two Shelby County Men Executed, etc., etc. . . 741-767 

CHAPTER IX. 

DURING 1863 AND 1864. 

The Military Occupation of 1863 — 1864 — Miscellaneous — Bill Anderson's Raid — 
Capture and Plunder of Shelbina — Burning of the Salt River Bridge — The Cen- 
tralia Massacre — A Shelby County Company Almost Annihilated — Names of the 
Slaughtered — The Presidential Election 767-778 

CHAPTER X. 

LEADING INCIDENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE COUNTY, FROM 1865 

TO 1884. 

The War Over — Adoption of the Drake Constitution — The *' Ousting Ordinance " — 
Indicting the "Rebel" Preachers — Registration of "Voters — Miscellaneous — 
Robbery of the County Treasury — The Political Campaign of 1870 — Universal 
Amnesty and Impartial Suffrage — The Floods of 1876 — The Benjamin Will Case — 
The Robber Johnson — Murders and Homicides 778-799 



CHAPTER XI. 

LEADING INSTITUTIONS OF SHELBY COUNTY. 

Sketch of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Fair Associations — "The Agri- 
cultural Society of Shelby County" — The, Shelby County Agricultural and 
Mechanical Association — The Shelbina Fair Association — Newspapers — The 
" Shelby ville Spectator " — The "Shelby County Weekly " — The " Shelbina Ga- 
zette"— The "Shelby County Herald" — The "Shelbina Democrat " — The 
"Clarence Tribune" — The " Clarence Courier " — The "Shelbina Index" — The 
" Shelby County Times " 799-816 



CONTENTS. Xiii 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE CHURCHES OF SHELBY COUNTY. 
Baptist Churches: Mount Zioa Church— Shiloh Church — North River Church — Prai- 
rie Cluirch-Oak Ridge Church -Looney's Creek Old School Baptist Church 
M. E. Church South: Shelby ville Church — Shelbina Church — Bacon Chapel — 
Clarence Church — Bethany Church. Methodist Episcopal Church: Berean 
Church, Shelbyville — Clarence Church -Evans Chapel. Presbyterians: Presby- 
terian Church of ShelbyviUe- Pleasant Prairie Church -Clarence Presbyterian 
Church -Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Christian Churches: Shelbyville 
Church -Antioch Church -Concord Church. Catholic Churches: St. Patrick's 
Roman Catholic Church at Clarence 816-896 

CHAPTER XIII. 

CIVIC ORDERS AND TEMPERANCE ORGANIZATIONS. 

Masonic Lodges: St. Andrew's Lodge, Shelbyville -Shelbina Lodge -Hunnewell 
Lodge - Shelbina Royal Arch Chapter. Odd Felloios: Shelby Lodge - Hunnewell 
Lodge. United Workmen: Shelbina Lodge — Select Knights — Charity Lod-^e — 
Clarence Lodge- Hunnewell Lodge. Grand Army of the Republic: Shelby^ville 
Post -"Paddy" Shields' Post. Order of Chosen Friends: Progress Council- 
Echo Council . Temperance Organizations : The Old Shelbyville Temperance Soci- 
ety—Sons of Temperance — Brief Mention of Temperance Work in the Countv — 
The Good Templars 826-835 

CHAPTER XIV. 

CITIES AND TOWNS OF SHELBY COUNTY. 
Shelbyville: Early History — The Commissioner's Report— "The Firsts "-Dio-crincr 
for Water - General History - Burglar Shot - Schools - Incorporations Ihel- 
btna : Early History - The War - War Prices - Peace - Official History. Clarence ■ 
Early History-" The Firsts " - War Times - Murder of Mr. Switzer-- Fires - 
Homicides - Incorporations. Hunneioell ; Early History - Durin- the War - 
Tragedies - Since the War - School Interests - Incorporations. Bethel : General 
History . . --"ciai 
835-870 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE MUNICIPAL TOWNSHIPS OF SHELBY COUNTY. 
Township Boundaries - Jackson Township - Salt River - Jefferson - Clav - Tavlor 
-Bethel-Black Creek- Tiger Fork - Historical Sketches, Description, Etc 

870-890 

BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Black Creek Township ... 

Salt River Township . 891-958 

Clay Township ^^^-^^^^ 

Bethel Township . ^^^""^^^^ 

Tiger Fork Township .' : .•.■.•; \\''r\\'' 

Jackson Township 111^11^^ 

Taylor Township ^"110 

Jefferson Township . . ]]:']] 

Ilo0-117o 

ADDENDUM 

1175-1176 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



CHAPTER I. 
LOUISIANA PURCHASE. 

BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The purchase in 1803 of the vast territory west of the Mississippi 
River, by the United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific 
coast and south to the Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most im- 
portant event that ever occurred in the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Republic additional room for that expansion and 
stupendous growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it 
strong and enduring, and forms the seat of an empire, from which 
will radiate an influence for good unequaled in the annals of time. In 
1763, the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, 
was ceded to Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of 
St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain ceded it back to France. 
Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island of St. Domingo, not only 
because of the value of its products, but more especially because its 
location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field whence he could the more eflfectively guard his 
newly-acquired possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain 
should be kept a profound secret until he succeeded in reducing St. 
Domingo to submission. In this undertaking, however, his hopes 
were blasted, and so great was his disappointment that he apparently 
became indifferent to the advantages to be secured to France from his 
purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the 

(1) 



2 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. » 

people of Louisiana the first intimation they had that they had once 
more become the subjects of France. This was the occasion of great 
rejoicing among the inhabitants, who were Frenchmen in their origin, 
habits, manners, and customs. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being in- 
formed of the retrocession, immediately dispatched instructions to 
Robert Livingston, the American Minister at Paris, to make known 
to Napoleon that the occupancy of New Orleans, by his government, 
would not only endanger the friendly relations existing between the 
two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make common 
cause with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy ; as the 
possession of the city by France would give her command of the 
Mississippi, which was the only outlet for the produce of the "West- 
ern States, and give her also control oi the Gulf of Mexico, so neces- 
sary to the protection of American commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so 
fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy of New Orleans, by 
France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the two 
nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he 
urged Mr. Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, but to negotiate for the purchase of the city and the 
surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the 
United States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full 
power to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all 
emergencies, and prompt in the cabinet, as well as in the field. Na- 
poleon came to the conclusion that, as he could not well defend his 
occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on the best terms 
possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he sum- 
moned two of his Ministers, and addressed them follows : — 

" I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish 
to repair the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 
1763. I have scarcely recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; 
but if I am obliged to give it up, it shall hereafter cost more to those 
who force me to part with it, than to those to whom I shall 
yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern pos- 
sessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am 
determined that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although 
Louisiana is but a trifle compared to their vast possessions in other 
parts of the globe, yet, judging from the vexation they have mani- 
fested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am certain that 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 3 

their first object will be to gain possession of it. They will proba- 
bly commence the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily gettincr 
worse since the death of LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might 
be easily made, and I have not a moment to lose in getting out of 
their reach. I am not sure but that they have already begun an at- 
tack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance with their 
habits ; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the 
United States. Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not 
yet possess it ; and if I wait but a short time my enemies may leave 
me nothing but an empty title to grant to the Republic I wish to con- 
ciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I believe that in the 
hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political and 
even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain 
it. Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but 
the other opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed 
by them, before the conference was ended. The next day, Napoleon 
sent for the Minister who had agreed with him, and said to him ; — 

•'The season for deliberation is over. I have determined to re- 
nounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, but the 
whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louis- 
iana, I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with 
Spain was to recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am 
convinced it would be folly to persist in trying to keep it. I commis- 
sion you, therefore, to negotiate this afiair with the envoys of the 
United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but go this 
very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that 
I need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to com- 
mence it by levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain 
have incurred great expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for 
which her trade has never indemnified them. Large sums have been 
advanced to difierent companies, which have never been returned to 
the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory 
to the United States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged to 
part with it, I shall be moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I 
must have fifty millions of francs, and I will not consent to take less. 



4 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

I would rather make some desperate effort to preserve this fine 
country." 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris 
on the 12th of April, 1803, and the two representatives of the United 
States, after holding a private interview, announced that they were 
ready to treat for the entire territory. On the 30th of April, the 
treaty was signed, and on the 21st of October, of the same year. Con- 
gress ratified the treaty. The United States were to pay $11,250,000, 
and her citizens were to be compensated for some illegal captures, 
to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of 
$15,000,000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of 
France and Spain should be admitted into all the ports ot Louisiana 
free of duty for twelve years. Bonaparte stipulated in favor of 
Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, incorporated into 
the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and 
the clause giving to them these benefits was drawn up by Bonaparte, 
who presented it to the plenipotentiaries with these words : — 

'* Make it known to the people of Louisiana, that we regret to part 
with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages they could 
desire ; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any Euro- 
pean government as they will when they become independent. But 
while they enjoy the privileges of liberty let t*hem remember that they 
are French, and preserve for their mother country that affection which 
a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the 
treaty. Mr. Livingston said : — 

" I consider that from this day the United States takes rank with 
the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the 
power of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when 
he said : " By this cession of territory I have secured the power of the 
United States, and given to England a maritime rival, who, at some 
future time, will humble her pride." 

These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the 
British met with a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of 
which the great Corsican had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when 
it was purchased by the United States, no change had been made by 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. ^ 

the French authorities in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower 
Loiiisiaua, and during this period the Spanish laws remained in full 
force, as the laws of the entire province ; a fact which is of interest to 
those who would understand the legal history and some of the present 
laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who 
were jointly commissioned to take possession of the territory for the 
United States, arrived in the city of New Orleans at the head of the 
American forces. Laussat, who had taken possession but twenty days 
previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up his command, and the 
star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of France. The 
agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the 
United States service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on 
the 9th of March, 1804, by Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish 
commandant, and on the following day he transferred it to the United 
States. The authority of the United States in Missouri dates from 
this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley became identified. They were troubled no more with uncer- 
tainties in regard to free navigation. The great river, along whose 
banks they had planted their towns and villages, now afforded them 
a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Under the pro- 
tecting segis of a government, republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the 
diversified climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility, beauty of scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every 
incentive to push on their enterprises and build up the land wherein 
their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had 
been secured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to 
come, but its grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources 
and the important relations it would sustain to the nation and the 
world were never dreamed of by even Mr. Jefferson and his adroit and 
accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress which 
would mark the history of the «♦ Great West." The adventurous 
pioneer, who fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, 
or threaded the dark labyrinths of its lonely forests, little thought .that 
a mighty tide of physical aud intellectual strength, would so rapidly 



O HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

How on in his footsteps, to populate, build up and enrich the domain 
which he had conquered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until 
at length the mountains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks 
and the caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

<« I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people, 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving. 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes ; 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act passed in April of the same year, 
divided Louisiana into two parts, the '* Territory of Orleans," and 
the " District of Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana." This 
district included all that portion of the old province, north of *« Hope 
Encampment," on the Lower Mississippi, and embraced the present 
State of Missouri, and all the western region of country to the Pacific 
Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north latitude not 
claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was 
placed within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of 
Indiana, and its government put in motion by Gen. William H. Har- 
rison, then governor of Indiana. In this he was assisted by Judges 
Griffin, Vanderburg and Davis, who established in St. Louis what were 
called Courts of Common Pleas. The District of Louisiana was regu- 
larly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by Congress, March 3, 
1805, and President Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson, Gov- 
ernor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the ter- 
ritory was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs 
and John B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded 
by Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had become' famous by reason of 
his having made the expedition up the Missouri with Clark. Governor 
Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President Madison appointed 
Gen. Benjamin Howard of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his place. 
Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and 
Clark's expedition, was appointed Governor in 1810, to succeed Gen. 



HISTORY OF MISSOUJKI. 7 

Howard, and remained in office until the admission of the State into 
the Union, in 1821. 

The portions of Missouri which were settled, for the purposes of 
local government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau 
was the first, and embraced the territory between Tywappity Bottom 
and Apple Creek. Ste. Genevieve, the second, embraced the terri- 
tory from Apple Creek to the Meramec River. St. Louis, the third, 
embraced the territory between the Meramec and Missouri Rivers. 
St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between the 
Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these dis- 
tricts at that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of 
the district of Louisiana, when ceded to the United States was 10,120. 



CHAPTER n. 

DESCRIPTIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL. 

Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popula- 
tion by Counties. 

NAIVIE. 

The name Missouri is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies 
muddy. 

EXTENT. 

Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is sep- 
arated for about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines 
River), and on the east by the Mississippi River, which divides it from 
Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, and on the west by the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the States of Kansas and Nebraska. The State lies (with 
the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis and the 
Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36°), between 36° 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from 
Washington. 

The extreme width of the State east and west, is about 348 miles ; 
its width on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast cor- 
ner along the Iowa line, to its intersection with the Des Moines 



8 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

River, is about 210 miles ; its width on its southern boundary is about 
288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The leno-th of the State north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It 
is about 450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast 
corner, and from the northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is 
about 230 miles. These limits embrace an area of 65,350 square 
miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as large as England, and the 
States of Vermont and New Hampshire. 

SURFACE. 

North of the Missouri, the State is level or undulating, while the 
portion south of that river (the larger portion of the State) exhibits a 
greater variety of surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive 
marsh, reaching beyond the State into Arkansas. The remainder of 
this portion between the Mississippi and Osage Rivers is rolling, and 
gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, forming the out- 
skirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast ex- 
panse of prairie land which stretches away towards the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The rido-es forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and 
southwest direction, separating the waters that flow northeast into the 
Missouri from those that flow southeast into the Mississippi River. 

RIVERS. 

No State in the Union enjoys better facilities for navigation than 
Missouri. By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along 
her entire eastern boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with 
the most northern territory and State in the Union ; with the whole 
valley of the Ohio ; with many of the Atlantic States, and with the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 
The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 
On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm; 
Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued, 
Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 
To hide its terror in a sea of gloom; 
The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow, 
The fount of fable and the source of song ; 
The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 
The loving sky seems wedded with the wave ; 
The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. » 

A dying miser shrinking 'neath his goli; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms; 

The Thames that bears the riches of the world ; 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on. 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky 
Mountains, and receive in return the products which will come in the 
course of time, by its multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for about 
250 miles, following its windings, and then flows through the State, a 
little south of east, to its junction with the Mississippi. The Mis- 
souri River receives a number of tributaries within the limits of the 
State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, Platte, Grand and 
Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Lainine, Osage and 
Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi within the State, are the Salt River, north, and the Meramec 
River south of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain 
the southeastern part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The 
Osage is navigable for steamboats for more than 175 miles. There 
are a vast number of smaller streams, such as creeks, branches and 
rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of 

ancient Lebanon, nor more precious in their utility were the almug- 
trees of Ophir, than the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms 
are covered with a luxuriant growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cotton- 
wood, linn, white and black walnut, and in fact, all the varieties found 
in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more barren districts may 
be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense growth of 
pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and 
salubrious. Like that of North America, it is changeable, and sub- 
ject to sudden and sometimes extreme changes of heat and cold ; but 
it is decidedly milder, taking the whole year through, than that of the 
same latitudes east of the mountains. While the summers are not 
more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on and 
near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, 



10 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

except during the month of February, which has many days of pleas- 
ant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it 
north and northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the 
water courses, abound with the thickest and most luxurious belts of 
timber, while the *' rolling" prairies occupy the higher portions of 
the country, the descent generally to the forests or bottom lands being 
over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, exhibit a grace- 
Cully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal sur- 
face and the interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or 
two instances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the 
spring and summer they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and 
gaily bedecked with flowers of various forms and hues, making a 
most fascinating panorama of ever-changing color and loveliness. To 
fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they must be 
seen. 

8oil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capa- 
bilities, but the most fertile portions of the State are the river bot- 
toms, which are a rich alluvium, mixed in many cases with sand, the 
producing qualities of which are not excelled by the prolific valley of 
the famous Nile,. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but 
much of it is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts 
there are rich valleys, and about the sources of the White, Eleven 
Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, the soil, though unproductive, 
furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a 
•ystem of drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 
POPULATION BT COUNTIES IN 1870, 1876, AND 1880. 



11 



Gountiea. 


1870. 


1876. 


1880. 


Adair . 


11,449 


13,774 


16,190 


Andrew 


















16,137 


14,992 


16,318 


Atchison . 


















8,440 


10,925 


14,565 


Audrain 


















12,307 


15,167 


19,739 


Barry . 


















10,373 


11,146 


14,424 


Barton 


















6,087 


6,900 


10,332 


Bates . 


















15,960 


17,484 


25,382 


Benton 


















11,322 


11,027 


12,398 


Bollinger . 


















8,162 


8,884 


11,132 


Boone 


















20,765 


31,923 


25,424 


Buchanan . 


















35,109 


38,165 


49,824 


Butler 


















4,298 


4,363 


6,011 


Caldwell . 


















11,390 


12,200 


13,654 


Callaway . 


















19,202 


25,257 


23,670 


Camden 


















6,108 


7,027 


7,269 


Cape Girardeau 


















17,558 


17,891 


20,998 


Carroll 


















17,440 


21,498 


23,300 


Carter 


















1,440 


1,549 


2,168 


Cass . 


















19,299 


18,069 


22,431 


Cedar . 


















9,471 


9,897 


10,747 


Chariton 


















19,136 


23,294 


25,224 


Christian . 


















6,707 


7,936 


9,632 


Clark . 


















13,667 


14,549 


15,631 


Clay . 


















15,564 


15,320 


15,579 


Clinton 


















14,063 


13,698 


16,073 


Cole . 


















10,292 


14,122 


15,519 


Cooper 


















20,692 


21,356 


21,622 


Crawford . 


















7,982 


9,391 


10,763 


Dade . 


















8,683 


11,089 


12,557 


Dallas 


















8,383 


8,073 


9,272 


Daviess 


















14,410 


16,557 


19,174 


DeKalb 


















9,858 


11,169 


13,343 


Dent . 


















6,357 


7,401 


10,647 


Douglas . 


















3,916 


6,461 


7,753 


Dunklin 


















5,982 


6,255 


9,604 


Franklin . 


















30,098 


26,924 


26,536 


Gasconade . 


















10,093 


11,160 


11,153 


Gentry 


















11,607 


12,673 


17,188 


Greene 


















21,549 


24,693 


28,817 


Grundy 


















10,567 


13,071 


15,201 


Harrison . 


















14,635 


18,630 


20,318 


Henry 


















17,401 


18,465 


23,914 


Hickory 


















6,452 


5,870 


7,388 


Holt . 


















11,652 


13,245 


15,510 


Howard 


















17,233 


17,815 


18,428 


Howell 


















4,218 


6,756 


8,814 


Iron . 


















6,278 


6,623 


8,183 


Jackson 


















65,041 


64,046 


82,328 


Jasper 


















14,928 


29,384 


32,021 


Jefferson . 


















15,380 


16,186 


18,736 


Johnson 


















24,648 


23,646 


28,177 


Knox . 


















10,974 


12,678 


13,047 


Laclede 


















9,380 


9,845 


11,524 


Lafayette . 


















22,624 


22,204 


26,761 


Lawrence . 


















13,067 


13,054 


17,585 


Lewis . 


















15,114 


16,360 


15,925 


Lincoln 


















15,960 


16,858 


17,443 


Linn . 


















15,906 


18,110 


20,016 


Livingston . 


















16,730 


18,074 


20,205 



12 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 
POPULATION BY COUNTIES — Con«nwci. 



Counti«s. 



McDonald 

Macon 

Madison 

Maries 

Marion 

Mercer 

Miller 

Mississippi 

Moniteau 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Morgan 

New Madrid 

Newton 

Nodaway 

Oregon 

Osage . 

Ozark . 

Pemiscot 
Perry . 
Pettis . 
Phelps 

Pike . 

Platte 

Polk . 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Ralls . 

Randolph 

Ray . 

Reynolds 

Ripley 

St. Charles 

St. Clair 

St. Francois 

Ste. Genevieve 

St. Louis' 

Saline 

Schuyler 

Scotland 

Scott . 

Shannon 

Shelby 

Stoddard 

Stone . 

Sullivan 

Taney 

Texas 

Vernon 

Warren 

Washington 

Wayne 

Webster 

Worth 

Wright 

City of St. Louis 



1876. 



6,226 
23,230 
5,849 
5,916 
23,780 
11,557 
6,616 
4,982 
13,375 
17,149 
10,405 
8,434 
6,357 
12,821 
14,751 
3,287 
10,793 
3,363 
2,059 
9,877 
18,706 
10,506 
23,076 
17,352 
14,445 
4,714 
11,217 
10,510 
15,908 
18,700 
3,756 
3,175 
21,304 
6,742 
9,742 
8,384 
351,189 
21,672 
8,820 
10,670 
7,317 
2,339 
10,119 
8,535 
3,253 
11,907 
4,407 
9,618 
11,247 
9,673 
11,719 
6,068 
10,434 
5,004 
5,684 



1876. 



1,721,295 



6,072 
25,028 

8,750 

6,481 
22,794 
13,393 

8,529 

7,498 
13,084 
17,751 
14,418 

9,529 

6,673 
16,875 
23,196 

4,469 
11,200 

4,579 

2,573 
11,189 
23,167 

9,919 
22,828 
15,948 
13,467 

6,157 
12,641 

9,997 
19,173 
18,394 

4,716 

3,913 
21,821 
11,242 
11,621 

9,409 

*27,()87 

9,881 

12,030 

7,312 

3,236 

13,243 

10,888 

3,544 

14,039 

6,124 

10,287 

14,413 

10,321 

13,100 

7,006 

10,684 

7,164 

6,124 



1,547,030 



1880. 

7,816 
26,223 
8,866 
7,304 
24,837 
14,674 
9,807 
9,270 
14,349 
19,075 
16,250 
10,134 
7,694 
18,948 
29,560 
5,791 
11,824 
5,618 
4,299 
11,895 
27,285 
12,565 
26,716 
17,372 
15,745 
7,250 
13,556 
11,838 
22,751 
20,1% 
5,722 
5,377 
23,060 
14,126 
13,822 
10,309 
31,888 
29,912 
10,470 
12,507 
8,587 
3,441 
14,024 
13,432 
4,405 
16,569 
5,605 
12,207 
19,370 
10,806 
12,895 
9,097 
12,175 
8,208 
9,733 
850,522 



2,168,804 



« St. Louis City and County separated In 1877. Population for 1876 not given 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



13 



SUMMARY. 



Males 

Females 

Native 

Foreign 

White 

Colored ^ 



1,126,424 
1,041,380 
1,957,564 

211,240 
2,023,568 

145,236 



CHAPTER ni. 

GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 

Classiflcation of Rocks —Quatenary Formation — Tertiary —Cretaceous — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Zinc — Building Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Power. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. 
G. C. Swallow, belong to the following divisions : I. Quatenary ; 
II. Tertiary; III. Cretaceous; IV. Carboniferous; V. Devonian; 
VI. Silurian ; VII. Azoic. 

" The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most 
valuable to man: valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 
feet thick ; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick ; Bluff, 200 feet thick ; and 
Drift, 155 feet thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute 
the Alluvium, and includes the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegeta- 
ble mould, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Mis- 
souri, of more than four millions acres of land, which are not sur- 
passed for fertility by any region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are 
washed by the two great rivers which course our eastern and western 
boundaries, and while it is only about half as extensive as the Allu- 
vial, it is equally as rich and productive." 

'♦ The Bluff formation," says Prof. Swallow, *• rests upon the 
ridges and river bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest 
valleys, the formation capping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from 
Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi from Dubuque 



' Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeda. 



14 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum beneath the 
soil of all the high lauds, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Missis- 
sippi counties on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River 
from the Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet 
thick. At St. Joseph it is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, 
in St. George's quarry, and the Big Mound, it is about 50 feet ; 
while its greatest observed thickness in Marion county was only 30 
feet." 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, 
having, as Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to wit : 
♦'Altered Drift, which are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the 
banks of the Missouri, in the northwestern portion of the State. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel 
and boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which 
pebbles are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some locali- 
ties in northern Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe- 
clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sand-, 
stone, and sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, 
reaching from Commerce, Scott County, to Stoddard, and south to 
the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is com- 
posed of variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish- 
brown impure sandstone, fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, 
purple, red and blue clays, all being in the aggregate, 158 feet in 
thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and nothing by which 
their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or 
coal-measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. 
The coal-measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, 
limestones, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds 
of iron, embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The 
varieties of coal found in the State are the common bituminous and 
cannel coals, and they exist in quantities inexhaustible. The fact 
that these coal-measures are full of fossils, which are always confined 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 15 

to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point them out, and the 
coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous lormation are varied in color, 
and are quarried in many different parts of the State, being exten- 
sively utilized for building and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archi- 
medes Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Mid- 
dle Archimedes, 50 feet ; St. Louis Limestone, 250 feet ; Oolitic 
Limestone, 25 feet ; Lower Archimedes Limestone, 350 feet ; and 
Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These limestones generally contain 
fossils. 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard 
and durable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and 
is found skirting the eastern coal measures from the mouth of the 
Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. 
It is found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing 
rocks of Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of 
Carboniferous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and 
white. In these strata are found the remains of corals and moUusks. 
This formation extends from Marion county to Greene county. The 
Devonian system contains: Chemung Group, Hamilton Group, 
Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline 
and Ste. Genevieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 
feet ; Vermicular sandstone and shales, 75 feet ; Lithographic lime- 
stone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, 
and when first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building pur- 
poses but makes an excellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish 
brown, and perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-tex- 
tured limestone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. 
It is called "pot metal," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, 
ringing sound. It has but few fossils. 



16 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 
170 feet of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, 
thick-bedded and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri pre- 
sents such variable and widely different lithological characters as the 
Onondaga. 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : 
Lower Helderberg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girar- 
deau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray, and reddish cherty 
and argillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The Upper part of this group consists of red, 
yellow and ash-colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated 
with bands and nodules of chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi Kiver near Cape 
Girardeau, is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth 
fractures in layers from two to six inches in thickness, with argilla- 
ceous partings. These strata contain a great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to wit: Hud- 
son River Group, 220 feet ; Trenton limestone, 360 feet ; Black River 
and Bird's Eye limestone, 175 feet ; first Magnesian limestone, 200 
feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 feet; second Magnesian limestone, 
250 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third Magnesian limestone, 
350 feet ; third sandstone, 60 feet ; fourth Magnesian limestone, 350 
feet. 

Hudson River Group : — There are three formations which Prof. 
Swallow refers to in this group. These formations are found in the 
bluff above and below Louisiana ; on the Grassy a few miles north- 
west of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Gene- 
vieve Counties. 

Trenton limestone : The upper part of this formation is made up 
of thick beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, varie- 
gated with irregular cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of 
Salt River, near Glencoe, St. Louis County, and are seventy-five feet 
thick. 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton 
limestone. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 17 

The first Magnesian limestone cap the picturesque oluflfs of the Osage 
in Benton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the State. In a 
bluff about two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thick- 
ness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the 
first. 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish brown, sometmies 
becomes a pure white, fine-grained, soft sandstone as on Cedar Creek, 
in Washington and Franklin Counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque 
bluffs of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryce's Spring. 

The third sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesian limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage 
Rivers. 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious 
and other slates which contain no remains of organic life. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State 
In the Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown ao-e of 
the past — long before the existence of man — Nature, by a wise process, 
made a bountiful provision for the time, when in the order of things, 
it should be necessary for civilized man to take possession of these 
broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack of forests, she quietly 
stored away beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures 
for the use of ma^n. 

Geological surveys have developed the fact that the coal deposits in 
the State are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best 
bituminous coal. A large portion of the State, has been ascer- 
tained to be one continuous coal field, stretching from the mouth 
of the Des Moines River through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, 
Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, 
Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton and 
Jasper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of 
this line contain more or le&s coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Mont- 
gomery, Warren, St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford and 
Lincoln, and during the past few years, all along the lines of all the 
railroads in North Missouri, and along the western end of the Missouri 
Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between Kansas City and Sioux 



18 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds of mines in different 
localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the southwestern 
boundary of the State alone, embraces more than 26,000 square miles 
of regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the 
averao-e be one foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the 
developments already made, in the diflferent portions of the State, will 
give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal to the State, its influence in 
domestic life, in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond 
the imagination of man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the pos- 
session of her developed and undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a 
motive power, which in its influences for good, in the civilization of 
man, is more potent than the gold of California. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals, which increase the power 
and prosjDerity of a nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inex- 
haustible quantity, and like her coal fields, it has been developed in 
many portions of the State, and of the best and purest quality. It is 
found in great abundance in the counties of Cooper, St. Clair, Greene, 
Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, 
Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, Scott, Dent 
and others. The greatest deposit of iron is found in the Iron Moun- 
tain, which is two hundred feet high, and covers an area of five hun- 
dred acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to con- 
tain from 65 to 69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent of 
metallic iron. The ore of Pilot Knob contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at 
Russell Mountain. This ore has, in its nude state, a variety of colors, 
from the red, dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The 
red ores are found in twenty-one or more counties of the State, and 
are of great commercial value. The brown hematite iron ores extend 
over a greater range of country than all the others combined, embrac- 
ing about one hundred counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Mis- 
souri by the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the State at 
two or three points on the Mississippi. At this time more than five 
hundred mines are opened, and many of them are being successfully 
worked. These deposits of lead cover an area, so far as developed, 
of more than seven thousand square miles. Mines have been opened 



HISTORY OP MISSOUEI. 19 

in Jefferson, Washington, St. Francois, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Rey- 
nolds, Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Cam- 
den, Morgan, and many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in 
Missouri. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison and Franklin 
Counties have been known for years, and some of these have been 
successfully worked and are now yielding good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Ben- 
ton, Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds 
and Wright Counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern 
part of the State, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a 
market has been furnished for this ore, which will be converted into 
valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building 
stone in Missouri. Limestone, sandstone and granite exist in all 
shades of buff, blue, red and brown, and are of great beauty as build- 
ing material. 

There are many marble beds in the State, some of which furnish 
very beautiful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, 
St. Louis, and other counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3rd 
Magnesian limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, 
silico-magnesian limestone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blos- 
som, and clouded by deep flesh-colored shades. In ornamental archi- 
tecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have 
been discovered in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white 
crystalline variety on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kan- 
sas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists also in several other 
localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures 
to fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure car- 
bonate of pure lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State 
suitable for making bricks. Potters' clay and fire-clay are worked in 
many localities. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which 
possess the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yel- 
low and red ochres are found in considerable quantities on the Missouri 



20 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

River. Some of these paints have been thoroughly tested and found 
fire-proof and durable. 

SPRINGS AND WATER POWER. 

No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water 
than Missouri. Out of the bottoms, there is scarcely a section of 
land but has one or more perennial springs of good water. Even 
where there are no springs, good water can be obtained by digging 
from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are abundant in the central 
part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard, 
and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper and 
Howard Counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The 
Chouteau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the 
Elk Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis County 
have acquired considerable reputation as salubrious waters, and have 
become popular places of resort. Many other counties have good 
sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet Springs on the Black- 
water, and the Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, 
the most popular of the kind in the State. There are, however, other 
springs impregnated with some of the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, 
Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called 
lubricating oil is the more common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are 
particularly abundant on the waters of the Meramec, Gasconade, 
Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. 
Besides these, there are hundreds of springs sufficiently large to drive 
mills and factories, and. the day is not far distant when these crystal 
fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to their 
dashing music. 



HISTORY OF MISSOUKI. 21 

CHAPTER lY. 

TITLE AND EARLY SETTLEIVIENTS. 

Title to Missouri Lands — Eight of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settle- 
ment— Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — 
Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County- 
Perry- Mississippi— Loutre Island — "Boone's Licls"— Cote Sans Dessein — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri was, of course, primarily vested in 
the original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery 
by the whites. But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few 
rights that civilized nations considered themselves bound to respect ; 
so, therefore, when they found this country in the possession of such 
a people they claimed it in the name of the King of France, by the 
right of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until 1763. 

Prior to the j^ear 1763, the entire continent of North America was 
divided between France, England, Spain and Eussia. France held all 
that portion that now constitutes our national domain west of the 
Mississippi River, except Texas, and the territory which we have 
obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast region, while under the 
jurisdiction of France, was known as the " Province of Louisiana," 
and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
»» Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the con- 
tinent, and Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the 
Mississippi River, while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions 
northward, having obtained that territory by conquest, in the war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced 
within the limits of Missouri, remained as a part of the possession of 
Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Iklefonso, 
October 1, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the 
United States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the 
liquidation of certain claims, held by citizens of the United States 
against France, which amounted to the further sum of $3,750,000, 
making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen that France has 
twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory embracing 



22 HISTORY or MISSOURI. 

Missouri, "but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our Govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, 
authorizing the President to take possession of the newly acquired 
territory, and provided for it a temporary government, and another 
act, approved March 26, 1804, authorized the division of the " Louis- 
iana Purchase," as it was then called, into two separate territories. 
All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called 
the *♦ Territory of Orleans," and that north of the said parallel was 
known as the *♦ District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as '* Indian Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the 
«* District of Louisiana" was organized as the *' Territory of Louis- 
iana," with a territorial government of its own, which went into 
operation July 4th of the same year, and it so remained till 1812. In 
this year the '* Territory of Orleans " became the State of Louisiana, 
and the "Territory of Louisiana" was organized as the '* Territory 
of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 4, 
1812. In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as '* Arkan- 
sas Territory," and on August 10, 1821, the State of Missouri was 
admitted, being a part of the former " Territory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the "Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian 
Territory, and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, 
Buchanan, Holt, Nodaway and Platte, was made by treaty with the 
Indians, and added to the State. It will be seen, then, that the soil 
of Missouri belonged : — 

1. To France, with other territory. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded, with other territory from Spain, 
back to France. 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded, with other territory, by France to 
the United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by 
Congress for the newly acquired territory. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the " District of Louisiana" 
and placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the "Territory of 
Louisiana," then organized with a separate territorial government. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 23 

8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the '* Ter- 
ritory of Missouri." 

9. August 10, 1821, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

10. In 1836, the "Platte Purchase" was made, adding more ter- 
ritory to the State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly 
the policy of the Government to recognize. Before the Government 
of the United States could vest clear title to the soil in the grantee it 
was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by purchase. This was 
done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians at different times. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now 
embraced in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at 
what precise period the first settlements were made. It is, however, 
generally agreed that they were made at Ste. Genevieve and New 
Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of the settlements in the autumn of 
1735. These towns were settled by the French from Kaskaskia and 
St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest, on the 15th of 
February, 1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the 
members of the company of Laclede Liguest, Antonio Maxant & Co., 
to whom a royal charter had been granted, confirming the privilege 
of an exclusive trade with the Indians of Missouri as far north as St. 
Peter's River. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town 
site of St. Louis. After the village had been laid off he named it St. 
Louis in honor of Louis XV., of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other 
towns on the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely in. 
creased by many of the Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their 
peltry trade from the same towns to St. Louis. It was incorporated 
as a town on the ninth day of November, 1809, by the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of the district of St. Louis ; the town trustees being 
Auguste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. 
Carr and William Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 
1822. The selection of the town site on which St. Louis stands was 
highly judicious, the spot not only being healthful and having the ad- 



24 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

rantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but surrounded by a 
beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and 
is to-day the great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, tho 
Mississippi and their tributaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it is 
destined to be the greatest inland city of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 
1765, by Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the 
mine near the present town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was 
Moses Austin, of Virginia, who, in 1795, received by grant from the 
Spanish government a league of land, now known as the "Austin Sur- 
vey." The grant was made on condition that Mr. Austin would es- 
tablish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a palatial 
residence, for that day, on the -brow of the hill in the little village, 
which was for many years known as " Durham Hall." At this point 
the first shot-tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made 
in Northern Missouri was made near St. Charles, in St. Charles 
County, in 1769. The name given to it, and which it retained till 
1784, was Les Petites Cotes, signifying. Little Hills. The town site 
was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, surnamed LeChasseur, who 
built the first fort in the town and established there a military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the 
old French village of Portage des Sioux, Avas located on the Missis- 
sippi, just below the mouth ot the Illinois River, and at about the 
same time a Kickapoo village was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. 
The present town site of New Madrid, in New Madrid county, was 
settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being occupied by Del- 
aware Indians. The place now known as Big Eiver Mills, St. Fran- 
cois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following 
year, a settlement was made in the same county, just below the pres- 
ent town of Farmington, by the Rev. William Murphy, a Baptist min- 
ister from East Tennessee. In 1796, settlements were made in Perry 
county by emigrants from Kentucky and Pennsylvania ; the latter lo- 
cating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the former generally 
settling in the " Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, Illinois, was 
settled August 6, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 25 

from the commandant under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and 
Charleston, in the same county, were settled respectively in 1800 and 
1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. Loutre Island, below 
the present town of Hermann, in the Missouri Kiver, was settled by a 
few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers suf- 
fered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving 
and blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character 
could be related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of the great hunter and 
pioneer, in company with three others, went from St. Louis to 
"Boone's Lick," in Howard county, where they manufactured salt 
and formed the nucleus of a small settlement. 

Cote Sans Dessein, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, 
in Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little 
town was considered at that time, as the '* Far West" of the new 
world. During the war of 1812, at this place many hard-fought 
battles occurred between the whites and Indians, wherein woman's 
fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defence of the settle- 
ment. 

In 1810, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty 
families immigrated to Howard county, and settled on the Missouri 
River in Cooper's Bottom near the present town of Franklin, and 
opposite Arrow Rock. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of 
Missouri, covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along 
the banks of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them 
transportation for their marketable commodities, and communication 
with the civilized portion of the country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did 
by the river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by 
whom they were for many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the 
territory, have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improve- 
ments of their descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared 
and died, are seen the comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and 
thrifty city. Churches and school houses greet the eye on every 
hand; railroads diverge in every direction, and, indeed, all the appli- 
ances of a higher civilization are profusely strewn over the smiling 
surface of the State. 



26 HISTORY OF MISSOURI, 

Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene, 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 

SOME FIRST THINGS. 

The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, 
in St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic) was erected in 1775, at St, 
Louis. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. 
Louis. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis (Missouri Gazette) ^ in 
1808. 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus 
Easton, post-master. 

The first Protestant church erected at Ste. Genevieve, in 1806 — 
Baptist. 

The first bank established (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 1811, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, 
Capt. Jacob Reid ; landed at St. Louis 1817. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 1817, St. 
Louis. 

The first college built (St. Louis College), in 1817. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as 
Franklin was the Independence, in May, 1819 ; Capt. Nelson, mas- 
ter. 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20,' 
1847. 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1845). 



UlbTORY OF MI8S0UKI. 27 

CHAPTEK y. 

TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION. 

Organization 1812 — Council — House of Representatives— William Clark first Terri- 
torial Governor— Edward Hempstead first Delegate— Spanish Grants— First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory —Vote of Territory —Ruf us Easton — Absent Members — Third Assem- 
bly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a 
Governor and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Coun- 
cil, and House of Representatives exercised the Legislative power of 
the Territory, the Governor's vetoing power being absolute. 

The Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose ten- 
ure of office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by 
the House of Representatives to the President of the United States, 
from whom he selected, with the approval of the Senate, nine Coun- 
cillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every 
two years by the people, the basis of representation being one mem- 
ber for every five hundred white males. The first House of Repre- 
sentatives consisted of thirteen members, and, by Act of Congress, the 
whole number of Representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and 
Inferior Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court 
having three judges, whose term of office continued four years, hav- 
ing original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, October 1st, 1812, required by Congress, 
reorganizing the districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, 
Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into five counties, and fixed the 
second Monday in November following, for the election of a delegate 
to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of Represen- 
tatives. 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first 
Territorial Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 
1813. 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Matthew 
Lyon were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 



28 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Dele- 
gate to Congress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a 
second, and was instrumental in having Congress to pass the act of 
June 13, 1812, which he introduced, confirming the title to lands 
which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish grants. The 
same act confirmed to the people " for the support of schools," the 
title to village lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held 
and enjoyed by them, at the time of the session in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its 
session in the house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on the 7th of 
December, 1812. The names of the members of the House were: — 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, 
and Richard Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve. — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac 
McGready. 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the 
oath of office. William C. Carr was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen per- 
sons from whom the President of the United States, with the Senate, 
was to select nine for the Council. From this number the President 
chose the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, 
was announced by Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor of 
the Territory, by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first 
Monday in July following, as the time for the meeting of the Legis- 
lature. 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by 
William Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the 
Acting-Governor's proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were 
never officially published. Consequently but little is known in refer- 
ence to the workings of the first Territorial Legislature in Missouri. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 29 

From the imperfect account, jDublished in the Missouri Gazette, of 
that day; a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found 
that laws were passed regulating and establishing weights and meas- 
ures ; creating the office of Sheriff; providing the manner for taking 
the census ; permanently fixing the seats of Justices, and an act to 
compensate its own members. At this session, laws were also passed 
defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer ; establishing Courts of Common Pleas ; incorporating the 
Bank of St. Louis ; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county 
into the county of Washington. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, Decem- 
ber 6, 1813. George Bullet of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker 
elect, and Andrew Scott, clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. 
Since the adjournment of the former Legislature, several vacancies 
had occurred, and new members had been elected to fill their places. 
Among these was Israel McCready, from the county of Washington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. 
No journal of the council was officially published, but the proceedings 
of the house are found in the Gazette. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were 
passed, having reference to the temporal as well as the moral and 
spiritual welfare of the people. Laws were enacted for the suppres- 
sion of vice and immorality on the Sabbath day ; for the improve- 
ment of public roads and highways ; creating the offices of auditor, 
treasurer and county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girar- 
deau, Washington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature ad- 
journed on the 19th of January, 1814, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States 
census in 1810, was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 
1814 gave the Territory a population of 25,000. This enumeration 
shows the county of St. Louis contained the greatest number of in- 
habitants, and the new county of Arkansas the least — the latter hav- 
ing 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Eastoa, Samuel 
Hammond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus 
Easton and Samuel Hammond had been candidates at the preceding 
election. In all the counties, excepting Arkansas, the votes aggre- 
gated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton received 965, Mr. Ham- 



30 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

mond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had withdrawn 
previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 1814 showing a large increase in the population of 
the Territory, an appointment was made increasing the number of 
Representatives in the Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The 
General Assembly began its session in St. Louis, December 5, 1814. 
There were present on the first day twenty Representatives. James 
Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen 
clerk. The President of the Council was William Neeley, of Cape 
Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, 
and Seth Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, 
were dead. The county of Lawrence was organized at this session, 
from the western part of New Madrid county, and the corporate 
powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 1815 the Territorial Legisla- 
ture ao-ain began its session. Only a partial report of its proceedings 
are o-iven in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized 
from St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of 
the State lying north of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge 
between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. (For precise bounda- 
ries, see Chapter I. of the History of Boone County.) 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its ses- 
sion in December, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many 
important acts were passed. It was then that the " Bank of Mis- 
souri " was chartered and went into operation. In the fall of 1817 the 
"Bank of St. Louis" and the "Bank of Missouri" were issuing 
bills. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, chartering 
the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for 
superintending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also 
passed to encourage the " killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in December, 1818, and, 
among other things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jeffer- 
son, Franklin, Wayne, Lincoln, Madison, Montgomery, and three 
counties in the Southern part of Arkansas. In 1819 the Territory of 
Arkansas was formed into a separate government of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, 
anxious that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities 
of a sovereign State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the 
Territory, the population had rapidly increased, many counties had 



HISTORY OP MISSOQRI. 31 

been established, its commerce had grown into importance, its agri- 
cultural and mineral resources were being developed, and believing 
that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh impetus 
to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legis- 
lature of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the 
passage of an act authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a State 
government. 



CHAPTER YI. 



Application of Missouri to be admitted into the Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — " Missouri Compromise " — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitution presented to Congress — Further Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted. 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for 
her admission into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the 
slavery question in the United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discus- 
sions, but everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Re- 
public the "Missouri Question" was the all-absorbing theme. The 
political skies threatened, 

" In forked flashes, a commanding tempest,'* 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through 
such a crisis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to 
the admission of Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which 
distracted the public counsels of the nation for more than forty years 
afterward. ^ 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. 
*' Lower Louisiana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the 
door of the Union eight years previously, and was admitted as stipu- 
lated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges and immunities of a 
State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same treaty, 
Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges 
and immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the ** Mis- 
souri Compromise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent 



32 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

measures that had up to that day engaged the attention of our 
National Legislature, we shall enter somewhat into its details, being 
connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

February 15th, 1819. — After the Hquse had resolved itself into a 
Committee of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Mis- 
souri into the Union, and after the question of her admission had been 
discussed for some time, Mr. Tallmadge, of New York, moved to 
amend the bill, by adding to it the following proviso : — 

^^And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involun- 
tary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crime, 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, and that all chil- 
dren born within the said State, after the admission thereof into the 
Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry 
discussions which lasted nearly three years, finally culminating in the 
Missouri Compromise. All phases of the slavery question were pre- 
sented, not in its moral and social aspects, but as a great constitu- 
tional question, affecting Missouri and the admission of future States. 
The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was adopted — 79 to 67, and 
so reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he 
had the privilege of participating in the debates which followed. On 
the 16th day of February the proviso was taken up and discussed. 
After several speeches had been made, among them one by Mr. Scott 
and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the amendment, 
or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the word *' convicted," was adopted — 
87 to 76. The remaining part was then voted upon, and also 
adopted, by 82 to 78. By a vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to 
be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the 
same to the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted 
first upon a motion to strike out of the proviso all after the word 
'« convicted," which was carried by a vote of 32 to 7. It then voted 
to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed — 22 to 16, 
thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the 
bill was again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede 
from its position. The bill was lost and Congress adjourned. This 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 33 

was most unfortunate for the country. The people having already 
been wrought up to fever heat over the agitation of the question in 
the National Councils, now became intensely excited. The press 
added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of 
Congress. The body indicated by its vote upon the ♦' Missouri Ques- 
tion," that the two great sections of the country were politically 
divided upon the subject of slavery. The restrictive clause, which it 
was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of her admission, 
would in all probability, be one of the conditions of the admission of 
the Territory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great 
doubt and uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took 
place on the 6th of December, 1819. The memorial of the Legisla- 
tive Council and House of Representatives of the Missouri Territory, 
praying for admission into the Union, was presented to the Senate 
by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. It was referred to the Judiciary 
Committee. 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the 
Senate, the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 
19th of February, when the bill from the Senate for the admission of 
Maine was considered. The bill for the admission of Maine included 
the ** Missouri Question," by an amendment which read as follows i 

**And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by 
France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, wkich lies 
north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude (except- 
ing such part thereof as is) included within the limits of the State, 
contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Provided y 
always^ That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or 
service is lawfully claimed, in any State or Territory of the United , 
States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the 
** Missouri Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the 
words, '* excepting only such part thereof ^ 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of 
March the Hoiise took up the bill and amendments for consideration, 
amd by a vote of 134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendnawit, and 



34 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

the bill being passed by the two Houses, constituted section 8, of 
•*An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri Territory to form a 
Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and 
to prohibit slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fif- 
teen organized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State 
were authorized to hold an election on the first Monday, and two suc- 
ceeding days thereafter in May, 1820, to select representatives to a 
State convention. This convention met in St. Louis on the 12th of 
June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors on the 
19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Wm. G. 
Pettis, Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, 
men of ability and statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which 
they framed amply testifies. Their names and the counties repre- 
sented by them are as follows : — 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. 
Thomas, Alexander Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper. — Robert P. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duff Green, John Ray, Jonathan 
S. Findley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcom Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. 
Brown. 

8t. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, 
Wm. Rector, John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, 
Thomas F. Riddick. 

Washington. — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 
sixth of the same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, pre- 
sented to the House the Constitution as framed by the convention. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 35 

The same was referred to a select committee, who made thereon a 
favorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, was resisted, because it was 
claimed that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the 
Legislature to pass laws preventing free negroes and mulattoes from 
settling in the State. The report of the committee to whom was 
referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied by a preamble 
and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in 
the Senate. The question was referred to a select committee, who, 
on the 29th of November, reported in favor of admitting the State. 
The debate, which followed, continued for two weeks, and finally Mr. 
Eaton, of Tennessee, peered an amendment to the resolution as fol- 
lows : — 

*' Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to give the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of 
Missouri, if any such there be, which contravenes that clause in the 
Constitution of the United States, which declares that the citizens of 
each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of 
citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and 
proviso were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the 
committee agreed to report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the 
committee of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution 
afterward passed the Senate, but was again rejected in the House. 
Then it was that that great statesman and pure patriot, Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come when angry discussions 
should ceasci 

" With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd ' 
A pillar of state ; deep on his front engravei 
Deliberation sat and public care ; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
Majestic" •♦•♦*• 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a 
committee consisting of twenty-three persons (a number equal to the 
number of States then composing the Union), be appointed to act in 
conjunction with a committee of the Senate to consider and report 
■whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 



36 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay 
made its chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to art 
with the committee of twenty-tbree, and on the 26th of February the 
following report was made by that committee : — 

*' Eesolved, by the Senate and House of Eepresentatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall 
be admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the original 
States, in all respects whatever, upon the fundamental condition that 
the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section of the third article of 
the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Congress, shall 
never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of 
either of the States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoy- 
ment of any of the privileges and immunities ip which such citizen is 
entitled, under the Constitution of the United States ; provided. That 
the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public Act, shall declare 
the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, and 
shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the 
fourth Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act ; 
upon the receipt whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall an- 
nounce the fact; whereupon, and without any further proceeding on 
the part of Congress, the admission of the said State into the Union 
shall be considered complete.*' 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and 
passed the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June 
following, a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the 
conditions of admission, as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. 
August 10th, 1821, President Monroe announced by proclamation the 
admission of Missouri into the Union to be complete. 



i 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 37 

CHAPTER YII. 
MISSOURI AS A STATE. 

First Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in 
Cojgress — Supreme Court Judges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Ofl3cial Record of Territorial and State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 
1820, the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the 
third Monday in September of that year, and an election was ordered 
to be held on the 28th of August for the election of a Governor and 
other State officex's, Senators and Representatives to the General 
Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a 
State, but in anticipation of that event, and according to the provi- 
sions of the constitution, the election was held, and the General As- 
sembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and 
Alexander McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair re- 
ceived 6,576 votes, Clark 2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There 
were three candidates for Lieutenant-Governor, to wit : William H. 
Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley received 3,907 
votes. Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. 
John Scott who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to 
both Congresses without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1820, and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. 
Genevieve, speaker, and John McArthur clerk ; William H. Ashley, 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of the Senate ; Silas Bent, President, 
pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook, and John R. Jones were appointed 
Supreme Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age, 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State; Peter Didier, 
State Treasurer; Edward Bates, Attorney-General, and William 
Christie, Auditor of Public Accounts. 



38 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General 
Assembly to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, 
Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Perry, Ralls, Ray and Saline 
were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of 
the different Legislatures which followed ; the elections for Govern- 
ors and other State officers ; the elections for Congressmen and United 
States Senators, but for want of space we can only present in a con- 
densed form the official record of the Territorial and State officers. 



FFICIAL RECORD — TERRITORIAL 0FFICER8. 

Governors. 
Frederick Bates, Secretary and William Clark . . 

Acting-Governor .... 1812-13 

OFFICERS OF STATE GOVERNMENT. 



Governors. 

Alexander McNair 1820-24 

Frederick Bates 1824-26 

Abraham J. "Williams, vice 

Bates 1825 

John Miller, vice Bates . . . 1826-28 

John Miller 1828-32 

Daniel Dunklin, (1832-36) re- 
signed; appointed Surveyor 
General of the U. S. Lilburn 

W. Boggs, vice Dunklin . . 1836 

Lilburn W. Boggs 1836-40 

Thomas Reynolds (died 1844), . 1840-44 
M- M. Marmaduke vice Rey- 
nolds — John 0. Edwards . 1844-48 
Austin A. King . . • . 1848-52 

Sterling Price 1852-56 

Trusten Polk (resigned) . . . 1856-57 

Hancock Jackson, vice Polk . 1857 

Robert M. Stewart, vice Polk . 1857-60 
C. F. Jackson (1860), office va- 
cated by ordinance; Hamil- 
ton R. Gamble, vice Jackson ; 
Gov. Gamble died 1864. 

Willard P. Hall, vice Gamble . 1864 

Thomas C. Fletcher .... 1864-68 

Joseph W. McClurg .... 1868-70 

B. Gratz Brown 1870-72 

Silas Woodson 1872-74 

Charles H. Hardin 1874-76 

Johns. Phelps 1876-80 

Thomas T. Crittenden (now 

Governor) . 1880 



L ieuienant- Governors, 
William H. Ashley 
Benjamin H. Reeves 
Daniel Dunklin . 
Lilburn W. Boggs 
Franklin Cannon 
M. M. Marmaduke 
James Young . 
Thomas L Rice. 
Wilson Brown . 
Hancock Jackson 
Thomas C. Reynold 
Willard P. Hall 
George Smith 
Edwin O. Stanard 
Joseph J. Gravelly. 
Charles P. Johnson 
Norman J. Coleman 
Henry C. Brockmeyer 
Robert A. Campbell (present 
incumbent) 



Secretaries of State, 



•Joshua Barton . . 

William G. Pettis . 

Hamilton R. Gamble 

Spencer Pettis . . 

P. H. McBride . . 

John C. Edwards (term expired 
1835, reappointed 1837, re 
signed 1837) 

Peter G. Glover 

James L. Minor 



1813-20 



1820-24 
1824-28 
1828-32 
1832-36 
1836-40 
1840-44 
1844-48 
1848-52 
1852-55 
1855-56 
1860-61 
1861-64 
1864-68 
1868-70 
1870-72 
1872-74 
1874-76 
1876-80 

1880 



1820-21 
1821-24 
1824-26 
1826-28 
1829-30 



1830-87 
1837-39 
1839-45 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



39 



OFPICBRS OF 

P. H. Martin 

Ephraim B, Ewing . . .. 
John M. Richardson .... 
Benjamin F. Massey (re-elected 

1860, for four years). . . . 

Mordecai Oliver 

Francis Rodman (re-elected 18G8 

for two years) 

Eugene F. Weigel, (re-elected 

1872, for two years) .... 
Michael K. McGrath (present 

incumbent) 

State Treasurers. 

Peter Didier 

Nathaniel Simonds .... 

James Earickson 

John Walker 

Abraham McClellan .... 
Peter G. Glover 

A. W. Morrison 

George 0. Bingham .... 

William Bishop 

William Q. Dallmeyer . . . 

Samuel Hays 

Harvey W. Salmon .... 

Joseph W. Mercer 

Elijah Gates 

Phillip E. Chappell (present in- 
cumbent) 

Attomey-Qenerals, 

Edward Bates 

Rufus Easton 

Robt. W. Wella 

William B. Napton .... 
8. M. Bay 

B. F. Stringfellow 

William A. Robards .... 
James B. Gardenhiro .... 
Ephraim W. Ewing .... 

James P. Knott 

Aikman Welch ...... 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 

Robert F. Wingate 

Horace P. Johnson 

A. J. Baker 

Henry Clay Ewing 

John A, Hockaday 

Jackson L. Smith 

D. H. Mclntire (present in- 
cumbent) 



STATE GOVERNMENT — Continued. 



1845-49 
1849-52 
1852-66 

1856-60 
1861-64 

1864-68 

1870-72 

1874 



1820-21 

1821-28 

1829-33 

1833-38 

1838-43 

1843-51 

1851-60 

1862-64 

1864-68 

1868-70 

1872 

1872-74 

1874-76 

1876-80 



1880 



1820-21 

1821-26 

1826-36 

1836-39 

1839-45 

1845-49 

1849-51 

1851-56 

1856-59 

1859-61 

1861-64 

1864 

1864-68 

1868-70 

1870-72 

1872-74 

1874-76 

1876-80 

1880 



Auditors of Public Accounts. 

William Christie 1820-21 

William V. Rector .... 1821-23 

Elias Barcroft 1823-33 

Henry Shurlds ....... 1833-35 

Peter G. Glover 1835-37 

Hiram H. Baber 1837-45 

William Monroe 1845 

J. R. McDermon 1845-48 

George W. Miller 1848^9 

Wilson Brown ...... 1849-62 

William H. Buffington . . . 1852-60 

William S. Moseley .... 1860-64 

Alonzo Thompson 1864-68 

Daniel M. Draper 1868-72 

George B. Clark 1872-74 

Thomas Holladay 187 -80 

John Walker (present incum- 
bent) 1880 

Judges of Supreme Court. 

Matthias McGirk 1822-41 

John D. Cooke 1822-23 

John R. Jones 1822-24 

Rufus Pettibone 1823-25 

Geo. Tompkins 1824-45 

Robert Wash 1825-37 

John 0. Edwards 1837-39 

Wm. Scott, (appointed 1841 till 
meeting of General Assem- 
bly in place of McGirk, re- 
signed; reappointed . . . 1843 

P. H. McBride 1845 

Wm. B. Napton 1849-62 

John P. Ryland 1849-51 

John H. Birch 1849-61 

Wm. Scott, John F. Ryland, 
and Hamilton R. Gamble 
(elected by the people, for six 

years) 1851 

Gamble (resigned) 1854 

Abiel Leonard elected to fill va- 
cancy of Gamble. 
Wm. B. Napton (vacated by 

failure to file oath). 
Wm. Scott and John C. Rich- 
ardson (resigned, elected Au- 
gust, for six years) .... 1867 
E. B. Ewing, (to fill Richard- 

son's resignation) .... 1859 
Barton Bates (appointed) . . 1862 
W. V. N. Bay (appointed) . . 1862 



40 



HISTORY OP MISSOURI, 



OFFICERS OF 


STATB G 


John D. S. Dryden (appointed) 


1862 


Barton Bates 


1863-65 


W. V. N. Bay (elected) . . . 


1863 


John D. S. Dryden (elected) . 


1863 


David Wagner (appointed) . . 


1865 


\Vallace L. Lovelace (appoint- 




ed) 


1865 


Nathaniel Holmes (appointed) 


1865 


Thomas J. C. Fagg (appointed) 


1866 


James Baker (appointed) , , 


1868 


David Wagner (elected) . , . 


1868-70 


Philemon Bliss 


1868-70 


Warren Currier 


1868-71 


Washington Adams (appointed 




to fill Currier's place, who re- 




signed) 


1871 


Ephraim B. Ewing (elected) . 


1872 


Thomas A. Sherwood (elected) 


1872 


W. B. Napton (appointed in 




place of Ewing, deceased) . 


1873 


Edward A. Lewis (appointed. 




in place of Adams, resigned) 


1874 


Warwick Hough (elected) . . 


1874 


William B. Napton (elected) . 


1874-80 


John VV. Henry 


1876-86 


Robert D. Eay succeeded Wm. 




B. Napton in 


1880 


Elijah H. Norton (appointed in 




1876), elected 


1878 


T. A. Sherwood (re-elected) 


1882 


United States Senators. 




T. H. Benton 


1820-50 


D. Barton 


1820-30 


Alex. Buckner 


1830-33 


L. F. Linn 


1833-43 


D. K. Atchison 


1843-55 


H. S. Geyer 


1851-57 


James S. Green 


1857-61 


T. Polk 


1857-63 
1861 


Waldo P. Johnson 


Robert Wilson 


1861 


B. Gratz Brown (for unexpired 




term of Johnson) .... 


1863 


J. B. Henderson 


1863-69 


Charles D. Drake 


1867-70 


Carl Schurz 


1869-75 


D. F. Jewett (in place of Drake, 




resigned) ....... 


1870 


F.P.Blair 


1871-77 


L. V.Bogy 


1873 


James Shields (elected for unex- 




pired term of Bogy) . . . 


1879 



STATB GOVERNMENT — Continued, 

D. H. Armstrong appointed for 

unexpired term of Bogy. 
F. M. Cockrell (re-elected 1881) 1876-81 
George G. Vest 1879 

Representatives to Congress. 

John Scott 1820-25 

Ed. Bates 1826-28 

Spencer Pettis 1828-31 

William H. Ashley .... 1831-36 

John Bull 1832-34 

Albert G. Harrison 1834-39 

John Miller 1836-42 

John Jameson (re-elected 1846 

for two years) 1839-44 

John C. Edwards 1840-42 

James M. Hughes 1842-44 

James H.Relfe 1842-46 

James B. Bowlin 1842-50 

Gustavus M. Bower .... 1842-44 

Sterling Price 1844-46 

William McDaniel 1846 

Leonard H. Sims 1844-46 

John S. Phelps 1844-60 

James S. Green (re-elected 

1856, resigned) 1846-50 

Willard P. Hall 1846-53 

William V. N. Bay .... 1848-61 

John F. Darby 1850-53 

Gilchrist Porter 1850-57 

John G. Miller 1850-56 

Alfred W. Lamb 1852-54 

Thomas H. Benton 1852-54 

Mordecai Oliver 1852-57 

James J. Lindley 1852-66 

Samuel Caruthers 1852-58 

Thomas P. Akers (to fill unex- 
pired term of J. G. Miller, 

deceased) 1855 

Francis P. Blair, Jr. (re-elected 

1860, resigned) 1856 

Thomas L. Anderson .... 1856-60 

James Craig 1856-60 

Samuel H. Woodson .... 1856-60 

John B. Clark, Sr 1857-61 

J. Richard Barrett 1860 

John W.Noel 1858-63 

James S. Rollins 1860-64 

Elijah H. Norton 1860-63 

JohnW.Reid 1860-61 

William A. Hall 1862-64 

Thomas L. Price (in place of 
Reid, expelled) 1862 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



.41 



OFFICBRS OP 

Henry T. Blow 

Sempronius T. Boyd, (elected in 

1862, and again in 1868, for 

two years.) 
Joseph W. McClurg . . • . 
Austin A. King ...... 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John G. Scott (in place of Noel, 

deceased) 

John Hogan .... . . 

Thomas F. Noel 

John K. Kelsoe 

Robert T, Van Horn . . . 
John P. Benjamin ..... 
George W. Anderson .... 

William A. Pile 

C. A. Newcomb 

Joseph J. Gravelly 

James R. McComiack . . . 
John H. Stover (in place of 

McClurg, resigned) ... 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finklenburg, . . 

Samuel S. Burdett 

Joel F. Asper 

David P. Dyer 

Harrison E. Havens .... 

Isaac G. Parker 

James G. Blair 

Andrew King 

Edwin O. Stanard 

William H. Stone 

Robert A. Hatcher (elected) . 

Richard B. Bland 

Thomas T. Crittenden . „ . 

Ira B.Hyde 

John B. Clark, Jr. 

John M. Glover 



STATK GOVEBITMENT — Cotliinuedm 



1862-66 



1862-66 
1862-64 
1862-69 

1863 

1864-66 

1864-67 

1864-66 

1864-71 

1864-71 

1864-69 

1866-68 

1866-68 

1866-68 

1866-73 

1867 

1868-82 

1868-71 

1868-71 

1868-70 

1868-70 

1870-75 

1870-75 

1870-72 

1870-72 

1872-74 

1872-78 

1872 

1872 

1872-74 

1872-74 

1872-78 

1872 



Aylett H. Buckner 1872 

Edward C. Kerr 1874-78 

Charles H. Morgan .... 1874 

John F. Philips 1874 

B. J. Franklin ....... 1874 

David Rea 1874 

Rezin A. De Bolt 1874 

Anthony Ittner 1876 

Nathaniel Cole 1876 

Robert A. Hatcher 1876-78 

R. P. Bland 1876-78 

A. H. Buckner 1876-78 

J. B. Clark, Jr. 1876-78 

T. T. Crittenden 1876-78 

B. J. Franklin 1876-78 

John M. Glover 1876-78 

Robert A. Hatcher 1876-78 

Chas. H. Morgan 1876-78 

L. S. Metcalf 1876-78 

H.M. Pollard 1876-78 

David Rea 1876-78 

S. L. Sawyer 1878-80 

N. Ford 1878-82 

G, F. Rothwell 1878-82 

John B. Clark, Jr 1878-82 

W. H. Hatch 1878-82 

A. H. Buckner 1878-82 

M. L. Clardy 1878-82 

R. G.Frost 1878-82 

L.H.Davis 1878-82 

R. P. Bland 1878-82 

J. R. Waddell 1878-80 

T.Allen 1880-82 

R. Hazeltine 1880-82 

T. M. Rice 1880-82 

R.T. Van Horn 1880-82 

Nicholas Ford 1880-82 

J. G. Burrows 1880-82 



COtTNTIES 

Adair January 29, 

Andrew January 29, 

Atchison January 14, 

Audrain December 17, 

Barry January 5, 

Barton December 12, 

Bates January 29, 

Benton Januarys, 

Bollinger March 1, 

Boone November 16, 

Buchanan February 10, 



— WHEN ORGANIZED. 
1841 

1841 
1845 
1836 
1835 
1835 
1841 
1835 
1851 
1820 
1839 



Caldwell December 26, 1836 

Callaway November 25, 1820 

Camden January 29, 1841 

Cape Girardeau October 1, 1812 

Carroll Januarys, 1833 

Carter March 10, 1859 

Cass September 14, 1835 

Cedar February 14, 1845 

Chariton November 16, 1820 

Christian March 8, 1860 

Clark December 15. 1818 



42 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



COUNTIES, VTHEN ORGANIZED — Continued. 



Butler February 27, 1849 

Clay January 2, 1822 

Clinton January 15, 1833 

Cole November 16, 1820 

Cooper December 17, 1818 

Crawford « January 23, 1829 

Dade January 29, 1841 

Dallas December 10, 1844 

Daviess December 29, 1836 

DeKalb February 25, 1845 

Dent February 10, 1851 

Douglas October 19, 1857 

Tunklin February 14, 1845 

Franklin December 11, 1818 

Gasconade November 25, 1820 

Gentry February 12, 1841 

Greene January 2, 1833 

Grundy January 2, 1843 

Harrison February 14, 1845 

Henry December 13, 1834 

Hickory February 14, 1845 

Holt February 15, 1841 

Howard January 23, 1816 

Howell March 2, 1857 

Iron .February 17, 1857 

Jackson December 15, 1826 

Jasper January 29, 1841 

JeflPerson December 8, 1818 

Johnson December 13, 1834 

Knox February 14, 1845 

Laclede February 24, 1849 

Lafayette November 16, 1820 

Lawrence February 25, 1845 

Lewis January 2, 1833 

Lincoln December 14, 1818 

Linn January 7, 1837 

Livingston January 6, 1837 

McDonald March 8, 1849 

Macon January 6, 1837 

Madison December 14, 1818 

Maries March 2, 1855 

Marion December 23, 1826 

Mercer. February 14, 1845 

Miller February 6, 1837 

Mississippi February 14, 1845 

Moniteau February 14, 1846 



Monroe January 6, 1831 

Montgomery December 14, 1818 

Morgan January 5, 1833 

New Madrid October 1, 1812 

Newton Docfmber 31, 1838 

Nodaway February 14, 1845 

Oregon...,,... February 14, 1845 

Osage January 29, 1841 

Ozark January 29, 1841 

Pemiscot February 19, 1861 

Perry November 16, 1820 

Pettis January 26, 1833 

Phelps November 13, 1857 

Pike December 14, 1818 

Platte December 31, 1838 

Polk March 13, 1835 

Pulaski December 16, 1818 

Putnam February 28, 1845 

Kails November 16, 1820 

Randolph January 22, 1829 

Ray. November 16, 1820 

Reynolds February 25, 1845 

Ripley January 6, 1833 

St. Charles October 1, 1812 

St. Clair January 29, 1841 

St. Francois December 19, 1821 

Ste. Genevieve October 1, 1812 

SU Louia October 1, 1812 

Saline November 25, 1820 

Schuyler February 14, 1846 

Scotland January 29, 1841 

Scott December 28, 1821 

Shannon January 29, 1841 

Shelby January 2, 1835 

Stoddard January 2, 1835 

Stone February 10, 1851 

Sullivan February 16, 1845 

Taney January 16, 1837 

Texas February 14, 1835 

Vernon February 17, 1851 

Warren January 5, 1833 

Washington August 21, 1813 

Wayne December 11, 1818 

Webster March 3, 1855 

Worth February 8, 1861 

Wright January 29, 1841 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 43 

CHAPTEK VIII. 
CIVIL WAR IN MISSOURI. 

Fort Sumter flred upon— Call for 76,000 men— Gov, Jackson refuses to furnish a 
man — U. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson- 
General Order No. 7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized — Sterling 

Price appointed Major-General — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Frost 

Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gen. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jack- 
eon burns the bridges behind him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair 

takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at Springfield 

State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes command — Proclamation ol 
Lieut.-Gov. Reynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. Jackson — Death 
of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCuUoch and Gamble — 
Martial law declared — Second proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — President modi- 
fies Fremont's order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price- Hun- 
ter's Order of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to 
Newspapers — Halleck succeeds Hunter — Halleck's Order 81 — Similar order by 
Halleck — Boone County Standard confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon 
and Palmyra— Gen. Ewing's Order No. 11 —Gen. Rosecrans takes command— Mas- 
sacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen. Dodge succeeds Gen. Rose- 
crans — List of Battles. 

" Lastly stood war — 
With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 

Ah! why will kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren? Why delight 
In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 men, from the 
the militia of the several States, to suppress combinations in the South- 
ern States therein named. Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of 
War sent a telegram to all the governors of the States, excepting 
those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting them to detail a cer- 
tain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's quota 
being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram. Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
7\> the Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, Washington, D.C.: 
Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for 



44 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There 
can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a 
part of the President's army to make war upon the people of the 
seceded States. Your requisition, in ray judgment, is illegal, unconsti- 
tutional, and can not be complied with. Not one man will the State of 
Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri. 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order oi 
Governor Jackson. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take 
into consideration the momentous issues which were presented, and 
the attitude to be assumed by the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued 
the following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Ordei-s JSfo. 7.) 

I. To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organ- 
ization and discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military 
districts in this State, having four or more legally organized compa- 
nies therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles of each other, will 
assemble their respective commands at some place to be by them sever- 
ally designated, on the 3rd day of May, and to go into an encampment 
for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of companies 
not organized into battalions will report the strength of their compa- 
nies immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quarter- 
masters of Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all 
necessary tents and camp equipage, to enable the commanding officers 
thereof to carry the foregoing orders into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, 
and one company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and sol- 
diers belonging to the First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, 
and ^-eport to Gen. D. M. Frost for duty. The remaining companies 
of said battalion will be disbanded for the purpose of assisting in the 
organization of companies upon that frontier. The details in the exe- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 45 

cution of the foregoing ai-e intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John S. 
Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several com- 
panies in the District will be reported at once to these Headquarters, 
and District Inspectors will furnish all information which may be ser- 
viceable in ascertaining the condition of the State forces. 
By order of the Governor. 

Warwick Hough, 
Adjutant- General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra session. Many 
acts were passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to 
purchase or lease David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the man- 
ufacture of arms and munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to 
appoint one Major-General ; to authorize the Governor, when, in his 
opinion, the security and welfare of the State required it, to take pos- 
session of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; to provide for 
the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; to 
borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State 
to repel invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. 
An act was also passed creating a *« Military Fund," to consist of all 
the money then in the treasury or that might thereafter be received 
from the one-tenth of one per cent, on the hundred dollars, levied by 
act of November, 1857, to complete certain railroads ; also the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the assessed 
value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and 
the proceeds of the two-mill tax, which had been theretofore appro- 
priated for educational purposes. 

May 3, 1861. *' Camp Jackson** was organized. 

May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State 
Guard. 

May 10, 1861. General Frost, commanding ** Camp Jackson,*' ad- 
dressed General N. Lyon, as follows : — 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, May 10, 1861. 
Capt. N. Lyo^, Commanding JJ. 8. Troops in and about St. Louis 
Arsenal: 

Sir : I am constantly in receipt of information that you contem- 
plate an attack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are im- 
pressed with the idea that an attack upon the Arsenal and United 
States troops i« intended on the past of the Mlitia of Missouri. I am 



46 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens 
of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their duties, 
devolvino- upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instruct- 
ino- the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, 
have been disposed to doubt the correctness of the information I have 
received. 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any 
truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So 
far as regards any hostility being intended toward the United States, 
or its property or representatives by any portion of my command, or, 
as far as I can learn (and I think I am fully informed), of any other 
part of the State forces, I can positively say that the idea has never 
been entertained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of 
the Arsenal, I proffered to Major Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my 
command, and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect 
the United States in the full possession of all her property. Upon 
General Harney taking command of this department, I made the same 
proffer of services to him, and authorized his Adjutant-General, Capt. 
Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been done to the 
War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through 
orders of my constitutional commander. 

1 trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by 
fully understanding each other, to keep far from our borders the mis- 
fortunes which so unhappily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my 
Chief of Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth 
in the foregoing. 

I a>mf sir, very respectfully your obedient servant. 

Brigadier-General D. M. Frost, 
Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May 10, 1861, Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson: 

Sir : Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the 
Government of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 47 

openly avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have 
been plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its 
authority. You are openly in communication with the so-called 
Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States, 
and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy and 
under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is 
known to be the property of the United States. These extraordinary 
preparations plainly indicate none other than the well-known purpose 
of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and 
whose communication to the Legislature has just been responded to 
by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, having in direct 
view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 
enemies. 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in 
obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent 
necessities of State policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed 
upon me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, 
and I do hereby demand of you an immediate surrender of your com- 
mand, with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering 
under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing 
myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before 
doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. Lyon, 
Captain Second Infantry y Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all 
released excepting Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe 
to the parole. 

May 12, 1861. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Missouri, saying '* he would carefully abstain 
from the exercise of any unnecessary powers," and only use "the 
military force stationed in this district in the last resort to preserve 
peace." 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1861. General Harney held a conference with General 
Sterling Price, of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June 11, 1861. A second conference was held between the National 
and State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 



48 H8TORY OF MISSOURI. 

June 11, 1861. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, 
burning tlie railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling 
into active service 50,000 militia, "to repel invasion, protect life, 
property," etc. 

June 15, 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capi- 
tal, Gov. Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th 
of June for Boonville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville look place between the forces 
of Gen. Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people 
of Missouri. 

July 5, 1861. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigel 
and Gov. Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared the offices of 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the 
"Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 31, 1861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds issued 
a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 1, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at 
Bloomfield. 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's x 
forces and General Rains. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New 
Madrid. 

August 5, 1861. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861. Battle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces 
under General Lyon and General McCulloch. In this engagement 
General Lyon was killed. General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 

August 12, 1861. McGulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left 
Missouri. 

August 20, 1861. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation cailling 
for 32,000 men for six months to protect the property and lives of the 
citizens of the State. 

August 30, 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and 
declared that the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take aa 
active part with the enemies of the Government should be free. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 49 

September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation 
in response to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Dry wood Creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. 
Fremont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation 
of propei'ty and liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Lexing- 
ton on Colonel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surren- 
dcKed. 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

October 28, 1861. Pa-ssage by Governor Jackson's Legislature, 
at Neosho, of an ordinance of secession. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David 
Hunter. 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, 
who took command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in 
St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 
50,000 men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assess- 
ment upon certain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and cloth- 
ing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the 
country adjacent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Gen- 
erals Curtis and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the 
following order in reference to newspapers : 



•i 



Office of the Provost Marshal, 
General Department of Missouri, 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. 
(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of 
newspapers in the State of Missouri (St. Louis City papers excepted), 
furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each 
issue, for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render 
the newspaper liable to suppression. 



50 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of 
this order, and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 
Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which 
forbade, among other things, the display of Secession flags in the 
hands of women or on carriages, in the vicinity of the military prison 
in McDowell's College, the carriages to be confiscated and the offend- 
ing women to be arrested.- 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to 
Order No. 18, to railroad companies and to the professors and direct- 
ors of the State University at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the 
institution to be used " to teach treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military 
commission, which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Ed- 
mund J. Ellis, of Columbia, editor and proprietor of <' The Boone 
County Standard^^^ for the publication of information for the benefit 
of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United States Gov- 
ernment. Ellis was found guilty, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 
General Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under 
Colonel Joseph C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between^' ^ forces under Major 
John Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August 11, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at 
Macon, by order of General jMerrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra, 
by order of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1868. Battle at Springfield between the forces of Gen- 
eral Marmaduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 51 

August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, 
Arkansas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated 
Order No. 11, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : — 

Headquarters District of the Border, 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863. 
(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates Counties, 
Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except 
those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's 
Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part 
of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west 
of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby 
ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen 
days from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfac- 
tion of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their 
present place of residence, will receive from him certificates stating 
the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it 
can be shown. All who receive such certificate will be permitted to 
remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the 
State. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers com- 
manding companies and detachments serving in the counties named, 
will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the 
district from which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach 
of military stations, after the 9th day of September next, will be 
taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officer there, and 
report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, 
specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of such 
produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district 
after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, 
will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these 
headquarters, will at once be -vigorously executed by officers com- 
manding in the parts of the district, and at the stations not subject to 
the operations of paragraph First of this Order — and especially in 
the towns of Independence- Westport and Kansas City. 



52 



HISTORY OP MISSOURI. 



Fourth. — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all 
who have borne arms against the Government in the district since 
August 20, 1863. 

By order of Brigadier-General Ewing : 

H. Hannahs, Adjutant, 

October 13. Battle of Marshall. 

January, 1864. General Eosecrans takes command of the Depart- 
ment. 

September, 1864. Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Mo- 
reau River. 

October 5, 1864. 
farm. 

October 8, 1864. 

October 20, 1864. 

September 27, 1864. 
derson. 

October 27, 1864. Captain Bill Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Rosecrans relieved 
Dodge appointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after 
December, 1864. We have, in th^ main, given the facts as they 
occurred without comment or entering into details. Many of the 
minor incidents and skirmishes of the war have been omitted because 
of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of 
all the battles fought in Missouri during the Civil War. It will be 
found, however, that the list given below, which has been arranged for 
convenience, contains the prominent battles and skirmishes which took 
place within the State : — 



Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's 

Battle at Glasgow. 
Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill An- 



and General 



Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 18«1. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1801. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Drywood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 



Blue Mills Landing, September 17, 1861. 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861, 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, October 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, October 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, October 16, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, October 15, 1861. 
Frederick town, October 21, 1861. 
Springfield, October 25, 1861 
Belmont, November 7, 1861. 
Piketon, November 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, November 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, November 11, 1861. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



53 



Mt. Zion Church, December 28, 1861. 
Silver Creek, January 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, February 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1862. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierce's Mill, June — , 1862, 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, August 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, August 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, August 13, 1862. 
Independence, August 11, 1862. 



Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, September 13, 1862. 
Springfield, January 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Marshall, October 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, September — , 1864. 
Harrison, September — , 1864. 
Moreau River, October 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, October 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, October 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, October 20, 1864. 
Albany, October 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, September 23, 1864. 
Centralia, September 27, 1864. 



CHAPTER IX. 



EARLY MILITARY RECORD. 



Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the fourteenth day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took 
place between the regular forces of the United States, and a part of 
the Sacs, Foxes, and Winnebago Indians, commanded by Black 
Hawk and Keokuk, near Dixon's Ferry in Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savagea 
would invade the soil of his State, ordered Major-Geueral Richard 
Gentry to raise one thousand volunteers for the defence of the fron- 
tier. Five companies were af"once raised in Boone county, and in 
Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ealls, 
Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John 
Jamison of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman of Boone 
county, were mustered into service in July for thirty days, and put 
under command of Major Thomas W. Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort 
Pike on the 15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not 
crossed the Mississippi into Missouri, General Gentry returned to 
Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of Major Conyers. Thirty days 
having expired, the command under Major Conyers was relieved by two 



54 



HISTORY OP MISSOURI. 



other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, of Boone, and Patrick 
Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by 
Col. Austin A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major 
Conyers home. Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where 
he remained till September following, at which time the Indian troub- 
les, so far as Missouri was concerned, having all subsided, the frontier 
forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally 
defeated and captured in 1833. 

MORMON DIFFICULTIES. 

In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the cboseu 
prophet and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with 
many followers to Jackson county, Missouri, where they located and 
entered several thousand acres of land. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskiits of 
civilization at that time — was to more securely establish his church, 
and the more effectively to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets 
and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located 
their *'Zion," and gave it the name of *♦ The New Jerusalem." 
They published here the Evening Start and made themselves gener- 
ally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who were then in a minority, by their 
denunciatory articles through their paper, their clanuishness and their 
polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be 
inspired only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles 
threw the press and type into the Missouri River, tarred and feathered 
one of their bishops, and otherwise gave the Mormons and their lead- 
ers to understand that they must conduct themselves in an entirely 
different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became fu- 
riously incensed, and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Mat- 
ters continued in an uncertain condition until the 31st of October, 
1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near Westport, in which two 
Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of October following the Mormons were overpowered, 
and compelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county 
with their families by January 1st on the condition that the owner 
would be paid for his printing press. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 55 

Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in 
Clay, Carroll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell 
county a town site, which they called *' Far West," and where they 
entered more land for their future homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exertin<y 
themselves in the East and in different portions of Europe, converts 
had constantly flocked to their standard, and *' Far West," and other 
Mormon settlements, rapidly prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection ot a magnificent temple, but 
never finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they 
became bolder in their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town 
of De Witt, on the Missouri River, having purchased the land from 
an Illinois merchant. De Witt was in Carroll county, and a good 

point from which to forward goods and immigrants to their town 

Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders 
the Gentiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of 
the prominent citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at 
this meeting, but at a subsequent meeting, which was held a few days 
afterward, a committee of citizens was appointed to notify Col. Hin- 
kle (one of the Mormon leaders at De Witt), what they intended to 
do. 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indig- 
nant, and threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest 
him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would 
attempt to force them from De Witt, Mormon recruits flocked to the 
town from every direction, and pitched their tents in and around the 
town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this en- 
campment, to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, 
accordingly, one hundred and fifty men bivouacked near the town on 
that day. A conflict ensued, but nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some loo- houses 
where they could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had 
in the meantime returned to their camp to await reinforcements. 
Troops from Saline, Ray and other counties came to their assist- 
ance, and increased their number to five hundred men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier- General ; Ebenezer Price, 



56 HISTORY OF MISSOURI . 

Colonel ; Singleton Vaughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarshel Woods, 
Major. After some days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an 
assault, but before the attack was commenced Judge James Earickson 
and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens of Howard county, asked 
permission of General Jackson to let them try and adjust the difficul- 
ties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the 
Mormons, that if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed be- 
longing to the citizens, and load their wagons during the night and be 
ready to move by ten o'clock next morning, and make no further 
attempt to settle in Carroll county, the citizens would purchase at 
first cost their lots in De Witt and one or two adjoining tracts of 
land. 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts 
to settle the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposi- 
tion. 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, 
loaded up their wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. 
Whether the terms of the agreement were ever carried out, on the 
part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the 
result of their own acts — but their trials and suflferings were not at 
an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so 
great that Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Major- 
General David R. Atchison to call the militia of his division to enforce 
the laws. He called out a part of the first brigade of the Missouri 
State Militia, under command of Gen. A. W. Doniphan, who pro- 
ceeded to the seat of war. Gen. John B. Clark, of Howard county, 
was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about 1,000 men, and were led by 
G. W. Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, 
where one Mormon was killed. The principal fight took place at 
Haughn's Mills, where eighteen Mormons were killed and the balance 
captured, some of them being killed after they had surrendered. 
Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of 
Far West to Gen. Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders 
for trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 57 

families, lenve the State. Indictments were found against a number 
of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, 
killed at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hiram. 

FLORIDA WAR. 

In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service 
in Florida against the Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation 
had made common cause under Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raisecl in Boone county by Colonel 
Richard Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel ; John W. Price, of 
Howard county, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Harrison H. Hughes, also of 
Howard, Major. Four companies of the second regiment were raised 
and attached to the first. Two of these companies were composed of 
Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat 
of war, stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they were 
mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence 
transported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. 
Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles inland by the route traveled. Having reached the Kissemmee 
river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in which Col. 
Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leav- 
ing many of their dead and wounded on the field. There being no 
further service required of the Missourians, they returned to their 
homes in 1838. 

MEXICAN WAR. 

Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 
8th and 9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma were fought. Great excitement prevailed throughout the 
country. In none of her sister States, however, did the fires of 
patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not waiting for the 
call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legion ** hastened to the field of 
conflict. The " Legion" was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. 
During the mouth of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, 



58 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

called for volunteers to join the "Army of the West," an expedition 
to Sante Fe — under command of General Stephen W. Kearney. 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. 
By the 18th of June, the full complement of companies to compose 
the first regiment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Sa- 
line, Franklin, Cole, Howard and Callaway counties. Of this regi- 
ment, A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Wm. Gilpin, Major. The battalion of light artillery 
from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer ; battalions of 
infantry from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains 
Murphy and W. Z. Augney respectively, and the ** Laclede Rangers," 
from St. Louis, by Captain Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, 
from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling 
Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one mounted regiment, 
one mounted extru battalion, and one extra battalion of Mormon in- 
fantry to reinforce the "Army of the West." Mr. Price was made 
Colonel, and D. D. Mitchell Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for 
one thousand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised 
at once. John Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen Colonel, but 
before the regiment marched the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, com- 
manded by Captain Wm. T. Lafland. Conspicuous among the en- 
gagements in which the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico 
were the battles of Bracito, Sacramento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos 
and Santa Cruz de Rosales. The forces from Missouri were mustered 
out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history of the Mexi- 
can war, for 

"A thousand glorious actions tliat miglit claim 
Triumphant laurels and immortal fame. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 59 

CHAPTER X. 
AGIiTCULTURE AM) MATERIAL WEALTH. 

Missouri as an Agricultural State — The Different Crops— Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and other Cattle —Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — 
Missouri adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broom-Corn and other Products- 
Fruits- Berries— Grapes— Railroads— First Neigh of the " Iron Horse " in Mis- 
souri—Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. Louis. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the 
first in supplying his necessities. It favors and strengthens popula- 
tion ; it creates and maintains manufactures ; gives employment to 
navigation and furnishes materials to commerce. It animates every 
species of industry, and opens to nations the safest channels of 
wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. 
Among all the occupations and professions of life, there is none more 
honorable, none more independent, and none more conducive to health 
and happiness. 

" In ancient times the sacred plow employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day. 

Have held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 

Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 

Disdaining little delicacies, seized 

The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in 
the Union. It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps 
an abundant harvest. The soil, in many portions of the State, has 
an open, flexible structure, quickly absorbs the most excessive rains, 
and retains moisture with great tenacity. This being the case, it is 
not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered with sweet, 
luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not sur- 
passed by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy 
in growing and fattening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giv- 
ing nutriment as it was when cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the an- 
telope, and the deer, and costs the herdsman nothing. 



go HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

No State or territory has a more complete and rapid system of nat- 
ural drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than 
Missouri. Both man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand 
perennial fountains, which gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, 
and wend their way through verdant valleys and along smiling prai- 
ries, varyino- in size, as they onward flow, from the diminutive brooklet 
to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, 
soil and scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in 
the sweat of his brow. Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri 
offers superior inducements to the farmer, and bids him enter her 
broad domain and avail himself of her varied resources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop 
in Missouri for 1878 : — 

Indian Corn 93,062,000 bushels. 

Wheat 20,196,000 " 

Rye 732,000 " 

Oflts 19,584,000 '• 

Buckwheat 'J 46,400 " 

Potatoes 5,415,000 " 

Tobacco 23,023,000 pounds. 

Hay 1,620,000 tons. 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 
48,800; oats, 640,000; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; to- 
bacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,- 
224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; oats, $3,325,120; buck- 
wheat, $24,128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,150; hay, 
$10,416,600. 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69 ; average yield of corn 
per acre, 26 bushels ; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The fol- 
lowing table shows the number of horses, mules, and milch cows in 
the different States for 1879 ;-^ 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



61 



States. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts. . .. 

Kiiode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware.. 

Maryland , 

Virginia 

North Carolina... 
South Carolina... 

Georgia , 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 



Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia. 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan......... 

Indiana 

Illinois 



Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

California 

Oregon 

Nevada, Colorado, and Territories. 



Horses. 



81,700 

57.100 

77,400 

131,000 

16,200 

53,500 

898,900 

114,500 

614,500 

19,900 

108,600 

208,700 

144,200 

59,600 

119,200 

22,400 

112,800 

97,200 

79,300 

618,000 

180,500 

323,700 

122,200 

386,900 

772,700 

333,800 

688,800 

1,100,000 

384,400 

247,300 

770,700 

627,300 

275,000 

157,200 

273,000 

109,700 

250,000 



Mules. 



11,800 
14,400 
24,900 
4,000 
11,300 
30,600 
74,000 
51,500 
97,200 
11,900 

111,700 

100,000 
80,700 

180,200 

89,300 

99,700 

2,400 

117,800 

26,700 

4,300 

61,200 

138,000 

8,700 

7,000 

43,400 

191,900 
50,000 
13,600 
25,700 
3,500 
25,700 



MUch 

Cows. 



196,100 

98,100 
217,800 
160,700 

22,000 

116,500 

1,446,200 

152,200 

828,400 

23,200 
100,500 
236,200 
232,300 
131,300 
273,100 

70,000 
215,200 
188,060 
110,900 
544,500 
187,700 
245,700 
130,500 
257,200 
714,100 
416,900 
439,200 
702,400 
477,300 
278,900 
676,200 
616,200 
321,900 
127,600 
495,600 
112,400 
423,600 



It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is the Jiffh State 
in the number of horses ; Jifth in number of milch cows, and the 
leading State in number of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, 
which produces the next largest number. Of oxen and other cattle, 
Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which was more than any other 
State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,00. In 1879 Mis- 
souri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep was 1,296,400. 
The number of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as 
follows : — 



states. 


No. 


Stabes. 


No. 


Ohio . 


932,87-8 

622,321 

3,214,896 

669,763 


MlSSOTJRI 


965,839 


Indiana ,,.. 


Wisconsin 

Kentucky 


472,108 


Illinois 


212,412 


Iowa 







62 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



AVERAGE WEIGHT PER HEAD FOR EACH STATE. 



States. 


Pounds. 


States. 


Pounds. 


Ohio 


210.47 
193.80 
225.71 
211.98 




211.32 


Indiana , 




220.81 


Illinois 




210.11 


Iowa 







From the above it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more 
hogs than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third 
in the average weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock- 
raising State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of 
corn and oats upon which the stock is largely dependent, the climate 
is well adapted to their growth and health. Water is not only inex- 
haustible, but everywhere convenient. The ranges of stock are 
boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent pasturage 
of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern 
portions of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, 
New Madrid, Lawrence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced' in abundance and are not only sure 
but profitable. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive 
well, and all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abun- 
dance and are found in the markets during all seasons of the year. 
Fruits of every variety, including the apple, pear, peach, cherries, 
apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with great success, as are also, 
the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and blackberry. 

The grape has not been produced with that success that was at first 
anticipated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a 
million gallons. Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason 
why they should not be as surely and profitably grown in a similar 
climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly in many of the counties 
north and east of the Missouri Kiver." 



RAILROADS. 



Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the " iron horse '* was heard 
for the first time, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming 
presaged the dawn of a brighter and grander era in the history of the 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 65 

State. Her fertile prairies, and more prolific valleys would soon bo 
of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, and the ores and 
minerals of her hills and mountains would be developed, and utilized 
in her manufacturing and industrial enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and 
commerce ; transportation from the interior of the State would be se- 
cured ; a fresh impetus would be given to the growth of her towns 
and cities, and new hopes and inspirations would be imparted to all 
her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, be- 
tween four and five thousand miles of track have been laid ; addi- 
tional roads are now being constructed, and many others in contem- 
plation. The State is already well supplied with railroads which 
thread her surface in all directions, bringing her remotest districts 
into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of western 
railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock ag- 
gregating more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded 
debt of about the same amount. 

The lines of roads which are operated in the State are the follow- 
ing:— 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May 10th, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern Eailroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkan- 
sas Branch ; The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad ; The Cairo & 
Fulton Eailroad ; The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway ; St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railway ; The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis 
Railroad ; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad ; The Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Railroad ; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Blufis 
Railroad ; The Keokuk & Kansas City Railway Company ; The St. 
Louis, Salem & Little Rock Railroad Company ; The Missouri & 
Western ; The St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railroad ; The St. 
Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
Railway ; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad ; The Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway; The Burlington & Southwestern 
Railroad. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great man- 
ufacturing State. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which 
supply the furnace, the machine shop and the planing mill ; rich in 
the multitude and variety of her gigantic forests ; rich in her marble, 
stone and granite quarries ; rich in her mines of iron, coal, lead and 



64 HISTORY OF MISSODEI. 

zinc ; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the force ; rich 
m water power and river navigation ; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their 
multiplied track- ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establish- 
ments, 1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 
80,000 hands. The capital employed is about $100,000,000, the 
material annually used and worked up, amounts to over $150,000,- 
000, and the value of the products put upon the markets $250,000,000, 
while the wages paid are more than $40,000,000. 

The leadino" naanufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, 
Jackson, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Greene, Lafay- 
ette, Platte, Cape Girardeau, and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of 
the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, which is now about the second 
manufacturing city in the Union. Flouring mills produce annually 
about $38,194,000 ; carpentering $18,763,000 ; meat-packing $16,- 
769,000 ; tobacco $12,496,000 ; iron and castings $12,000,000 ;-liquor3 
$11,^45,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging 
and bags $6,914,000, and many other smaller industries iu propor- 
tion. 

REAT BRIDGE AT ST. LOUIS. 

Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and 
reflect great credit upon the geniiis of their projectors, we have space 
only, to mention the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total 
leno"th of which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly 
$8,000,000. The bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to 
the Missouri shore, and has separate railroad tracks, roadways, and 
foot paths. In durability, architectural beauty and practical utility, 
there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that approximates 
it. 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the 
Hellespont ; of Csesar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, 
famous in ancient history, were built for military purposes, that over 
them might pass invading armies with their munitions of war, to de- 
stroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, and to slaughter the 
people. 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over 
it are coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and 
thence are passing the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowd- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 65 

ing legions of men, armed not with the weapons of war, but with the 
implements of peace and industry ; men who are skilled in all the arts 
of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining; men who will hasten 
the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill 
the measure of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



CHAPTEK XI. 

EDUCATION. 



Public School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Offi- 
cers of Public School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — 
Schools — Colleges — Institutions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals — No, of School Children — Amount expended — Value ol 
Grounds and Buildings — " The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided that **one school or more 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day (1820) the framers of the 
constitution made provision for at least a primary education for the 
poorest and the humblest, taking it for granted that those who were 
able would avail themselves of educational advantages which were not 
gratuitous. 

The establishment of the public-school system, in its essential fea- 
tures, was not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Boggs, and since that period the system has slowly grown into 
f\ivor, not only in Missouri, but throughout the United States. The 
idea of a free or public school for all classes was not at first a popular 
one, especially among those who had the means to patronize private 
institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public schools 
the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromis- 
ing their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that 
they were, to some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. 
Entertaining such prejudices, they naturally thought that the training 
received at public schools could not be otherwise than defective ; hence 
many years of probation passed before the popular mind was prepared 



66 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring from these insti- 
tutions. 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the 
more earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legis- 
latures, and to the esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander or more potent promoters of 
civilization than the free school and free press. They would indeed 
seem to constitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the hap- 
piness and intellectual growth of the Republic, and all that was neces- 
sary to broaden, to liberalize and instruct. 

*« Tis education forms the common mind; 

* * 4> * * * 

For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill, 
Things to reform as right and justice will; 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union have in practical operation the public- 
school system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing 
materially in the manner and methods by which they are taught ; but 
none have a wiser, a more liberal and comprehensive machinery of 
instruction than Missouri. Her school laws, since 1839, have under- 
gone many changes, and always for the better, keeping pace with the 
most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienced edu- 
cators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopted, did her present admirable system of public instruction go 
into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African 
descent, and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices 
of unfriendly legislatures, or the whims of political parties. The Lin- 
coln Institute, located at Jefferson City, for the education of col- 
ored teachers, receives an annual appropriation from the General 
Assembly. 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual 
income derived from the public school fund, which is set apart by law, 
not less than twenty-five per cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of 
the interest and sinking fund, is annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests are the State 
" Board of Education," the State Superintendent, County Commission- 



68 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

ers, County Clerk and Treasurer, Board of Directors, City and Town 
School Board, and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed 
of the State Superintendent, the Governor, Secretary of State, and the 
Attorney-General, the executive officer of this Board being the State Su- 
perintendent, who is chosen by the people every four years. His duties 
are numerous. He renders decisions concerning the local applix3ation of 
school law ; keeps a record of the school funds and annually distributes 
the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county school officers ; 
delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational information ; 
grants certificates of higher qualifications, and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Commissioners are also elected by the people for two 
3'^ears. Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks, and 
make reports. County clerks receive estimates from the local direct- 
ors and extend them upon the tax-books. In addition to this, they 
keep the general records of the county and township school funds, and 
return an annual report of the financial condition of the schools of 
their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gathered 
with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school 
funds belono-ing to the schools of the counties is the county treasurer, 
except in counties adopting the township organization, in which case 
the township trustee discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are 
governed by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annu- 
ally, on the second Saturday in September, and hold their office for 
three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school dis- 
trict, at the annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not 
exceeding forty cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation, pro- 
vided such annual rates for school purposes may be increased in dis- 
tricts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not exceeding one 
dollar on the hundred dollars' valuation, and in other districts to an 
amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the one hundred dollars' val- 
uation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are tax-pay- 
ers, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
inerease. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in school dis- 
tricts, the rates of taxation thus limited may be increased when the 
rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall 
have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 69 

qualified voters of such school district voting at such election shall 
vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect 
to the choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharsre of 
all important business, such as the erection of a school house or the 
extension of a term of school beyond the constitutional period, they 
simply execute the will of the people. The clerk of this board may 
be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the children and 
youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one ; records 
all business proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual 
meeting, to the County Clerk and County Commissioners. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or 
County Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certifi- 
cates are granted upon personal written examination in the common 
branches, together with the natural sciences and higher mathematics. 
The holder of such certificate may teach in any public school of the 
State without further examination. Certificates granted by County 
Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are 
susceptible of two grades, ditfering both as to length of time and attain- 
ments. Those issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by 
qualification alone. The township school fund arises from a grant of 
land by the General Government, consisting of section sixteen in each 
congressional township. The annual income of the township fund is ap- 
propriated to the various townships, according to their respective 
proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each dis- 
trict. The greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one 
per cent ; the tax permitted for school house building cannot exceed 
the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first 
in importance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone 
County. When the State was admitted into the Union, Conoresa 
granted to it one entire township of land (46,080 acres) for the sup- 
port of "A Seminary of Learning." The lands secured for this pur- 
pose are among the best and most valuable in the State. These 
lands were put into the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Mis- 
souri, where it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of 
4100,000. In 1839, by an act of the General A^sserably, five commis- 



70 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

sioners were appointed to select a site for the State University, the 
site to contain at least fifty acres of land in a compact form, within 
two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, Calla- 
way or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named, and the 
county of Boone having subscribed the sum of $117,921, some 
$18,000 more than any other county, the State University was located 
in that county, and on the 4th of July, 1840, the corner-stone was 
laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. 
The donations to the institutions connected therewith amount to 
nearly $400,000. This University with its different departments, 
is open to both male and female, and both sexes enjoy alike its 
rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, which form a 
part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching ; Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of Mines 
and Metallurgy ; the College of Law ; the Medical College ; and the 
Department of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments 
are contemplated and will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and 
institutions of the State, as reported by the Commissioner of Education 
in 1875: — 

TTNTVKRSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

Christian University Canton. 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College Fayette. 

Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow. 

Lincoln College Greenwood. 

Hannibal College Hannibal. 

Woodland College Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder. 

La Grange College La Grange. 

William Jewell College Liberty. 

Baptist College Louisiana. 

St, Joseph College SU Joseph. 

College of Christian Brothers St, Louis. 

St. Louis University St. Louis. 

Washington University St. Louis. 

Drury College Springfield. 

Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 

FOB SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 

SL Joseph Female Seminary St. Joseph. 

Christian College ..Columbia. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 71 

Stephens College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence, 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College Palmyra. 

Lindenwood College for Young Ladies St. Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 

FOR SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

Arcadia College , Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand Eiver College Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rensselaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartaville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 

6CH00L3 OB" SCIENCE. 

Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Rolla. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

SCHOOLS or THEOLOGY. 

8t. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School). Fulton. 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St Louis. 

SCHOOLS OP LAW. 

Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University St. Louis. 

SCHOOLS OF MEDICINK. 

Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis, 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph, 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children St. Louis. 

Missouri Central College St. Louis. 

St. Louia College of Pharmacy St. Louis. 



72 



HISTORY OP MISSOURI. 

lABGKST PITBLIO LIBRARIES. 



Name. 



Location. 



Volumes. 



St. Vincent's College 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School 

University of Missouri 

Athenian Society 

Union Literary Society 

Law College 

Westminster College 

liBwis College 

Mercantile Library 

Library Association 

Fruitland Normal Institute 

State Library 

Fetterman's Circulating Library 

Law Library 

Whittemore's Circulating Library 

North Missouri State Normal School 

William Jewell College 

Bt. Paul's College 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy 

St. Charles Catholic Library 

Carl Frielling's Library 

Law Library 

Public School Library 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library 

Academy of Science 

Academy of Visitation 

College of the Christian Brothers 

Deutsche Institute 

German Evangelical Lutheran, Concordia College. 

Law Library Association 

Missouri Medical College 

Mrs. Cuthbert's Seminary (Young Ladies) 

Odd Fellow's Library 

Public School Library 

St Louis Medical College 

St. Louis Mercantile Library 

St. Louis Seminary 

St. Louis Turn Verein 

St. Louis University 

St. Louis University Society Libraries 

Ursuline Academy 

Washington University 

St. Louis Law School 

Young Men's Sodality . 

Library Association 

Public School Library 

Drury College 



Cape Girardeau. 
Cape Girardeau. 

Columbia 

Columbia 

Columbia 

Columbia 

Fulton 

Glasgow 

Hannibal 

Independence.... 

Jackson 

Jefferson City... 

Kansas Citj' 

Kansas City 

Kansas City 

Kirksville 

Liberty , 

Palmyra 

Rolla 

St. Charles 

St. Joseph 

St. Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis , 

St. Louis , 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis , 

St. Louis , 

St Louis , 

St Louis 

St Louis , 

Sedalia 

Sedalia 

Springfield 



6,500 
1,225 

10,000 
1,200 
1,200 
1,000 
6,000 
8,000 
2,219 
1,100 
1,000 

13,000 
1,300 
8,000 
1,000 
1,050 
4,000 
2,000 
1,478 
1,716 
6,000 
2,000 
2,500 
1,500 
2,744 
4,000 

22,000 
1,000 
4,800 
8,000 
1,000 
1,500 
4,000 

40,097 
1,100 

45,000 
2,000 
2,000 

17,000 
8,000 
2,000 
4,500 
8,000 
1,327 
1,500 
1,015 
2,000 



IN 1880. 
Newspapers and Periodicals 481 



CHARITIES. 

State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb 

St Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Listitution for the Education of the Blind 

State Asylum for Insane 

State Asylum for the Insane 



....Fulton. 
.&t. Louis. 
.St Louis. 
....Fulton. 
.St. Louis. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 75 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Normal Institute Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) ..Jefferson City. 

City Normal School St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

IN 1880. 
Number of school children „ 



IN 1878. 

Estimated value of school property $8,321,399 

Total receipts for public schools 4,207,617 

Total expenditures , 2,406,139 

NUMBER OP TEACHERS. 

Male teachers 6.239; average monthly pay $36.33 

Female teachers .-. 5,060; average monthly pay 28.09 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and 
seventy-one newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants 
are not only a reading and reflecting people, but that they appreciate 
•' The Press," and its wonderful influence as an educator. The poet 
has well said : — 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance, 
His TFoes assuage, his vpeal enhance. 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress — 
Mightiest of mighty '^ the Presa. 



CHAPTER XIL 

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. ' 

Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded — Its History — 
Christian Church — Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History — United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Catholic Church — Its History. 

The first representatives of religious thought and training, who 
penetrated the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, 
La Salle, and others of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary 



74 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

labor among the Indians. A century afterward came the Protestants. 
At that early period 

" A church in every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads," 

constituted for a time their only house of worship, and yet to them 

•* No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered 
along the shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and 
western boundaries of the State, and still a little later they were sown 
upon her hill-sides and broad prairies, where they have since bloomed 
and blossomed as the rose. 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The earliest anti-Catholic religious denomination, of which there is 
any record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through 
the efforts of Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. 
In 1816, the first association of Missouri Baptists was formed, which 
was composed of seven churches, all of which were located in the 
southeastern part of the State. In 1817 a second association of 
churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name being 
afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834 a general con- 
vention of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard 
county, for the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which 
time was commenced what is now known as the *♦ General Association 
of Missouri Baptists.** 

To this body is committed the State mission work, denominational 
education, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. 
The Baptist Church has under its control a number of schools and 
colleges, the most important of which is William Jewell College, 
located at Liberty, Clay county. As shown by the annual report for 
1875, there were in Missouri, at that date, sixty-one associations, one 
thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty-four min- 
isters and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the 
State in 1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, 
and Rev. Daniel Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by 
the Massachusetts Congregational Home Missionary Society during 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 75 

that year, and in November, 1814, they preached the first regular 
Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Rev. Samuel Giddings, sent out 
under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 
Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, cousistino- 
of ten members, constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized 
by Mr. Giddings were all Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, 
when the "First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis" 
was organized. The next church of this denomination was organized 
at Hannibal in 1859. Then followed a Welsh church in New Cambria 
in 1864, and after the close of the war, fifteen churches of the same 
order were formed in difierent parts of the State. In 1866, Pilgrim 
Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, 
to General Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis 
District Associations were formed, and following these were the Kan- 
sas City and Springfield District Associations. This denomination in 
1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 church members, and had 
also several schools and colleges and one monthly newspaper. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Cal- 
laway, Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. 
The first church was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. 
Fife. The first State Sunday School Convention of the Christian 
Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Besides a number of private 
institutions, this denomination has three State Institutions, all of 
which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance of 
pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, '* The GhriS' 
tiaUf** which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The mem- 
bership of this church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in 
the State and is increasing rapidly. It has more than five hundred 
organized churches, the greater portion of which are north of the 
Missouri River. 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination 
west of the Mississippi, was organized in Pike County. This Pres- 
bytery included all the territory of Missouri, western Illinois and 
Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two of whom resided at 



76 HISTORY OF MISSOUR 

that time in Missouri. There are now in the State, twelve Presby- 
teries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty 
thousand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. 
They have a number of High Schools and two monthly papers pub- 
lished at St. Louis. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent 
out to the " Western Conference," which then embraced the Missis- 
sippi Valley, from Green County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. 
Travis organized a number of small churches. At the close of his 
conference year, he reported the result of his labors to the Western 
Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and showed 
an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had 
been formed, and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and 
members constantly increased, until 1812, when what was called the 
Western Conference was divided into the Ohio and Tennessee Confer- 
ences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee Conference. In 1816, 
there was another division when the Missouri Annual Conference was 
formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, fif- 
teen travelling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the terri- 
tory of the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri 
Conference included only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling 
preachers, 177 local ministers and 13,992 church members. Between 
1840 and 1850, the church was divided by the organization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the membership of the 
M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten years 
the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 
274 church edifices and 34,156 members ; the M. E. Church South, 
reported 443 church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomina- 
tion has under its control several schools and colleges and two weekly 
newspapers. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of its missionary 
efibrts in the State as far back as 1814, but the first Presbyterian 
Church was not organized until 1816 at Bellevue settlement, eight 
miles from St. Louis. The next churches were formed in 1816 and 
1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Presbyterian Church 
was organized in St. Louis in 1817, bv Rev. Salmon Gidding. The 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 77 

first Presbytery was organized in 1817 by the Synod of Tennessee 
with four ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house 
of worship (which was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1819 
and completed in 1826. In 1820 a mission was formed among the 
Osage Indians. In 1831, the Presbytery was divided into three: 
Missouri, St. Louis, and St. Charles. These were erected with a 
Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In 
1860 the rolls of the Old and New School Synod together showed 109 
ministers and 146 churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was di- 
vided on political questions springing out of the war — a part form- 
ing the Old School, or Independent Synod of Missouri, who are con- 
nected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the Old and New 
School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has steadily 
increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more 
than 220 churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its con- 
trol one or two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. 
That part of the original Synod which withdrew from the General 
Assembly remained an independent body until 1874 when it united 
with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The Synod in 1875 num- 
bered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has under 
its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The 
St. Louis Preshyteriani a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of 
the Synod. 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 
1819, when a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, 
an agent of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the 
city, who reported the condition of things so favorably that Rev. 
Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary and in 1825, he began 
his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed in 1830. In 
1836, there were five clergymen of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boonville, Fayette, St. Charles, 
Hannibal, and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in 
convention, a diocese was formed, a constitution, and canons adopted, 
and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, he being the Rev. Cicero S. 
Hawks. Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was 
founded near St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of 



78 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

pecuniary troubles. In 1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 
the Orphans' Home, a charitable institution, was founded. In 1865, 
St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, there were in the city 
of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve clergymen. 
This deuomnation has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

This denomination is made up of the members of the Associate and 
Associate Keformed churches of the Northern States, which two 
bodies united in 1858, taking the name of the United Presbyterian 
Church of North America. Its members were generally bitterly 
opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation was 
organized at Warrensburg, Johnson County, in 1867. It rapidly 
increased in numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred 
members. 

UNITARIAN CHURCH. 

This churcn was formed in 1834, by the Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. 
Louis. The churches are few in number throughout the State, the 
membership being probably less than 300, all told. It has a mission 
house and free school, for poor children, supported by donations. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri shows 
that Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, 
in 1760, and in St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Menrin erected a 
small log church in St. Louis. In 1818, there were in the State four 
chapels, and for Upper Louisiana seven priests. A college and semi- 
nary were opened in Perry County about this period, for the 
education of the young, being the first college west of the Mississippi 
River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now 
known as the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was 
appointed Bishop of St. Louis, and through his instrumentality the 
Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. Joseph and of the Visitation were 
founded, besides other benevolent and charitable institutions. In 
1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches were 
built in difi'erent portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created 
an arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Archbishop. 

In Kansas City there were five parish churches, a hospital, a con- 
vent and several parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of 
the State was erected into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 79 

and Right-Reverend John J. Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, 
in 1875, in the city of St. Louis, 34 churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 
3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female protectorates. There were 
also 105 priests, 7 male and 13 female orders, and 20 conferences of 
St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, out- 
side of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, 
about 120 priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of 
St. Joseph there were, in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, 
1 college, 1 monastery, 5 convents and 14 parish schools : 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1878 , , 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 ... , , , 18,010 

Number of Pupils in 1878 , 139,578 

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 

Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection 
with collegiate study, or in special theological courses, at: 

Central College (M. E. South) 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) . 

Christian University (Christian) 

Concordia College Seminary TEvangelical Lutheran) . 
Lewis College (M. E. Church) .... 
St. Vincent College (Eoman Catholic) 
Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 



Fayette. 

. Warrenton. 

Canton. 

St. Louis. 

Glasgow. 

Cape Girardeau. 

• Liberty. 



CHAPTER Xm. 

ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNOR CRITTENDEN. 

Nomination and election of Thomas T. Crittenden— Personal Mention — Marmaduke*8 
candidacy — Stirring events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Fords — Pardon of the Gamblers. 

It is the purpose in this chapter to outline the more important 
events of Governor Crittenden's unfinished administration, stating 
briefly the facts in the case, leaving comment and criticism entirely to 
the reader, the historian having no judgment to express or prejudice 
to vent. • 

Thomas T. Crittenden, of Johnson county, received the Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor of Missouri at the convention at Jefier- 



80 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

son City, July 22d, 1880. Democratic nomination for a State office in 
Missouri is always equivalent to election, and the entire State ticket 
was duly elected in November. Crittenden's competitors before the 
convention were Gen. John S. Marmaduke, of St. Louis, and John 
A. Hockaday, of Callaway county. Before the assembling of the 
convention many persons who favored Marmaduke, both personally 
and politically, thought the nomination of an ex-Confederate might 
prejudice the prospects of the National Democracy, and therefore, as 
a matter of policy, supported Crittenden. 

His name, and the fame of his family in Kentucky — Thomas T. 
being a scion of the Crittendens of that State, caused the Democracy 
of Missouri to expect great things from their new Governor. This, 
together with the important events which followed his inauguration, 
caused some people to overrate him, while it prejudiced others against 
him. The measures advocated by the Governor in his inaugural 
address were such as, perhaps, the entire Democracy could endorse, 
especially that of refunding, at a low interest, all that part of the State 
debt that can be so refunded ; the adoption of measures to relieve the 
Supreme Court docket ; a compromise of the indebtedness of some of 
the counties, and his views concerning repudiation, which he con- 
temned. 

HANNIBAL & ST. JOE RAILROAD CONTROVERSY. 

By a series of legislative acts, beginning with the act approved 
February 22, 1851, and ending with that of March 26, 1881, the 
State of Missouri aided with great liberality in the construction of a 
system of railroads in this State. 

Among the enterjDrises thus largely assisted was the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Railroad, for the construction of which the bonds of the 
State, to the amount of $3,000,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per 
annum, payable semi-annually, were issued. One half of this amount 
was issued under the act of 1851, and the remainder under the act of 
1855. The bonds issued under the former act were to run twenty 
years, and those under the latter act were to run thirty years. Some 
of the bonds have since been funded and renewed. Coupons for the 
interest of the entire $3,000,000 were executed and made payable in 
New York. These acts contain numerous provisions intended to 
secure the State against loss and to require the railroad company to 
pay the interest and principal at maturity. It was made the duty of 
the railroad company to save and keep the State from all loss on 
account of said bonds and coupons. The Treasurer of the State was 



I 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 81 

to be exonerated from any advance of money to meet either principal 
or interest. The State contracted with the railroad company for com- 
plete indemnity. She was required to assign her statutory morto-ao-e 
lien only upon payment into the treasury of a sum of money equal to 
all indebtedness due or owing by said company to the State by reason 
of having issued her bonds and loaned them to the company. 

In June, 1881, the railroad, through its attorney, Geo. W. Easley, 
Esq., paid to Phil. E. Chappell, State Treasurer, the sum of $3,000,- 
000, and asked for a receipt in full of all dues of the road to the 
State. The Treasurer refused to give such a receipt, but instead gave 
a receipt for the sum " on account." The debt was not yet due, but 
the authorities of the road sought to discharge their obligation pre- 
maturely, in order to save interest and other expenses. The railroad 
company then demanded its bonds of the State, which demand the 
State refused. The company then demanded that the $3,000,000 be 
paid back, and this demand was also refused. 

The railroad company then brought suit in the United States Court 
for an equitable adjustment of the matters in controversy. The $3, 
000,000 had been deposited by the State in one of the banks, and was 
drawing interest only at the rate of one-fourth of one per cent. It 
was demanded that this sum should be so invested that a larger rate 
of interest might be obtained, which sum of interest should be allowed 
to the company as a credit in case any sum should be found due from 
it to the State. Justice Miller, of the United States Supreme Court, 
who heard the case upon preliminary injunction in the spring of 1882, 
decided that the unpaid and unmatured coupons constituted a liability 
of the State and a debt owing, though not due, and until these were 
provided for the State was not bound to assign her lien upon the road. 

Another question which was mooted, but not decided, was this: 
That, if any, what account is the State to render for the use of the 
$3,000,000 paid into the treasury by the complainants on the 20th of 
June? Can she hold that large sum of money, refusing to make any 
account of it, and still insist upon full payment by the railroad 
company of all outstandhig coupons ? ^ 

Upon this subject Mr. Justice Miller, in the course of his opinion, 
said : '* I am of the opinion that the State, having accepted or got this 
money into her possession, is under a moral obligation (and I do not 
pretend to commit anybody as to how far its legal obligation goes) to 
so use that money as, so far as possible, to protect the parties who 
have paid it against the loss of the interest which it might accumulate, 



82 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

and which would go to extinguish the interest on the State's obliga- 
tions." 

March 26, 1881, the Legislature, in response to a special message of 
Gov. Crittenden, dated February 25, 1881, in which he informed 
the Legislature of the purpose of the Hannibal and St. Joseph com- 
pany to discharge the full amount of what it claims is its present 
indebtedness as to the State, and advised that provision be made 
for the '* profitable disposal" of the sum when paid, passed an act, 
the second section of which provided. 

** Sec. 2. Whenever there is sufficient money in the sinking fund to 
redeem or purchase one or more of the bonds of the State of Missouri, 
such sum is hereby appropriated for such purpose, and the Fund 
Commissioners shall immediately call in for payment a like amount 
of the option bonds of the State, known as the " 5-20 bonds," 
provided, that if there are no option bonds which can be called in for 
payment, they may invest such money in the purchase of any of the 
bonds of the State, or bonds of the United States, the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph railroad bonds excepted." 

On the 1st of January, 1882, the regular semi-annual payment of 
interest on the railroad bonds became due, but the road refused to 
pay, claiming that it had already discharged the principal, and of 
course was not liable for the interest. Thereupon, according to the 
provisions of the aiding act of 1855, Gov. Crittenden advertised the 
road for sale in default of the payment of interest. The company 
then brought suit before U. S. Circuit Judge McCrary at Keokuk, 
Iowa, to enjoin the State from selling the road, and for such other 
and further relief as the court might see fit and proper to grant. 
August 8, 1882, Judge McCrary delivered his opinion and judgment, 
as follows : 

*i First. That the payment by complainants into the treasury of the 
State of the sum of $3,000,000 on the 26th of June, 1881, did not 
satisfy the claim of the State in full, nor entitle complainants to an 
assignment of the State's statutory mortgage. 

'■^Seoond. That the State was bound to invest the principal sum 
of $3,000,000 so paid by the complainants without unnecessary delay 
in the securities named in the act of March 26, 1881, or some of 
them, and so as to save to the State as large a sum as possible, 
which sum so saved would have constituted as between the State and 
complainants a credit pro tanto upon the unmatured coupons now in 
controversy. 



HISTORY OP MISSOURI. 83 

**Third. That the rights and equity of the parties are to be deter- 
mined upon the foregoing principles, and the State must stand 
charged with what would have been realized if the act of March, 
1881, had been complied with. It only remains to consider what the 
rights of the parties are upon the principles here stated. 

<' In order to save the State from loss on account of the default of 
the railroad company, a further sum must be paid. In order to deter- 
mine what that further sum is an accounting must be had. The ques- 
tion to be settled by the accounting is, how much would the State 
have lost if the provisions of the act of March, 1881, had been 
complied with ? » * ♦ • I think a perfectly fair basis of settle- 
ment would be to hold the State liable for whatever could have been 
saved by the prompt execution of said act by taking up such 5-20 
option bonds of the State as were subject to call when the money was 
paid to the State, and investing the remainder of the fund in the 
bonds of the United States at the market rates. 

** Upon this basis a calculation can be made and the exact sum still to 
be paid by the complainant in order to fully indemnify and protect the 
State can be ascertained. For the purpose of stating an account 
upon this basis and of determining the sum to be paid by the com- 
plainants to the State, the cause will be referred to John K. Cravens, 
one of the masters of this court. In determining the time when the 
investment should have been made under the act of March, 1881, the 
master will allow a reasonable period for the time of the receipt of the 
said sum of $3,000,000 by the Treasurer of the State — that is to say, 
such time as would have been required for that purpose had the offi- 
cers charged with the duty of making said investment used reason- 
able diligence in its discharge. 

*♦ The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad is advertised for sale for the 
amount of the instalment of interest due January 1, 1882, which 
instalment amouiits to less than the sum which the company must pay 
in order to discharge its liabilities to the State upon the theory of this 
opinion. The order will, therefore, be that an injunction be granted 
to enjoin the sale of the road upon the payment of the said instal- 
ment of interest due January 1, 1882, and if such payment is made 
the master will take it into account in making the computation above 
mentioned." 

KILLING OF JESSE JAMES. 

The occurrence during the present Governor's administration which 
did most to place his name in everybody's mouth, and even to herald 



O* HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

it abroad, causing the European press to teem with leaders announcing 
the fact to the continental world, was the '* removal" of the famous 
Missouri brigand, Jesse W. James. The career of the James boys, 
and the banditti of whom they were the acknowledged leaders, is too 
well-known and too fully set forth in works of a more sensational 
character, to deserve further detail in these pages ; and the ♦* removal " 
of Jesse will be dealt with only in its relation to the Governor. 

It had been long conceded that neither of the Jameses would ever be 
taken alive. That experiment had been frequently and vainly tried, 
to the sorrow of good citizens of this and other States. It seems to 
have been one of the purposes of Gov. Crittenden to break up this 
band at any cost, by cutting off its leaders. Soon after the Winston 
train robbery, on July 15, 1881, the railroads combined in empower- 
ing the Governor, by placing the money at his disposal, to offer heavy 
rewards for the capture of the two James brothers. This was ac- 
cordingly done by proclamation, and, naturally, many persons were 
on the lookout to secure the large rewards. Gov. Crittenden worthed 
quietly, but determinedly, after offering the rewards, and by some 
means learned of the availability of the two Ford boys, young men 
from Eay county, who had been tutored as juvenile robbers by the 
skillful Jesse. An understanding was had, when the Fords declared 
they could find Jesse — that they were to "turn him in." Robert 
Ford and brother seem to have been thoroughly in the confidence of 
James, who then (startling as it was to the entire State) resided in 
the city of St. Joseph, with his wife and two children 1 The Fords 
went there, and when the robber's back was turned, Eobert shot him 
dead in the hack of the head! The Fords told their story to the 
authorities of the city, who at once arrested them on a charge of mur- 
der, and they, when arraigned, plead guilty to the charge. Promptly, 
however, came a full, free and unconditional pardon from Gov. Crit- 
tenden, and the Fords were released. In regard to the Governor's 
course in ridding the State of this notoripus outlaw, people were 
divided in sentiment, some placing him in the category with the Ford 
boys and bitterly condemning his action, while others — the majority 
of law-abiding people, indeed, — though deprecating the harsh meas- 
ures which James' course had rendered necessary, still upheld th 
Governor for the part he played. As it was, the "Terror of Mis- 
souri " was effectually and finally *« removed," and people were glad 
that he was dead. Robert Ford, the pupil of the dead Jesse, had 



HISTOET OP MISSOURI. 85 

been selected, and of all was the most fit tool to use in the extermina- 
tion of his preceptor in crime. 

The killing of James would never have made Crittenden many ene- 
mies among the better class of citizens of this State ; but, when it 
came to his 

PARDON OF THE GAMBLERS. 

The case was different. Under the new law making gaminghouse- 
keeping a felony, several St. Louis gamblers, with Robert C. Pate at 
their head, were convicted and sentenced to prison. The Governor, 
much to the surprise of the more rigid moral element of the State, 
soon granted the gamblers a pardon. This was followed by other 
pardons to similar offenders, which began to render the Governor quite 
unpopular which one element of citizens, and to call forth from some 
of them the most bitter denunciations. The worst feature of the case, 
perhaps, is the lack of explanation, or the setting forth of sufficient 
reasons, as is customary in issuing pardons, This, at least, is the bur- 
den of complaint with the faction that opposes him. However, it 
must be borne in mind that his terra of office, at this writing, is but 
half expired, and that a full record can not, therefore, be given. Like 
all mere men. Gov. Crittenden has his good and his bad, is liked by 
some and disliked by others. The purpose of history is to set forth 
the facts and leave others to sit in judgment; this the historian has 
tried faithfully to do, leaving all comments to those who may see fit to 
make them. 



HISTORY 



OF 



MONROE COUNTY, MISSOURI. 



CHAPTER I. 

Introductory — What Time has Done — Importauce of Early Beginnings — First Settle- 
ments made in the Timber — Parts of the County first Settled — Names of Pioneers — 
Postal and Mill Facilities — County Organized and Named — The Name — James 
Monroe. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

History " is but a record of the life and career of peoples and na- 
tions. " The historian, in rescuing from oblivion the life of a nation, 
or a particular people, should " nothing extenuate, nor set down 
aught in malice. " Myths, however beautiful, are but fanciful ; tra- 
ditions, however pleasing, are uncertain ; and legends, though the 
very essence of poesy and song, are unauthentic. The novelist will 
take the most fragile thread of romance, and from it weave a fabric of 
surpassing beauty. But the historian should put his feet on the solid 
rock of truth, and turning a deaf ear to the allurements of fancy, he 
should sift with careful scrutiny the evidence brought before him, 
from which he is to give the record of what has been. Standing 
down the stream of time, far removed from its source, he must re- 
trace with patience and care, its meanderings, guided by the relics of 
the past which lie upon its shores, growing fainter, and still more faint 
and uncertain as he nears its fountain, ofttimes concealed in the debris 
of ages, and the mists of impenetrable darkness. Written records 
grow less and less explicit, and finallv fail altogether, as he approaches 

1 ^' (87) 



88 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

the beginning of the community whose lives he is seeking to rescue 
from the gloom of a rapidly receding past. 

Memory, wonderful as are its powers, is yet frequently at fault, and 
only by a comparison of its many aggregations can he be satisfied 
that he is pursuing stable-footed truth in his researches amid the early 
paths of his subject. It can not then be unimportant or uninteresting 
to trace the progress of Monroe county from its embryotic period to 
its present proud position among its sister counties. To this end, 
therefore, we have endeavored to gather the scattered and loosening 
threads of the past into a compact web of the present, trusting that 
the harmony and perfectness of the work may speak with no uncertain 
sound to the future. 

WHAT TIME HAS DONE. 

Fifty-three years have passed since Monroe county was organized. 
Most wonderful have been the changes, and mighty have been the 
events and revolutions, the discoveries and inventions, that have oc- 
curred within this time. 

Perhaps since " God formed the earth and the world, " and tossed 
them from the hollow of his hand into space, so many great things 
have not been accomplished in any fifty-three years. Reflection can not 
fail to arouse wonder, and awaken thankfulness, that God has ap- 
pointed us the place we occupy in the eternal chain ©f events. Ten- 
nyson and Browning, Bryant and Whittier, Lowell and Longfellow 
have sung. The matchless Webster, the ornate Sumner, the eloquent 
Clay, the metaphysical Calhoun and Seward have since reached the 
culmination of their powers and passed into the grave. Macauley, 
Theirs, Gizot and Fronde have written in noble strains the history of 
their lands ; and Bancroft and Prescott and Hildreth and Motley have 
won high rank among the historians of the earth. Spurgeon and 
Beecher and Moody have enforced, with most persuasive eloquence, 
the duties of morality and religion. Carlyle and Emerson, Stuart 
Mill and Spencer have given the results of their speculations in high 
philosophy to the world. Mexico has been conquered ; Alaska has 
been purchased ; the center of population has traveled more than 250 
miles along the thirty-ninth parallel, and a majority of the States 
composing the American Union have been added to the glorious con- 
stellation on the blue field of our flag. Great cities have been founded 
and populous countries developed ; and the stream of emigration is still 
tending westward. Gold has been discovered in the far West, and 
the great Civil War — the bloodiest in all the annals of time — has 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 89 

been fought. The telegraph, the telephone and railroad have been 
added to the list of the most important inventions. In fact, durin^'' 
this time, our country has increased in population from a few millions 
of people to fifty millions. From a weak, obscure nation it has be- 
come strong in all the elements of power and influence, and is to-day 
the most marvelous country for its age that ever existed. 



IMPORTANCE OF EARLY BEGINNINGS. 

Every nation does not possess an authentic account of its orio-in. 
Neither do all communities have the correct data whereby it is possi- 
ble to accuratelv predicate the condition of their first beo-innino-s. 
Nevertheless, to be intensely interested in such things is characteristic 
of the race, and it is particularly the province of the historian to deal 
with first causes. Should these facts be lost in the mythical tradi- 
tions of the past, as is often the case, the chronicler invades the realm 
of the ideal and compels his imagination to paint the missing picture. 
The patriotic Roman was not content until he had found the " first 
settlers," and then he was satisfied, although they were found in 
the very undesirable company of a wolf, and located on a drift, 
which the receding waters of the Tiber had permitted them to pre- 
empt. 

One of the advantages pertaining to a residence in a new country, 
and one seldom appreciated, is the fact that we can go back to the 
first beginning. We are thus enabled to not only trace results to their 
causes, but also to grasp the facts which have contributed to form and 
mold these causes. We observe that a State or county has attained 
a certain position, and we at once try to trace out the reasons for this 
position in its settlement and surroundings, in the class of men by 
whom it was peopled, and in many chances and changes which have 
wrought out results, in all recorded deeds of mankind. In the history 
of Monroe county we may trace its early settlers to their homes in the 
Eastern States and in the countries of the Old World. We may fol- 
low the course of the early backwoodsman, from the " Buckeye " or 
" Hoosier " State, and from Kentucky and Virginia on his way West, 
" to grow up with the country," trusting only to his strong arm and 
willing heart to work out his ambition for a home for himself and 
wife, and a competence for his children. Again, we will see that 
others have been animated with the impulse to move on, after making 
themselves a part of the community, and have sought the newer por- 



ilO HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

tioiis of the extreme West, where civilization had not penetrated, or 
returned to their native heath. 

We shall find something of that distinctive New England character, 
which has contriI)utcd so many men and women to other portions of 
the West. We shall also find many an industrious native of Germany, 
us well as a number of the sons of the Emerald Isle, all of whom have 
contributed to modify types of men already existing here. Those who 
have noted the career of the descendants of these brave, strong men, 
in subduing the wilds and overcoming the obstacles and hardships of 
early times, can but admit that they are worthy sons of illustrious 
sires. 

FIRST SETTLEMENTS MADE IN THE TIMBER. 

The first settlements in the county were invariably made in the tim- 
l)er or contiguous thereto. The early settlers did so as a matter of 
necessity and convenience. The presence of timber aided materially 
in bringing about an early settlement, and it aided in two ways ; first, 
the country had to depend on emigration from the older settled States 
of the East for its population, and especially Kentucky and Tennessee. 
These States originally were almost covered with dense forests, and 
farms were made by clearing off" certain portions of the timber. Al- 
most every farm there, after it became thoroughly improved, still re- 
tained a certain tract of timber commonly known as " the woods." 
" The woods " was generally regarded as the most important part of 
the farm, and the average farmer regarded it as indispensable. When 
he emigrated to the West, one objection was the scarcity of timber, 
and he did not suppose that it would be possible to open up a farm 
on the bleak prairie. To live in a region devoid of the familiar sight 
of timber seemed unendurable, and the average Kentuckian could not 
entertain the idea of founding a home away from the familiar forest 
trees. Then again the idea entertained by the early immigrants to 
Missouri, that timber was a necessity, was not simply theoretical. The 
early settler must have a house to live in, fuel for cooking and heat- 
ing purposes, and fences to inclose his claim. At that time there were 
no railroads by which lumber could be transported. No coal mine 
had yet been opened, and few if any had been discovered. Timber 
was an absolute necessity, without which material improvement was 
an impossibility. 

No wonder that a gentleman from the East, who in early times came 
to the prairie region of Missouri on a prospecting tour, with a view of 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 91 

permanent location, returned home in disgust and embodied his views 
of the country in the following rhyme: — 

"Oh! lonesome, wiudy, ii;i-assy place, 

Where buffalo and snakes prevail ; 
The first with dreadful looking face. 

The last with dreadful sounding tail ! 
I'd rather live on camel hump, 

And be a Yankee Doodle beggar. 
Than where I never see a stump. 

And shake to death with fever'n ager." 

The most important resource in the development of this Western 
country was the belts of timber which skirted the streams ; and the 
settlers who first hewed out homes in the timber, while at present 
not the most enterprising and progressive, were, nevertheless, an 
essential factor in the solution of the problem. 

Along either side of the various streams which flow across the 
country, were originally belts of timber ; at certain places, generally 
near the mouths of the smaller tril^utaries, the belt of timber widened 
out, thus forming a grove, or what was frequently called a point, and 
at these points or groves were the first settlements made ; here were 
the first beginnings of civilization; here "began to operate those 
forces which have made the wilderness a fruitful place and caused the 
desert to bud and blossom as the rose." 

Much of the primeval forest has been removed for the building of 
houses and the construction of fences ; other portions, and probably 
the largest part, have been ruthlessly and improvidently destroyed. 

PARTS OF THE COUNTRY FIRST SETTLED. 

As early as 1817 parties came into what w^as then Pike county, and 
in the vicinity of Middle Grove located tracts of land, but no per- 
manent settlement was made within the boundaries of Monroe county 
until 1820. The first settlement was begun in the county about three 
and a half miles east of Middle Grove, by Ezra Fox, Andrew and 
Daniel Wittenliurg and others. For many years afterward this was 
known as Fox's settlement. About the same time a settlement was 
commenced between the Middle and North forks of Salt river be- 
tween Paris and Florida, by Joseph Smith, Sr., Alexander W. Smith, 
Joseph Smith, Jr., Samuel H. Smith and others. This was desig- 
nated by the early settlers as the "Smith settlement." Not long 
subsequent to the formation of these settlements others were begun, 
namely : On the Elk fork, south and east of Paris, by the McGees 
and others. On the Middle fork, east of Madison, by Daniel and 



92 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Urbin East and others. On the North fork, in the vicinity of Clin- 
ton, by Robert Martin, Col. Gabriel Jones, Caleb Wood and others, 
and also in the neighborhood of Florida, by Robert Greening, Samuel 
Nesbit, William Wilkerson, John and James Dale and others. 

As early as 1820 Benjamin Young settled on the South fork not far 
from Santa Fe. He was the only settler in that portion of the county 
until 1828. Only eight families were living in this settlement when 
the county was organized. For eleven years after the first settlements 
were commenced, the history of the county is connected with that of 
Ralls. These were years of toil and hardship, of hope and disap- 
pointment, of genuine hospitality and true friendships. There was no 
squinting at aristrocracy among the people, no formalities, all were on 
one common footing, grappling with nature in a united effort to reduce 
it to the uses of civilization. Rude cabins with puncheon floors or 
without even this resemblance of a floor, without windows, except a 
hole closed with apiece of greased paper to let in the light, were built, 
forests were felled and cleared away by the united efforts of the pio- 
neers. Immigration came in slowly ; gradually the settlements began 
to lose that distinctiveness of separation which characterized them 
during their earliest years ; gradually the monotony of the wide 
stretches of country intervening between the settlements was broken 
up by rude cabins of the pioneers, scattered here and there ; gradually 
the settlements were linked together. There were no trading places, 
blacksmith-shops nor mills in the county for a number of years. The 
settlements supplied their few wants at the trading posts or towns on 
the Missouri or Mississippi rivers. The first blacksmith shop in the 
county was opened on the Louisiana road, near where Upton's old 
shop now stands, by Charles Eales. Among the first, and perhaps 
the first store in the county, was opened in the fall of 1830, one-half 
mile south of Florida, near where Hickman's mills now stand, by 
Maj. W. N. Penn. The town of Florida was laid out during the 
winter of 1831. Robert Donaldson, John Witt, Dr. Keenan, Joseph 
Grigsby, W. N. Penn and Hugh A. Hickman were its founders. Soon 
after the town was laid out Maj. Penn moved his stock of goods to the 
site, and became the first merchant of Florida. 

It is said that the first mill in the county was built by Benjamin 
Bradley, about two miles north-east of Florida. It was simple in con- 
struction, and was run b}^ horse power. Some amusing incidents are 
told to illustrate the slow operation of grinding on these mills, but 
our space will not permit us to reproduce them here. Some of these 
mills are yet to be seen in the county — memorials of the old time. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 93 

The first public road established in the county was what is now known 
as the "Old London Trace." Traces of it are yet to be seen. It 
beojan at Fox's settlement, followed aloni>: down the dividino; ridge 
between the Elk Fork and the South Fork, crosshig the latter near 
where the Louisiana road now crosses the same stream, thence throusrh 
White's neighborhood and on to New London. This road was sur- 
veyed and laid out by Alexander W. Smith, Robert Hickland and J. 
C. Fox, pursuant to an order of the county court of Ralls county. ^ 

POSTAL AND MILL FACILITIES. 

The early settlers of the county, for several years after they built 
their cabins, had neither postal nor mill facilities, and were compelled 
to travel from 25 to 50 miles in order to reach a post-office, or to get 
their meal. Their usual way of sending or receiving tidings from 
their friends and the news of the great world, which lay towards the 
east and south of them, was generally by the mouth of the stranger 
coming in, or by the settler who journeyed back to his old home, in 
Kentucky or Virginia. Postage at that time was very high, and if 
the old settler sent or received two or three letters during the year, 
he considered himself fortunate. His every-day life in the wilds of 
the new country to which he had come to better his condition, was so 
much of a sameness that he had, indeed, but little to communicate. 
His wants were few, and these were generally supplied by his rod and 
his gun, the latter being considered an indispensable weapon of defense, 
as well as necessary to the support and maintenance of himself and 
family. No wonder that the pioneer loved his " old flint lock," 
and his faithful dog, whose honest bark would so often — 
** Bay deep-mouth'd welcome as he drew near home." 

MONROE COUNTY FORMED AND ORGANIZED. 

During the years 1829-30 emigration came in rapidly. The incon- 
venience of being so remote from the county seat, New London, and 
the hope of more rapid settlement, induced the pioneers during the 
latter part of the year 1830 to take steps to secure the organization 
of a new county. The subject was laid before the General Assembly 
of the State, was favorably considered, and on January 6, 1831, the 
following act was passed creating a new county : " All that portion of 
the territory within the county of Ralls lying within the following 
boundaries, to wit : Beginning on the township line between towu- 



^ W. L. Smiley's sketch of county. 



94 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ships 52 and 53 at the first sectional line east of the range line between 
ranges 7 and 8, thence with said sectional line on a parallel with said 
range north, to the southern boundary of the county of Marion ; 
thence west along the Marion county line with the township line 
between townships 56 and 57, to the range line between 12 and 13, 
it being the eastern boundary line of Randolph county, thence south 
with said range line to the township line between townships 52 and 
53, thence east with said township line to the place of beginning, be 
and the same is hereby declared to be a separate and distinct county, 
to be known and called by the name of " Monroe county " (Laws of 
Missouri). These boundaries have not been materially changed. 

The same act appointed Hancock S.Jackson, of Randolph ; Stephen 
Glascock, of Ralls, and Joseph HoUiday of Pike, commissioners to 
select the seat of justice for the county. These were men possess- 
ing integrity and purity of character. Joseph Holliday afterwards 
removed to the county, where he lived and died, respected by all who 
knew him. Hancock S. Jackson was afterward elected Lieutenant- 
Governor of the State, and was one of the most highly respected men 
in the State. 

The first entries of land were made by the following persons : — 
Township 53, range 8, George Markham, in 1819 ; township 54, 
range 8, Bennet Goldsberry in 1818 ; township 54, range 8, John 
Hicklin, in 1819 ; township 54, range 8, Joseph HoUidav, in 1818 ; 
township 54, range 8, Benton R. Gillett, in 1819 ; township 54, range 
8, Andrew Rogers, in 1819 ; township 55, range 8, Daniel McCoy, in 
1819 ; township 54, range 9, Joseph R. Pool, in 1819 ; township 55, 
range 9, James Adams, in 1819. 

THE NAME. 

A great dramatist intimates that there is nothing in a name ; but 
a name sometimes means a great deal. In many instances, it indi- 
cates, in a measure, the character of the people who settle the country 
and have given to it its distinctive characteristics. Names are some- 
times given to towns and countries by accident; sometimes they 
originate in the childish caprice of some individual, whose d ctate by 
reason of some real or imaginary superiority is law. Whether the 
policy of naming counties after statesmen and generals be good or 
bad, the Missouri Legislature has followed the practice to such an 
extent, that fully three-fourths of the counties composing the State 
bear the names of men who are more or le.^s distinguished in the his- 
tory of the country. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 95 



THE NAMES OF PIONEERS. 

When we consider that more than half a century has passed since 
the men whose names we append below, pitched their tents within the 
present limits of tiie county, it will be readily understood how diffi- 
cult has been the task of collecting them. 

In placing these names upon record we have doubtless made mis- 
takes and omissions, but feel confident that the errors will be over- 
looked, when it is remembered that we have spared no little effort 
to be accurate and perfect. 

They who in the early dawn of Western civilization first *« bearded 
the lion in his den, " opened a path through the wilderness, drove out 
the wild beasts and tamed the savage Indian, are entitled to one of 
the brightest pages in all the record of the past. 

The old pioneers of Monroe county — the advance guard of civil- 
ization — have nearly all passed away; those remaining may be 
counted on the fingers of one hand. A few more years of waiting 
and watching, and they, too, will have joined — 

"The innumerable caravan, that moves 
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death." 

Fresh hillocks in the cemetery will soon be all the marks that will 
be left of a race of giants who grappled nature in her fastness and 
made a triumphant conquest in the face of the greatest privations, 
disease and difficulty. The shadows that fall upon their tombs as time 
recedes are like the smoky haze that enveloped the prairies in the 
early days, saddening the memory and giving to dim distance only a 
faint and phantom outline, to which the future will often look back 
and wonder at the great hearts that lie hidden under the peaceful 
canopy. 

These are the names of the old settlers : — 

HenryAshcraft, J. R. Abernathy, R. D. Austin, Ovid Adams, Otho 
Adams, William Atterbury, James Alfred, George Abbott, Chris. C. 
Acufl", Jerry Burton, Dr. John Bybee, Reuben Burton, Elijah Burton, 
John Burton, Benjamin Blubaugh, Lawrence Boggs, Thomas Bras- 
hears, Thomas Bell, Benjamin Bradley, James Bell, Isam. Belcher, 
Elijah Bozarth, Ezekial Biliington, Ephraim Brink, Shadrack Burnes, 
Abraham Bush, Elijah Creed, Samuel Crow, Augustin Creed, James 
Cox, Jeremiah Crigler, John G. Collison, Samuel Creed, A. B. Combs, 
Charles Clay, Triposa Clay, Samuel Curtright, John H. Curry, John 



96 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Colvin, Eichard Cave, Green Y. Caldwell, Isaac Coppedge, Simon 
Duckworth, John Dale, James Dickson, James Dale, Ramey Dye, 
Phanty Dye, George Dry, William Donaldson, Robert Donaldson, 
Thomas Davis, Van. Davis, Reese Davis, William Delauey, John De- 
laney. Fount Leroy Dye, Edward Damrell, Joseph Donaldson, Cor- 
nelius Edwards, Urban East, Daniel East, Charles Eales, Enoch 
Fruit, Ezra Fox, J. C. Fox, Pleasant Ford, Jacob Ford, Sr., Daniel 
Ford, John Foreman, Joseph Foreman, Hasting Fike, Thomas M. 
Glendy, Thomas Gundy, Angle Gillespie, Robert George, John Gee 
Martin B. Gay, Robert Greening, Edward Goodnight, Robert Gwyn, 
David Gough, Spencer Grogin, F. Gillett, Jonathan Gore, Leonard 
Green, Clem. Green, James Gilmore, William Goforth, Stephen 
Glascock, George Glenn, William B. Grant, Bartholomew Grogin, 
Joseph Holliday, Hackney T. Hightower, John Hocker, Hugh A. 
Hickman, John B. Hatton, Amon. Hicks, Salmon Humphrey, Edward 
M. Holden, John Howe, Ezra Hunt, Paul Hereford, Henry Howard, 
Esom Hannon, Robert Harris, James Herndon, Dr. Sylvester Hagan, 
Joseph Hagan, Samuel Harper, Robert Hanna, Asaph E. Hubbard, 
William Horn, John Ivie, William Jett, Col. Gabriel Jones, James 
Jackson, Daniel H. Johnson, John Johnson, Jeremiah Jackson, 
George Kipper, Henry Kinote, Thomas Kelley, William Kipper, 
Abraham Kirkland, John Kipper, Lewis Kincaid, Samuel Kipper, 
Dr. Keenan, David Kirby, Marshall Kelley, Thomas Kilgore, John 
McGee, James McGee, John S. McGee, William McGee, John Mc- 
Kamey, D. E. McKamey, Joseph H. McKamey, E. W. McBride, 
Charles McGrew, Hiram Manama, Boaz Maxey, John C. Milligan, 
Travis S. Moore, William McSwain, R. C. Mansfield, James Mappin, 
Matthew Mappin, Henry Miller, Robert Martin, Pay ton Maghan, 
Benjamin Mothershead, Samuel Nesbit, M. Newland, James Noel, 
Joel Noel, Garnet Noel, Elijah Owens, Mrs. Ownby, John Porter, 
Jesse Pavey, Maj. James Poage, James Powers, Richard D. Powers, 
Thomas G. Poage, Minor Perry, Samuel Pool, William N. Penn, 
Ezekiel Phelps, William H. Proctor, Aniel Rogers, Achilles Rogers, 
Andrew Rogers, Joseph Rigsby, Archibald Rice, Nathaniel Rice, 
William Runkle, John Rigsby, George Rouse, Jones Reavis, Nathaniel 
Riggs, Daniel Rhodes, Edward Shropshire, Harrison Sparks, Harvey 
Swinney, Robert Swinney, Austin Swinney, Joseph Stephens, David 
F. Sloan, Joseph J. Sumner, Samuel G. Sutton, William Smith, 
Joseph Smith, Sr., Alex. W. Smith, Joseph Smith, Jr., Samuel H. 
Smith, John B. Smith, Robert Simpson, John Simpson, John Shoots, 
Peter Stice, Joseph Sproul, William P. Stephenson, Stephen Scobee, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



97 



Kobert Scobee, Cavil Shearer, Davis Scott ,^ Robert Snider, Wilson S. 
Spotswoocl, George Sraizer, George Saling, Ephraim Smith, Larken 
Stamper, Milton Smizer, Eumsey Saling, Robert Smithey, Richmond 
Saling, James Stewart, George Stubblefield, Bostick Talliaferro, 
Thomas Thompson, Michael Trombo, Alexander Thompson, Hiram 
Thompson, Jacob Trumbo, Peter B. Thomas, Thomas Threldkeld, 
William K. Van Arsdell, James Vaughn, Andrew Whittenburg, Daniel 
Whittenburg, Joseph Weldon, James Weldou, John Willingham, John 
Wright, William Wilcoxson, Caleb Wood, Thomas Wood, Fielder 
Wood, Milton Wilkerson, Hiram Williams, S. J. Williams, Huron 
Williams, David Weatherford, M. C. Warren,- Joseph White, William 
Wilkerson, John Witt, James Woods, Giles H. Welch, George W. 
White, Jacob Young, Benjamin Young, John Yates, Vincent Yates. 
In addition to the names above given, others will be mentioned in 
giving the history of the different townships. 



1 Still living, in his 90th year. 
'' Still livins. 




CHAPTEK II. 

PIONEER LIFE. 

The Pioneers' Peculiarities — Conveniences and iQconveniences — Tlie Historical Log 
Cabin — Agricultural Implements — Household Furniture — Pioneer Corn-bread — 
Hand Mills and Hominy Blocks — Going to Mill — Trading Points — Hunting — Bee 
Trees — Shooting Matches andQuiltings. 

The people in the early history of Monroe county took no care to 
preserve history — they were too busily engaged in making it. His- 
torically speaking, those were the most important years of the county, 
for it was then the foundation and corner stones of all the county's 
history and prosperity were laid. Yet this history was not remarka- 
ble for stirring events. It was, however, a time of self-reliance and 
brave, persevering toil ; of privations cheerfully endured through faith 
in a good time coming. The experience of one settler was just about 
the same as that of others. Nearly all of the settlers were poor ; they 
faced the same hardships and stood generally on an equal footing. 

All the experience of the early pioneers of this county goes far to 
confirm the theory that, after all, happiness is pretty evenly balanced 
in this world. They had their privations and hardships, but they had 
also their own peculiar joys. If they were poor, they were free from 
the burden of pride and vanity; free also from the anxiety and care 
th^t always attends the possession of wealth. Other people's eyes 
cost them nothing. If they had few neighbors, they were on the best 
of terms with those they had. Envy, jealousy and strife had] not 
crept in. A common interest and a common sympathy bound them 
together with the strongest ties. They were a little world to them- 
selves, and the good feeling that prevailed was all the stronger because 
they were so far removed from the great world of the East. 

Among these pioneers there was realized such a community of in- 
terest that there existed a community of feeling. There were no 
castes, except an aristocracy of benevolence, and no nobility, except 
a nobilitv of generosity. They were bound together with such a 
strong bond of sympathy, inspired by the consciousness of common 
hardship, that they were practically communists. 
(98) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 99 

Neighbors did not even wait for an invitation or request to help one 
another. Was a settler's cabin burned or blown down? No sooner 
was the fact known throughout the neighborhood than the settlers as- 
sembled to assist the unfortunate one to rebuild his home. They came 
with as little hesitation, and with as much alacrity, as though they 
were all members of the same family and bound together by ties of 
blood. One man's interest was every other man's interest. Now, 
this general state of feeling among the pioneers was by no means 
peculiar to these counties, although it was strongly illustrated here. 
It prevailed generally throughout the West during the time of the 
early settlement. The very nature of things taught the settlers the 
neeessity of dwelling together iu this spirit. It was their only protec- 
tion. They had come far away from the well established reign of law, 
and entered a new country, where civil authority was still feeble and 
totally unable to afford protection and redress grievances. Here the 
settlers lived some little time before there was an officer of the law in 
the county. Each man's protection was in the srood will and friend- 
ship of those about him, and the thing that any man might well dread 
was the ill will of the comrauuit}'. It was more terrible than the law. 
It was no uncommon thing in the early times for hardened men, who 
had no fears of jails or penitentiaries, to stand in great fear of the 
indignation of a pioneer community. Such were some of the charac- 
teristics of Monroe county. 

HOUSE AND HOME COMFORTS. 

The first buildings in the county were not just like the log cabins that 
immediately succeeded them. The latter required some help and a 
great deal of labor to build. The very first buildings constructed 
were a cross between " hoop cabins " aud Indian bark huts. As soon 
as enough men could be got together for a '' cabin raising," then log 
cabins were in style. Many a pioneer can remember the happiest time 
of his life as that when he lived in one of these homely but comforta- 
ble old cabins. 

A window with sash and glass was a rarity, and was an evidence of 
wealth and aristocracy which but few could support. They were often 
made with greased paper put over the window, which admitted a little 
light, but more often there was nothing whatever over it, or the 
cracks between the logs, without either chinking or daubing, were the 
dependence for light and air. The doors were fastened with old-fash- 
ioned wooden latches, and for a friend, or neighbor, or traveler, the 
string always hung out, for the pioneers of the West were hospitable 



100 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY, 

and entertained visitors to the best of their ability. It is noticeable 
with what affection the pioneers speak of their old log cabins. It may 
be doubted whether palaces ever sheltered happier hearts than those 
homely cabins. The following is a good description of those old 
landmarks, but few of which now remain : — 

" These were of round logs, notched together at the corners, ribbed 
with poles and covered with boards split from a tree. A puncheon 
floor was then laid down, a hole cut in the end and a stick chimney 
run up. A clapboard door is made, a window is opened by cutting 
out a hole in the side or end two feet square and finished without 
glass or transparency. The house is then ' chinked ' and ' daubed ' 
with mud. The cabin is now ready to go into. The household and 
kitchen furniture is adjusted, and life on the frontier is begun in 
earnest. 

*'The one-legged bedstead, now a piece of furniture of the past, 
was made by cutting a stick the proper length, boring holes at one end 
one and a half inches in diameter, at right angles, and the same sized 
holes corresponding with those in the logs of the cabin the length and 
breadth desired for the bed, in which are inserted poles. 

"Upon these poles the clapboards are laid, or linn bark is inter- 
woven consecutively from pole to pole. Upon this primitive structure 
the bed is laid. The convenience of a cook stove was not thought of, 
but instead, the cooking was done by the faithful housewife in pots, 
kettles or skillets, on and about the big fire-place, and very frequently 
over and around, too, the distended pedal extremities of the legal sov- 
ereign of the household, while the latter was indulging in the luxuries 
of a cob-pipe and discussing the probable results of a contemplated 
deer hunt on Salt river or some one of its small tributaries." 

These log cabins were reall}'' not so bad after all. 

The people of to-day, familiarized with "Charter Oak" cooking 
stoves and ranges, would be ill at home were they compelled to pre- 
pare a meal with no other conveniences than those provided in a pioneer 
cabin. Rude fire-places were built in chimneys composed of mud and 
sticks, or, at best, undressed stone. These fire-places served for heat- 
ing and cooking purposes ; also, for ventilation. Around the cheerful 
blaze of this fire the meal was prepared, and these meals were not so 
bad, either. As elsewhere remarked, they were not such as would 
tempt an epicure, but such as afforded the most healthful nourishment 
for a race of people who were driven to the exposure and hardships 
which were their lot. We hear of few dyspeptics in those days. An- 
other advantage of these cooking arrangements was that the stove- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 101 

pipe never fell down, and the pioneer wiis spared being subjected to 
the most trying of ordeals, and one probably more productive of pro- 
fanity than any other. 

Before the country became supplied with mills which were of easy 
access, and even in some instances afterward, hominy-blocks were 
used. They exist now only in the memory of the oldest settlers, but 
as relics of the "long ago," a description of them will not be unin- 
teresting: — 

A tree of suitable size, say from eighteen inches to two feet in 
diameter, was selected in the forest and felled to the ground. If a 
cross-cut saw happened to be convenient, the tree was " butted," that 
is, the kerf end was sawed off, so that it would stand steady when 
ready for use. If there was no cross-cut saw in the neighborhood, 
strong arms and sharp axes were ready to do the work. Then the 
proper length, from four to five feet, was measured off and sawed or 
cut square. When this was done the block was raised on end and the 
work of cutting out a hollow in one of the ends was commenced. 
This was generally done with a common chopping ax. Sometimes a 
smaller one was used. When the cavity was judged to be large 
enough, a fire was built in it, and carefully watched till the ragged 
edges were burned away. When completed the hominy-block some- 
what resembled a druggist's mortar. Then a pestle, or something to 
crush the corn, was necessary. This was usually made from a suitably 
sized piece of timber, with an iron wedge attached, the large end 
down. This completed the machinery, and the block was ready for 
use. Sometimes one hominy-block accommodated an entire neigh- 
borhood and was the means of staying the hunger of many mouths. 

In giving the bill of fare above we should have added meat, for of 
this they had plenty. Deer would be seen daily trooping over the 
prairie in droves of from 12 to 20, and sometimes as many as 50 
would be seen grazing together. Elk were also found, and wild tur- 
keys and prairie chickens without number. Bears were not un- 
known. Music of the natural order was not wanting, and every night 
the pioneers were lulled to rest by the screeching of panthers and the 
howling of wolves. When the dogs ventured too far out from the 
cabins at night, they would be driven back by the wolves chasing 
them up to the very cabin doors. Trapping wolves became a very 
profitable business after the State began to pay a bounty for wolf 
scalps. 

All the streams of water also abounded in fish, and a good supply 
of these could be procured by the expense of a little time and labor. 



102 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Those who years ago improved the fishing advantages of the country 
never tire telling of the dainty meals which the streams afforded. 
Sometimes large parties would get together, and, having been pro- 
vided with cooking utensils and facilities for camping out, would go 
off some distance and spend weeks together. No danger then of be- 
ing ordered off a man's premises or arrested for trespass. One of the 
peculiar circumstances that surrounded the early life of the pioneers 
was a strange loneliness. The solitude seemed almost to oppress 
them. Months would pass during which they would scarcely see a 
human face outside their own families. 

On occasions of special interest, such as election, holiday celebra- 
tions, or camp-meetings, it was nothing unusual for a few settlers who 
lived in the immediate neighborhood of the meetins^to entertain scores 
of those who had come from a distance. 

Rough and rude though the surroundings may have been, the 
pioneers were none the less honest, sincere, hospitable and kind in 
their relations. It is true, as a rule, and of universal application, that 
there is a greater degree of real humanity among the pioneers of any 
country than there is when the country becomes old and rich. If 
there is an absence of refinement, that absence is more than compen- 
sated in the presence of generous hearts and truthful lives. They are 
bold, industrious and enterprising. Generally speaking, they are 
earnest thinkers, and possessed of a diversified fund of useful, prac- 
tical information. As a rule they do not arrive at a conclusion by 
means of a course of rational reasoning, but, nevertheless, have a 
queer way at getting at the facts. They hate cowards and shams of 
every kind, and above all things, falsehoods and deception, and culti- 
vate an integrity which seldom permits them to prostitute themselves 
to a narrow policy of imposture. Such were the characteristics of the 
men and women who pioneered the way to the country of the Sacs 
and Foxes. A few of them yet remain, and although some of their 
descendants are among the wealthy and most substantial of the people 
of the county, they have not forgotten their old time hospitality and 
free and easy ways. In contrasting the present social affairs with 
pioneer times, one has well said : — 

" Then, if a house was to be raised, every man ' turned out,' and 
often the women, too, and while the men piled up the logs that fash- 
ioned the primitive dwelling-place, the women prepared the dinner. 
Sometimes it was cooked by big log fires near the site where the cabin 
was building ; in other cases it was prepared at the nearest cabin, and 
at the proper hour was carried in to where the men were at work. If 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 103 

one man in the neihgborhood killed a beef, a pig or a deer, every 
other family in the neighborhood was sure to receive a piece. 

" We were all on an equality. Aristocratic feelings were unknown, 
and would not have been tolerated. What one had we all had, and 
that was the happiest period of my life. But to-day, if you lean 
against a neighbor's shade tree he will charge you for it. If you are 
poor and fall sick, you may lie and suffer almost unnoticed and 
unattended, and probably go to the poor-house; and just as like as 
not the man who would report you to the authorities as a subject of 
county care would charge the county for making the report." 

Of the old settlers, some are still living in the county in the enjoy- 
ment of the fortunes they founded in early times, " having reaped an 
hundredfold." Nearly all, however, have passed away. A few of 
them have gone to the far West, and are still playing the part of 
pioneers. But wherever they maybe, whatever fate may betide them, 
it is but truth to say that they were excellent men as a class, and 
have left a deep and enduring impression upon the county and the 
State. " The}^ builded better than they knew." They were, of course, 
men of activity and energy, or they would never have decided to face 
the trials of pioneer life. The great majority of them were poor, but 
the lessons taught them in the early days were of such a character that 
few of them have remained so. They made their mistakes in business 
pursuits like other men. Scarcely one of them but allowed golden 
opportunities, for pecuniary profit, at least, to pass by unheeded. 
What now are some of the choicest farms in Monroe county were 
not taken up by the pioneers, who preferred land of very much less 
value. They have seen many of their prophecies fulfilled, and others 
come to naught. Whether they have attained the success they 
desired, their own hearts can tell. 

To one looking over the situation then, from the standpoint now, it 
certainly does not seem very cheering, and yet- from the testimony of 
some old pioneers, it was a most enjoyable time, and we of the 
present live in degenerate days. 

At that time it certainly would have been much more difficult for 
those old settlers to understand how it could be possible that sixty- 
iive years hence the citizens of the present age of the county's pro- 
gress would be complaining of hard times and destitution, and that 
they themselves, perhaps, would be among that number, than it is 
now for us to appreciate how they could feel so cheerful and contented 
with their meager means and humble lot of hardships and deprivations 
during those early pioneer days. 

2 



104 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

The secret was, doubtless, that they lived within their means, how- 
ever limited, not coveting more of luxury and comfort than their 
income would afford, and the natural result was prosperity and con- 
tentment, with always room for one more stranger at the fireside, and 
a cordial welcome to a place at their table for even the most hungry 
guest. 

Humanity, with all its ills, is, nevertheless, fortunately character- 
ized with remarkable flexibility, which enables it to accommodate 
itself to circumstances. After all, the secret of happiness lies in one's 
ability to accommodate himself to his surroundings. 

It is sometimes remarked that there were no places for public 
entertainment till later years. The truth is, there were many such 
places ; in fact, every cabin was a place of entertainment, and these 
hotels were sometimes crowded to their utmost capacity. On such 
occasions, when bedtime came, the first family would take the back 
part of the cabin, and so continue filling up by families until the limit 
was reached. The young men slept in the wagon outside. In .the 
morning, those nearest the door arose first and went outside to dress. 
Meals were served on the end of a wagon, and consisted of corn bread, 
buttermilk, and fat pork, and occasionally coffee, to take away the 
morning chill. On Sundays, for a change, they had bread made of 
wheat " tramped out" on the ground by horses, cleaned with a sheet, 
and pounded by hand. This was the best the most fastidious could 
obtain, and this only one day in seven. Not a moment of time was 
lost. It was necessary that they should raise enough sod corn to take 
them through the coming winter, and also get as much breaking done 
as possible. They brought with them enough corn to give the horses 
an occasional feed, in order to keep them able for hard work, but in 
the main they had to live on prairie grass. The cattle got nothing else 
than grass. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

An interesting comparison might be drawn between the conven- 
iences which now make the life of a farmer comparatively an easy one, 
and the almost total lack of such conveniences in early days. A brief 
description of the acommodations possessed by the tillers of the soil 
will now be given. 

Let the children of such illustrious sires draw their own compari- 
sons, and may the results of these comparisons silence the voice of 
complaint which so often is heard in the land. 

The only plows they had at first were what they styled " bull 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 105 

plows." The mold-boards were generally of wood, but in some cases 
they were half wood and half iron. The man who had one of the lat- 
ter description was looked upon as something of an aristocratic. But 
these old " bull plows " did good service, and they must be awarded 
the honor of first stirring the soil of Monroe county, as well as that of 
the oldest counties of the State. 

The amount of money which some farmers annually invest in agri- 
cultural implements would have kept the pioneer farmer in farming 
utensils during a whole lifetime. The pioneer farmer invested little 
money in such things, because he had little money to spare, and then 
again because the expensive machinery now used would not have been 
at all adapted to the requirements of pioneer farming, " The bull 
plow" was probably better suited to the fields abounding in stumps 
and roots than would the modern sulkey plow have been, and the old- 
fashioned wheat cradle did better execution than would a modern 
harvester under like circumstances. The prairies were seldom settled 
till after the pioneer periodj and that portion of the country which 
was the hardest to put under cultivation, and the most difficult to 
cultivate after it was improved, first was cultivated ; it was well for 
the country that such was the case, for the present generation, famil- 
iarized as it is with farming machinery of such complicated pattern, 
would scarcely undertake the clearing off" of dense forests and culti- 
vating the ground with the kind of implements their fathers used, and 
which they would have to use for some kinds of work. 

MILLS AND TRADING POINTS. 

Notwithstanding the fact that some of the early settlers were ener- 
getic millwrights, who employed all their energy and what means 
they possessed, in erecting mills at a few of the many favorite mill- 
sites which abound in the county, yet going to mill in those days, 
when there were no roads, no bridges, no ferry boats, and scarcely 
any conveniences for traveling, was no small task, where so many 
rivers and treacherous streams were to be crossed, and such a trip 
was often attended with great danger to the traveler when these 
streams were swollen beyond their banks. But even under these cir- 
cumstances, some of the more adventurous and more ingenious ones, in 
case of emergency, found the ways and means by which to cross the swol- 
len stream, and succeed in making the trip. At other times again, all 
attempts failed them, and they were compelled to remain at home un- 
til the waters subsided, and depend on the generosity of their fortunate 
neisrhbors. 



106 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Some stories are related with reoard to the danger, perils and hard- 
ships of forced travel to mills, and for provisions, which remind one 
of forced marches in military campaigns, and when we hear of the 
heroic and daring- conduct of the hardy pioneers in procuring bread 
for their loved ones, we think that here were heroes more valiant than 
any of the renowned soldiers of ancient or modern times. 

During the first two years, and perhaps not until some time after- 
ward, there was not a public highway established and worked on which 
they could travel ; and as the settlers were generallj'^ far apart, and 
mills and trading points were at great distances, going from place to 
place was not only very tedious, but attended sometimes with great 
dano-er. Not a railroad had yet entered the State, and there was 
scarcely a thought in the minds of the people here of such a thing ever 
reaching the wild West ; and, if thought of, people had no concep- 
tion of what a revolution a railroad and telegraph line through the 
county would cause in its progress. Then there was no railroad in 
the United States, not a mile of track on the continent ; while now 
there are over 100,000 miles of railroad extending their trunks and 
branches in every direction over our land. 

Supplies in those days were obtained at Hannibal. Mail was car- 
ried by horses and wagon transportation, and telegraph dispatches 
were transmitted by the memory and lips of emigrants coming in or 
strangers passing through. 

The first mill was built in the county in 1827, and was known as 
Benj. Bradley's mill. At first the mill only ground corn, which had 
to be sifted after it was ground, as there were no bolts in the mill. 
There was onl}^ one run of buhrs, which, as well as the mill irons, 
were brought from St. Louis. They were shipped up the Missouri 
river. The mill cost about $50. The mill had no gearing, the buhrs 
being located over the wheel, and running with the same velocity as 
the wheel. It was a frame mill, one stor}^ high, and had a capacity 
of 25 bushels a day. People came from far and near, attracted by 
the reports of the completion of the mill, with their grists, so that, 
for days before it was ready for work, the creek bottom was dotted 
over with hungry and patient men, waiting until it was ready to do 
their work, so that they might return with their meal and flour to 
supply their families, and those of their neighbors, thus enduring the 
hardships of camp life in those early days in order that they might be 
able to secure the simple necessaries of life, devoid of all luxuries. 
Bradley's mill was located about two miles north-east of Florida. 



1 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 107 



HUNTING AND TRAPPING. 

The sports :iiid means of recreation Avere not so numerous and varied 
among the early settlers as at present, but they were more enjoyable 
and invigorating than now. 

Hunters nowadays would only be too glad to be able to find and en- 
joy their favorable opportunity for hunting and fishing, and even travel 
many miles, counting it rare pleasure to spend a few weeks on the water- 
courses and wild prairies, in hunt and chase and fishing frolics. There 
were a good many excellent hunters here at an early day, who enjoyed 
the sport as well as any can at the present day. 

Wild animals of almost every species known in the wilds of the West 
were found in great abundance. The prairies and woods and streams 
and various bodies of water were all thickly inhabited before the white 
man came, and for some time afterward. Although the Indians slew 
many of them, yet the natural law prevailed here as well as elsewhere — 
*' wild men and wild beast thrive together." 

Serpents were to be found in such large numbers, and of such im- 
mense size, that some stories told by the early settlers would be 
incredible were it not for the large array of concurrent testimony, 
which is to be had from the most authentic sources. Deer, turkeys, 
ducks, geese, squirrels, and various other kinds of choice game were 
plentiful, and to be had at the expense of killing only. The fur animals 
were abundant; such as the otter, beaver, mink, muskrat, raccoon, 
panther, fox, wolf, wild-cat and bear. 

An old resident of the county told us that, in 1809, while he was 
traveling a distance of six miles he saw as many as 73 deer, in herds 
of from six to ten. ^ 

HUNTING BEE TREES. 

Another source of profitable recreation among the old settlers was 
that of hunting bees. The forests along the water-courses were es- 
pecially prolific of bee trees. They were found in great numbers on 
the Salt rivers and their confluents, and, in fact, on all the important 
streams in the county. Many of the early settlers, during the late 
summer, would go into camp for days at a time, for the purpose of 
hunting and securing the honey of the wild bees, which was not only 
extremely rich and foun^ in great abundance, but always commanded 
a good price in the home market. 

The Indians have ever regarded the honey bee as the forerunner of 
the white man, while it is a conceded fact that the quail always follows 
the footprints of civilization. 



108 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

The following passage is found in the " Report of the Exploring 
Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, in the year 1842, by Captain John, 
C. Fremont," page 69: — 

" Here on the summit, where the stillness was absolute, unbroken 
by any sound, and the solitude complete, we thought ourselves beyond 
the regions of animated life ; but while we were sitting on the rocks 
a solitary bee came winging its flight from the eastern valley and lit on 
the knee of one of the men. We pleased ourselves with the idea that 
he was the first of his species to cross the mountain barrier, a solitary 
pioneer to foretell the advance of civilization." 

Gregg, in his " Commerce of the Prairies," page 178, Vol. 1, says ; 
*'The honeybee appears to have emigrated exclusively from the east, 
as its march has been observed westward. The bee, among Western 
pioneers, is the proverbial precursor of the Anglo-American popula- 
tion. In fact, the aborigines of the frontier have generally corrobor- 
ated this statement, for they used to say that they knew the white man 
was not far behind when the bees appeared among them." 

There were other recreations, such as shooting matclies and quilting 
parties, which prevailed in those days, and which were enjoyed to the 
fullest extent. The quilting parties were especially pleasant and 
agreeable to those who attended. The established rule in those days 
at these parties was to pay either one dollar in money or split one 
hundred rails during the course of the day. The men would generally 
split the rails, and the women would remain in the house and do the 
quilting. After the day's work was done the night would be passed 
in dancing. 

All the swains that there abide 
With jigs and rural dance resort. 

When daylight came the music and dancing would cease, and the gal- 
lant young men would escort the fair ladies to their respective homes. 

WOLVES. 

One of the oldest pioneers tells us that for several years after he 
came to what is now known as Monroe county the wolves were very 
numerous, and that he paid his taxes for many years in wolf scalps. 
His cabin was at the edge of the timber that skirted Elk Fork creek, 
and at night the howls of these animals were so loud and incessant 
that to sleep at times was almost impossible. | 

Often at midnight, all 

" At once there rose so wild a yell, 
Within that dark and narrow dell, 
As all the fiends from heaven that fell, 
Had pealed the banner cry of hell." 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



109 



At such times the whole air seemed to be filled with the vibrations of 
their most infernal and diabolical music. The wolf was not only a 
midnight prowler here, but was seen in the day-time, singly or in 
packsr warily skulking upon the outskirts of a thicket, or sallying 
cautiously along the open path with a sneaking look of mingled 
cowardice and cruelty. 




CHAPTEK III. 

Early Kecords and Public Buildings — First County Court — Its Proceedings — First 
Circuit Court — First, Second and Third Grand Juries — First Deed Eecorded — 
Early Marriages — Public Buildings — First Court House and Jail — Second Court 
House and Jail. 

We plead guilty to possessing much of the antiquarian spirit, — 
" old wine, old books, old friends," are the best, you know. We love 
to sit at the feet of the venerable old pioneers of the country, and 
listen to the story of their early exploits, when the fire of youth 
beamed in their eyes, and the daring spirit of adventure quickened 
their pulses. How they fought with savage Indians and prowling 
beasts to wrest this goodly land from the primeval wilderness as a 
rich heritage for the children to come after them ; how they hewed 
down the forest, turned " the stubborn glebe," watched and toiled, 
lost and triumphed, struggled against poverty and privation to bring 
the country into subjection to civilization and enlightened progress, — 
all this has an absorbing interest to us. Much as modern literature 
delights us, we had rather talk an hour with one of these venerable 
gray-beards, who are found here and there, as the scattered repre- 
sentatives of a purer and more heroic age, than to revel in the most 
bewitching poem that ever flashed from the pen of a Byron or a Poe, 
or dream the time away in threading the mazes of the plot and imagery 
of the finest romance ever written. Moved by this kind of a spirit, 
we have been delving among the musty records of the county and 
circuit courts, where we found many an interesting relic of the past 
history of the county, some of which we here reproduce. 

FIRST COUNTY COURT. 

The first county court of Monroe county was held at the house oi 
Green V. Caldwell, on Saturday, February 26, 1831. Andrew 
Rogers, John Curry and William P. Stephenson had been com- 
missioned justices of the court by Gov. John Miller, and all were 
present and took their seats. They were commissioned to serve four 
years, unless sooner removed according to law. 
(110) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. Ill 

The court, after organizing, appointed Ebenezer W. McBride^ 
clerk of the court, who immediately executed a bond in the sum of 
$3,000, with Edward M. Holder, David Gentry, Richard Cave and 
Christopher C. Acuff as sureties. The appointment of McBride was 
all the business transacted by the court at its first term. During 
vacation, and on March 25th following, the court having failed to 
appoint an assessor for the county, E. W. McBride, the clerk, 
appointed John S McGee assessor to that office. 

The next regular term of the court was held on the 2d day of May, 
1831, commencing on Monday. In the meantime, and during the vaca- 
tion, John Curry and William P. Stephenson, two of the justices who 
were first commissioned, resigned, and Robert Simpson and Reese 
Davis were appointed to fill the vacancies. The two latter named, 
with Arthur Rogers, constituted the court. Robert Simpson was 
chosen president. The court then appointed William Runkle sherift', 
and Samuel H. Smith collector of the county. It then proceeded to 
divide the county into townships as follows : — 

All that portion of the county lying east of a line running north and 
south across the county, including ten miles in width, composed the 
lower or eastern township, and was called Jefferson township ; the 
middle township embraced eleven miles in width, and was called 
Jackson, and all the territory lying west of Jackson township and at- 
tached to Monroe county was called Union township, making three 
original townships. 

After laying out and naming the townships, the court designated 
the places of holding elections and appointing the judges thereof as 
follows : — 

Jefferson township, at the residence of John Witt ; judges, Asaph 
E. Hubbard, Richard Cave and Robert Donaldson. 

Jackson township, at the residence of Green V. Caldwell ; judges, 
James Mappin, Joseph Sprowl and John W. Kenney. 

Union township, at the residence of Reese Davis ; judges, Joseph 
Stephens, Jacob Whittenburg and George Saling. 



I 



1 McBride was drowned in January, 1867, in the Mississippi river, sis miles below 
Memphis, Tenn. He was at the time of his death en route for Greenville, Miss., 
whither he was going to collect some debts due him at that place. He took the 
steamer Platte Valley, at St. Louis, and when reaching a point, as stated above, six 
miles below Memphis, the boat struck the wreck of the old gunboat Jeff. Thompson, 
and sank. Mr. McBride and one of the employes of the boat — a boy — floated off on 
an ice-chest. The chest finally sank; the boy swam to a snag near by and was res- 
cued, but Mr. McBride, who was then an old man, was drowned. Mr. McBride had 
accumulated quite a fortune, and was one of the most highly respected citizens of the 
county. He traded in horses and mules, which he sold to Southern markets. 



112 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Isaac Coppedge was appointed constable for Jackson township, Mil- 
ton Wilkerson, for Jefferson, and Elliott Burton, for Union. 

Asaph E. Hubbard and Robert Donaldson, for Jefferson township, 
and Jacob Whittenburg and George Saling and Eeese Davis and 
Joseph Stephens, for Union township, were recommended by the court 
to the Governor as suitable persons for justices of the peace. 

Court met ao;ain June 4th, 1831, at the residence of Green V. 
Caldwell (Caldwell having recently died), the judges last mentioned 
being present. The clerk was ordered to issue ten licenses for mer- 
chandise. Stephen Glascock was paid $4 out of funds arising from 
the sale of lots in Paris for surveying the town site. 

It was ordered that John S. McGee be allowed one dollar and 
seventy-five cents per day for twenty-five days' services, rendered in as- 
sessing the county. This would amount to only $35 for assessing the 
entire county in 1831. The assessor now (1884) receives about $1,- 
200 for assessing the personal and real estate. 

James E,. Abernathy was appointed commissioner of the township 
school lands. 

John S. McGee was appointed county surveyor. 

James C. Fox was appointed town commissioner of Paris. 

It was ordered that seventy-five cents be levied as a county tax. 

Reuben Burton was allowed $4.50 out of his state and county tax. 

The court met again June 21st, 1831, at the same place. Present, 
Robert Simpson and Reese Davis. 

In the proceedings we find the following: — 

Ordered by the court. That James C. Fox, commissioner of the 
town of Paris, the seat of justice for Monroe county, proceed to give 
notice of the sale of lots in said town of Paris, by having it inserted 
in two public newspapers printed in this State, sixty days previous to 
the day of sale, and said commissioner shall proceed to sell said lots, 
in said town of Paris, on the 12th day of September next, on a credit 
of six, twelve and eighteen months, one-third payable at each term. 

The first license for the sale of wines and spirituous liquors was is- 
sued at this term of the court ; also the first license for a tavern or 
public house of entertainment. 

The first road overseers were appointed at the August term of the 
court. 

Robert Greening was appointed overseer of road district number 
1, of the Palmyra road, which was upon the line of Marion and 
Monroe counties. 

Abram Kirtland was made overseer of district number 2, which 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 113 

laid between the North fork of Salt river and the township line divid- 
ing Jefferson and Jackson townships. 

Matthew Mappin was made overseer of district number 3, be- 
tween the township line dividing Jefferson and Jackson townships, and 
ransre line dividins; range 9 and 10. 

Stephen Scobee was made overseer of road district number 1, of 
the old London road in Jefferson township, which laid between the 
Monroe county line east and John A. Ives. 

Charles Eales was appointed overseer of district number 2, of 
the London road, which laid between John A. Ives, and township line 
dividing Jefferson and Jackson townships. 

James S. McGee, Alexander Thompson, Hasten Fike, Grant Noel 
James Noel and Larken Stamper were appointed road overseers of 
other districts. 

Roads were then ordered to be laid off from the town of Paris to 
Columbia, Boone county ; from Paris to the London road at the west 
«nd of John McLamey's lane ; from Paris to intersect the Fayette 
and Franklin road ; from Paris to the town of Florida. 

Archibald Rice was the first guardian appointed by the court. His 
ward was Lourey Adams, child of William Adams, deceased. His 
bond was fixed at $600. 

Quill pens were evidently used in those days, for in looking over 
the proceedings of the court, November term, 1831, we find this 
order : — 

It is ordered by the court, that the sum of $5 be allowed to 
Ebenezer W. McBride, clerk of this court, for paper, ink powder and 
quills furnished by him for the use of his office, to be paid out of any 
money in the county treasury not otherwise appropriated. 

For the year 1832, the delinquent State tax amounted to $13.97 
and the delinquent county tax to $9.89. 

Edward M. Holden was granted a license to keep a ferry across the 
Middle fork of Salt river, near the town of Paris, at the place where 
the road leading from Paris to Palmyra crosses that stream. The 
court fixed the charges for ferriage as follows : Single person, 10 
cents; horse, mule or jack, 5 cents ; horse and gig, 50 cents ; horse 
and dearborn, 62i cents; two horses and Avagon, 62|- cents; four 
horses and wagon, 75 cents ; neat cattle, 5 cents each ; hogs and 
sheep, 2 cents each. 

Five hundred dollars were appropriated by the court to the clearing 
out of Salt river below the forks. 

A bridge was built across the Middle fork of Salt river, opposite 
Paris, in 1834. 



114 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



CIRCUIT COURT. 



The circuit court for Monroe county convened for the first time 
June 20, 1831, at the residence of Green V. Caldwell, the same place 
designated as the place for holding the county court. Hon. 
Priestly H. McBride^ was the judge, William Runkle, sheriff; Edward 
M. Holden, clerk, and Ezra Hunt, circuit attorney. 

FIRST GRAND JURY. 

Robert Donaldson, foreman ; Alexander W. Smith, Eleri Rogers,. 
Robert Hanna, John H. Curry, Samuel Curtright, John S. McGee, 
Ezekiel Bryan, James L. McGee, William Wilcoxen, John New- 
son, John L. Grigsby, Otho Adams, John M. Burton, Minor Perry, 
David A. Sloan, Joseph Sprowl, David Enoch, Joel Noel, Michee 
Maupin, William P. Stephenson. 

All of the above named grand jurors are dead, excepting Samuel 
Curtrio;ht and James L. McGee, both of whom are still residents of 
Monroe county ; the former is eighty-three years of age, and the lat- 
ter is about eighty. The grand jury having nothing before it, was 
discharged. 

The first business that engaged the attention of the court was a 
petition from Joseph Sprowl, asking leave to build a water, grist and 
saw mill, on the west half of the south-west quarter, of section 28, 
township 54, range 9. 

This was followed by another petition from John Sali ng, asking 
the privilege of erecting a water, grist and saw mill, on the east half 
of the south-east quarter of section 5, township 54, range 10. 

The first case upon the docket was an appeal case from the justice 
court, and was entitled, "Joseph Swinney against Simeon Burton." 
This cause was dismissed for want of an affidavit and the papers re- 
manded to the justice. The attorneys present were Ezra Hunt , 
Adam B. Chambers, William K. VanArsdall, Benjamin O. Clark, and 
Austin A. King. 

The second term of court was held at the residence of Matthew 
Walton, near the town of Paris, commencing October 18, 1831. 

SECOND GRAND JURY. 

John H. Curry, foreman ; Benjamin Bradley, Paul Herryford, Pey- 
ton N. Mahan, John Woods, Thomas Donaldson, Charles S. Clay, 



1 Judge of the Second Judicial Circuit. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 115 

Ezra Fox, Anderson Willis, Eobert Harris, John Kyle, Joseph Smith, 
Jacob Trumbo, Richard D. Powers, Elijah Burton, Jacob Whitten- 
burg, William Bvbee, Archibald Woods. 

At this term of the court, Ezra Hunt, circuit attorney, being 
absent, A. B. Chatnbers, Esq., was appointed in his place. The fol- 
lowing attorneys were then enrolled : Albert G. Harrison, James A. 
Clark, Sinclair Kirtley, Philip Williams and Samuel Moore. The 
second civil action was entitled, "Richard J. Curl against Lewis 
Beaman and David Gentry, attachment and action of debt. " 

THIRD GRAND JURY. 

Thomas Nelson, foreman ; Daniel East, William McLean, William 
Bell, Simeon Burton, Evan Davis, Andrew Baker, James Davis, Johri 
Burton, Sr., Samuel Hodge, Samuel H. Smith, Ovid Adams, Jere- 
miah Jackson, Christopher C. Acuff, Pleasant Ford, William Grant. 

The first murder case was the State of Missouri ajjainst Buroess 
Oglesby, John J. Callison et al. This case was tried after one or 
two delays, in 1835, and the defendants acquitted. Sinclair Kirtlev 
was prosecuting attorney in the case, and Austin A. King defended. 
The defendant, Oglesby, was chnrged with killing Robert Donaldson 
by striking him with a stick of wood, and Callison and others were 
charged as being his accomplices. 

FIRST DEED RECORDED. 

This indenture made this second day of May in the year of our 
Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, between Anderson 
Ivie and Sarah Ivie, his witb, of the one part, and John T. Grigsby 
of the other part, witnesseth, that the said Anderson Ivie and Sarah 
Ivie, his wife, for and in consideration of the sum of five hundred 
dollars, to them in hand paid in good and lawful money of the United 
States, b}'^ the said John T. Grigsby, before the ensealing and delivery 
of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledo-ed, 
have this day bargained and sold, and by these presents do grant, 
bargain and sell unto the aforesaid John T, Grigsby, his heirs and 
assigns forever, the west half of the south-west quarter of section 15, 
in township 54, of range eight, west of the fifth principal meridian, in 
Monroe county, Missouri ; also five acres adjoining the aforemen- 
tioned 80 acres : beginning at the south-east corner of the said 80 
acres, and running south with an open line in section 22, 28 poles ; 
thence west so far as will include five acres to a stone, in or near a 
branch ; thence north to intersect with the section line between 15 
and 22 ; thence east to the beginning ; the said land to remain to the 
only proper use and behoof of the said John T. Grigsby, with all 
the appurtenances thereon or belonging thereto, the said Anderson 



116 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Ivie and Sarah Ivie, his wife, for themselves and heirs, forever bind 
themselves to warrant and defend against all persons claiming of the 
said John T. Grigsby, his heirs or assigns, the aforementioned tract 
or parcel of land, together with all the appurtenances thereon or be- 
longing thereto. 

In testimony whereof, I, Anderson Ivie and Sarah Ivie, my wife, 
have hereunto set our hands and seals, this day and date first above 
mentioned. Anderson Ivie, [seal.] 

Sarah Ivie. [seal.] 

early marriages. 

I do hereby certify that James H. Smith and Rosey Ann Mc- 
Keamy presented themselves before me, a minister of the Gospel, and 
were fully, legally joined in the bonds of matrimony, on the 12th day 
of May, 1831. Alfred Wright. 

State of Missouri, } 

County of Monroe. 5 * * 

This is to certify, by the authority vested in me as a preacher of 
the Gospel, that on the sixth day of May, 1831, I joined together in 
the bonds of matrimony, William Sparks and Mary Delaney, daughter 
of Mary Delaney, as man and wife, both of the county and State afore- 
said — parents' consent obtained. 

Witness my hand, this third day of July, 1831. 

Edward Turner. 

State of Missouri, 

County of Monroe. 

Be it remembered that on the 23d day of June, A. D. 1831, per- 
sonally came William Jones and Sally Sadler before me, and were 
joined in the bonds of matrimony. Given under my hand this day 
and year. Jacob Whittenburg, J. P. 

State of Missouri, 

Monroe County. 

I do hereby certify that William Pennick and Patsey Kelly, 
daughter of Thomas Kelly, were married on the fourth of August, 
1831, by me. Given under my hand, this ninth day of October, 
1831. Joseph Stevens, J. P. 

I do hereby certify that George Tooley and Elize Toard presented 
themselves before me, Edward M. Holden, a justice of the peace for 
the county of Monroe, and were legally joined in the bonds of matri- 
mony on the 29th day of October, A. D. 1831. 

Edw^ard M. Holden, J. P. 

State of Missouri, > 

County of Monroe. 5 
Be it remembered, that on the seventh day of January in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, personally 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 117 

appeared Reuben Riggs and Nancy Riggs, and were by me legally 
joined together in matrimony. Certified the day and year aforesaid. 

Archibald Patterson, 
Preacher of the Gospel. 

To the Honorable Clerk of Monroe County, Mo.: 

I, a minister of the Gospel, belonging to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and properly authorized to celebrate the rites of matrimony, 
united Mr. Wesley Andrews and Miss Eliza Swinney in the bonds of 
wedlock. Given under my hand, this 5th day of February, 1832. 

Richard Sharp. 

I, Joseph Stevens, a justice of the peace for Union township, and 
said county, and authorized by the laws of the State to solemnize the 
rites of matrimony, did on the 25th day of December, 1831, join 
together in the holy estate of matrimony, Samuel D. Hodge and Sarah 
Marney. Given under my hand, this 18th day of February, A. D. 
1832. 

Joseph Stevens, J. P. 

public buildings. 

Notwithstanding the fact that a large number, probably a majority, 
of people in every county have very little practical experience in 
courts, and although they have the legal capacity to sue and be sued, 
never improve their opportunities, and never appear in court, unless 
it be on compulsion as witnesses and jurors ; yet, as the one great 
conservator of peace, and as the final arbiter in case of individual or 
neighborhood disputes, the court is distinguished above and apart 
from all and every other institution in the land, and not only the pro- 
ceedings of the court, but the place of holding court, is a matter of 
interest to the average reader. 

Not only so, but in many counties the court-house was the first, and 
usually the only public building in the county. The first court-houses 
were not very elaborate buildings, to be sure, but they are enshrined 
in memories that the present can never know. 

Their uBes were general rather than special, and so constantly were 
they in use, day and night, when the court was in session, and when 
it was not in session, for judicial, educational, religious and social 
purposes, that the doors of the old court-houses, like the gates of 
gospel grace, stood open night and day ; and the small amount invested 
in these old hewn logs and rough benches returned a much better 
rate of interest on the investment than do those stately piles of brick 
or granite which have taken their places. The memorable court- 
house of early times was a house adapted to a Ajariety of purposes, 
and had a career of great usefulness. School was taught, the Gospel 



118 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

was preached, and justice dispensed within its substantial walls. 
Then it served frequently as a resting place for weary travelers. 
And, indeed, its doors always swung on easy hinges. If the old set- 
tlers are to be believed, all the old court-houses, when first erected in 
this Western country, often rang on the pioneer Sabbath with a more 
stirring eloquence than that which enlivens the pulpit of the present 
time. Many of the earliest ministers officiated in their walls, and if 
they could but speak, they would doubtless tell many a strange tale 
©f pioneer religion that is now lost forever. 

To those old court-houses, ministers came of different faiths, but 
all eager to expound the simple truths of the sublime and beautiful 
religion, and point out for comparisons the thorny path of duty, and 
the primrose way of dalliance. Often have those old walls given back 
the echoes of those who have sung the songs of Zion, and many a 
weary wanderer has had his heart moved to repentance thereby, more 
strongly than ever, by the strains of homely eloquence. With Mon- 
day morning, the old building changed in character, and men went 
thither, seeking not the justice of God, but the mercy of man. The 
scales were held with an even hand. Those who presided knew every 
man in the county, and they dealt out substantial justice, and the 
broad principles of natural equity prevailed. Children went there to 
school, and sat at the feet of teachers who knew little more than 
themselves ; but, however humble the teacher's acquirements, he was 
hailed as a wise man and a benefactor, and his lessons were heeded 
with attention. 

The old people of the settlement went there to discuss their own 
affiiirs, and learn from visiting attorneys the news from the great, 
busy world, so far away to the southward and eastward. In addition 
to the orderly assemblies which formerly gathered there, other meet- 
ings no less notable occurred. 

It was a sort of a forum, whither all classes of people went, for the 
purpose of loafing and gossiping and telling and hearing some new 
thing. As a general thing, the first court-house, after having served 
the purpose of its erection, and served that purpose well, is torn 
down and conveyed to the rear of some remote lot, and thereafter is 
made to serve the purpose of an obscure cow-stable on some dark 
alley. 

There is little of the romantic or poetic in the make-up of Western 
society, and the old court-house, after the building of the new one, 
ceases to be regarded with reverence and awe. In a new country, 
where every energy of the people is necessarily employed in the prac- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 119 

tical work of earning a living, and the always urgent and ever present 
question of bread and butter is up for solution, people can not be ex- 
pected to devote much time to the poetic and ideal. It therefore fol- 
lows that nothing was retained as a useless relic that could be turned 
to some utility ; but it is a shame that the people of modern times 
have such little reverence for the relics of former days. After these 
houses ceased to be available for business purposes they should have 
been preserved to have at least witnessed the semi-centennial of the 
county's history. It is said, in their hurry to grow rich, so few even 
have a care for the work of their own hands. How many of the first 
settlers have preserved their first habitations? The sight of that 
humble cabin would be a source of much consolation in old age, as it 
reminded the owner of the trials and triumphs of other times, and its 
presence would go far toward reconciling the coming generation with 
their lot, when comparing its lowly appearance with the modern resi- 
dence whose extensive apartments are beginning to be too unpreten- 
tious for the enterprising and irrepressible " Young Americans." 

FIRST COURT-HOUSE. 

The order authorizing the building of the first court-house was 
issued at the November term of the court, 1831. It was to be erected 
in the public square, and was to be constructed as follows : Fifty 
feet square and two stories high ; foundation to be laid with stone ; 
wall 26 inches thick ; brick walls 22 inches thick in the first story and 
18 inches in the second storj'^ ; first story to be 15 feet high and the 
second, 12 ; the roof to be hipjjed with a wood cornice, and a cupola 
of 10 feet square in the base ; the base to be 4 feet high with an ofi*- 
set of 14 inches and 8 feet octagon, Avith Venetian blinds on each 
side ; the roof of the cupola to be covered with tin ; four windows in 
each of the three fronts of the lower story, to consist of 24 panes of glass, 
10 by 12 each, with a large circular door in each side and one window 
in the first and second story of the back or other side ; the windows in 
the three before-mentioned fronts to be the same in the second story 
as in the lower, with an additional window over every door; the sills 
of each window to be of dressed stone; the frames to be boxed, and 
the sash to be hoist with waiters ; the lower floor to be laid with brick 
as far as the bar; the bar floor to be of wood, elevated 4 feet above 
the brick ; no floor to be in the second story ; but joist, framing, etc., 
to be furnished. The whole to be done in a workmanlike manner. 

Sylvester Hagan was appointed superintendent of the building. 

3 



120 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

An order was made at the same term of court for the building of a 
jail, and $1,000 appropriated for its construction. 

SECOND COURT-HOUSE. 

The second court-house — which is the present building — was built 
in 1867 at an expense of $45,000. It ranks among the finest and 
most substantial buildings of the kind in the State. It is constructed 
of brick, two stories high, and contains nine rooms and two vaults; 
the circuit and county court-rooms, the jury and witness-rooms, and 
the county offices. The court-house is located on the public square — 
near the west side ; it is a large, imposing building, and is sur- 
mounted by a large and sightly dome, from which may be seen much 
of the surrounding country. There are but a few court-houses in the 
State that cost more money or that have been so well and con- 
veniently arranged. 




CHAPTER ly. 

TOWNSHIP SYSTEM AND GOVERNMENT SURVEYS. 

County and Township Systems — Government Surveys — Organization of Town- 
ships — Physical Features. 

ORIGINAL TOWNSHIPS. 

Before proceeding any further, we deem it proper, since we are 
about to enter upon the history of the townships, to give some expla- 
nations of the county and township systems and government surveys, 
as much depends in business and civil transactions upon county limits 
and county organizations. 

COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP SYSTEMS. 

With regard to the origin of dividing individual States into county 
and township organizations, which, in an important measure, should 
have the power and opportunity of transacting their own business and 
governing themselves, under the approval of, and subject to, the 
State and general government, of which they both form a part, we 
quote from Elijah M. Haines, who is considered good authority on the 
subject. 

In his " Laws of Illinois, Kelative to Township Organizations, " 
he says : — 

" The county system originated with Virginia, whose early settlers 
soon became large landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, living 
apart in almost baronial magnificence, on their own estates, and own- 
ing the laboring part of the population. Thus the materials for a 
town were not at hand, the voters being thinly distributed over a 
great area. 

" The county organization, where a few influential men managed 
the wholesale business of a community, retaining their places almost 
at their pleasure, scarcely responsible at all, except in name, and per- 
mitted to conduct the county concerns as their ideas or wishes might 
direct, was moreover consonant with their recollections or traditions 
of the judicial and social dignities of the landed aristocracy of En- 
gland, in descent from whom the Virginia gentlemen felt so much 
pride. In 1834 eight counties were organized in Virginia, and the 

(121) 



122 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

system extending throughont the State, spread into all the Southern 
States and some of the Northern States ; unless we except the nearly 
similar division into ' districts ' in South Carolina, and that into 
* parishes ' in Louisiana, from the French laws. 

" Illinois, which, with its vast additional territory, became a county 
of Virginia, on its conquest by Gen. George Rogers Clark, retained 
the count}' organization, which was formerly extended over the State 
by the constitution of 1818, and continued in exclusive use until 
the constitution of 1848. Under this system, as in other States 
adopting it, much local business was transacted by the commission- 
ers in each county, who constituted a county court, Avith quarterly 
sessions. 

" During the period ending with the constitution of 1847, a large 
portion of the State had become filled up with a popnlation of New 
England birth or character, daily growing more and more compact 
and dissatisfied with the comparatively arbitrary and inefficient county 
system. It was maintained by the people that the heavily populated 
districts would always control the election of the commissioners to 
the disadvantage of the more thinly populated sections — in short, 
that under that system ' equal and exact justice ' to all parts of the 
county could not be -secured. 

" The township S3^stem had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates 
back to 1635. 

" The first legal enactment concerning the system provided that, 
whereas, ' particular townshi[)S have many things which concern only 
themselves and the ordering of their own affairs, and disposing of 
l)usiness in their own town^^' therefore the ' freemen of every tow^n- 
ship, or a majority part of them, shall only have power to dispose of 
their own lands and woods, with all the appurtenances of said town, 
to grant lots, and to make such orders as may concern the well order- 
ing of their own towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders estab- 
lished by the general court. ' 

" They might also, " says Mr. Haines, "impose fines of not more 
than twenty shillings, and ' choose their own particular officers, as 
constables, surveyors for the highway, and the like. ' 

" Evidently this enactment relieved the general court of a mass of 
municipal details without any danger to the power of that body in 
controlling general measures of public policy. 

" Proi>ably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt 
for the control of their own home concerns. 

" The New England colonies were first governed by a general court 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 123 

or Legislature, composed of a Governor and a small council, which 
court, consisted of the most influential inhabitants, and possessed and 
exercised both legislative and judicial powers, which were limited only 
by the wisdom of the holders. 

'*They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and 
decided civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal 
regulations, and, in fact, did all the public business of the colony. " , 

Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in the 
first constitution in Connecticut, adopted in 1639, and the plan of 
township organization, as experience proved its remarkable economy, 
efficiency and adaptation to the requirements of a free and intelligent 
people, became universal throughout New England, and went west- 
ward with the immigrants from New England, into New York, Ohio 
and other Western States. 

Thus we find that the valuable system of county, township and 
town organizations had been thorough l}'^ tried and proven long before 
there was need of adopting it in Missouri, or any of the broad region 
west of the Mississippi river. But as the new country began to be 
opened, and as Eastern people began to move westward across the 
mighty river, and formed thick settlements along its western bank, 
the Territory and State, and county and township organizations soon 
followed in quick succession, and those diflerent systems became more 
or less improved, according as deemed necessary by the experience 
and judgment and demands of the people, until they have arrived at 
the present stage of advancement and efficiency. In the settlement 
of the Territory of Missouri, the Legislature began organizing 
counties on the Mississippi river. As each new county was formed, 
it was made to include under legal jurisdiction all the country bor- 
derino- west of it, and required to grant to the actual settlers electoral 
privileges and an equal share of the county government with those 
who properly lived in the geographical limits of the county. 

The counties first organized along the eastern borders of the State 
were o-iven for a short time iurisdiction over the lands and settlements 
adjoining each on the west, until these localities became sufficiently 
settled to support organizations of their own. 

GOVERNMEMT SURVEYS. 

No person can intelligently understand the history of a country 
without at the same time knowing its geography, and in order that a 
clear and correct idea of the geography of Monroe county may be 
obtained from the language already used in defining diflerent localities 



124 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

and pieces of laud, we insert herewith the plan of government surveys 
as given in Mr. E. A. Hickman's property map of Jackson county, 
Missouri : — 

"Previous to the formation of our present government, the east- 
ern portion of North America consisted of a number of British colo- 
nies, the territory of which was granted in large tracts to British 
^noblemen. By treaty of 1783, these grants were acknowleged as valid 
by the colonies. After the Revolutionary War, when these colonies 
were acknowledged independent States, all public domain within their 
boundaries was acknowledged to be the property of the colony within 
the bounds of which said domain was situated. 

" Virginia claimed all the north-western territory, including what 
is now known as Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and 
Illinois. After a meeting of the representatives of the various States 
to form a Union, Virginia ceded the north-west territory to the United 
States government. This took place in 1784 ; then all this north- 
west territory became government land. It comprised all south 
of the lakes and east of the Mississippi river and north and west 
of the States having definite boundary lines. This territory had been 
known as New France, and had been ceded by France to England in 
1768. In the year 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte sold to the United 
States all territory west of the Mississippi river and north of Mexico, 
extending to the Rocky mountains. 

" While the public domain was the property of the colonies, it was 
disposed of as follows: Each individual caused the tract he desired 
to purchase to be surveyed and platted. A copy of the survey was 
then filed with the registrar of lands, when, by paying into the State 
or Colonial treasury an agreed price, the purchaser received a patent 
for the land. This method of disposing of public lands made law. 
suits numerous, owing to different surveys often including the same 
ground. To avoid the difliculties and effect a general measurement 
of the territories, the United States adopted the present mode or 
system of land surveys, a description of which we give as follows : — 

" In an unsurveyed region, a point of marked and changeless topo- 
graphical features is selected as an initial point. The exact latitude 
and longitude of this point is ascertained by astronomical observation, 
and a suitable monument of iron or stone, to perpetuate the position, 
is thus reared. Through this point a true north and south line is run, 
which is called a 'pi'incipal meridian. This principal meridian may 
be extended north and south any desired distance. Along this line 
are placed, at distances of one-half mile from each other, posts of 



HISTORY OF MONllOE COUNTY. 125 

wood or stone or mounds of earth. These posts are said to establish 
the line, and are called section and quarter section posts. Principal 
meridians are numbered in the order in which they are established. 
Through the same initial point from which the principal meridian was 
surveyed, another line is now run and established by mile and half 
mile posts, as before, in a true east and west direction. This line is 
called the base line, and like the principal meridian, may be extended 
indefinitely in either direction. These lines form the basis of the 
survey of the country into townships and ranges. Township lines 
extend east and west, parallel with the base line, at distances of six 
miles from the base line and from each other, dividing the country 
into strips six miles wide, which strips are called townships. Range 
lines run north and south, parallel to the principal meridian, dividing 
the country into strips six miles wide, which strips are called ranges. 
Township strips are numbered from the base line, and range strips 
are numbered from the principal meridian. Townships lying north 
of the base line are ' townships north ; ' those on the south are ' town- 
ships south.' The strip lying next the base line is township one, the 
next one to that, township tivo, and so on. The range strips are num- 
bered in the same manner, counting from the principal meridian east 
or west, as the case may be. 

" The township and range lines thus divide the country into six- 
mile squares. Each of these squares is called a congressional town- 
ship. All north and south lines north of the equator approach each 
other as they extend north, finally meeting at the north pole ; there- 
fore north and south lines are not literally parallel. The east and 
west boundary lines of any range being six miles apart in the latitude 
of Missouri and Kansas, would, in thirty miles, approach each other 
at 2.9 chains, or 190 feet. If, therefore, the width of the range when 
started from the base line is made exactly six miles, it would be 2.9 
chains too narrow at the distance of thirty miles, or five townships 
north. To correct the width of ranges and keep them to the proper 
width, the range lines are not surveyed in a continuous straight line, 
like the principal meridian, entirely across the State, but only across 
a limited number of townships, usually five, where tbe \Vidth of the 
range is corrected by beginning a new line on the side of the range 
most distant from the principal meridian, at such a point as will make 
the range its correct width. All range lines are corrected in the same 
manner. The east and west township lines on which these correc- 
tions are made are called correction lines, or standard parallels. The 
surveys of the State of Missouri were made from the fifth principal 



126 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



meridian, which runs throughout the State, and its ranges are num- 
bered from it. The State of Kansas is surveyed and numbered from 
the sixth. Congressional townships are divided into thirty-six square 
miles, called sections, and are known by numbers according to their 
position. The following diagram shows the order of numbers and the 
sections in congressional townships : — 



-15- 



-20- 



-22- 



-23- 



-24- 



30 29 28- 



-31- 



-32- 



-26- 



-25- 



-33- 



-34- 



-35- 



-36- 



" Sections are divided into quarters, eighths and sixteenths, and are 
described by their position in the section. The full section contains 
640 acres, the quarter 160, the eighth 80, and the sixteenth 40. In 
the following diagram of a section, the position designated by a is 
known as the north-west quarter ; i is the north-east quarter of the 
north-east quarter ; d would be the south half of the south-east quar- 
ter, and would contain 80 acres. 



Sec. post. 



i Sec. post, 



Sec. post, 



i Sec. post. 



a 




h 


i 


1 60 acres 


f 


g 


b 


c 


e 


d 



Sec. post. 



i Sec. post. 



Sec. post. 



J Sec. post. 



" Congressional townships, as we have seen, are six-mile squares of 
land, made by the township and range lines, while civil or municipal 
townships are civil divisions, made for purposes of government, the 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 127 

one having no reference to the other, though simiUir in name. On 
the county map we see both kinds of townships — the congressional 
usually designated by numbers and in squares ; the municipal or civil 
township by name and in various forms. 

" By the measurement thus made by the government, the courses 
and distances are defined between any two points. St. Louis is in 
township 44 north, range 8 east, and Independence is in township 49 
north, range 32 west; how far, then, are Independence and St. Louis 
apart on a direct line? St. Louis is 40 townships east — 240 
miles — and 5 townships south — 30 miles ; the base and perpendicu- 
lar of a right-angled triangle, the hypothenuse being the required 
distance." 

ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS. 

The " township," as the term is used in common phraseology, in 
many instances is widely distinguished from that of "town," though 
many persons persist in confounding the two. '♦ In the United States 
many of the States are divided into townships of five, six, seven, or 
perhaps ten miles square, and the inhabitants of such townships are 
vested with certain powers for regulating their own affairs, such as 
repairing roads and providing for the poor. The township is subor- 
dinate to the county." A "town" is simply a collection of houses,, 
either large or small, and opposed to " country." 

The most important features connected with this system of town- 
ship surveys should be thoroughly understood by every intelligent 
farmer and business man ; still there are some points connected with 
the understanding of it, which need close and careful attention. The 
law which established this system required that the north and south 
lines should correspond exactly with the meridian passing through 
that point; also, that each township should be six miles square. To 
do this would be an utter impossibility, since the figure of the earth 
causes the meridians to converge toward the pole, making the north 
line to each township shorter than the south line of the same town- 
ship. To obviate the errors which are, on this account, constantly 
occurring, correction lines are established. They are parallels bound- 
ing a line of townships on the north, when lying north of the principal 
base from which the surveys, as they are continued, are laid out anew ; 
the range lines again starting at correct distances from the principal 
meridian. In Michigan these correction lines are repeated at the end 
of every tenth township, but in Oregon they have been repeated with 
every fifth township. The instructions to the surveyors have been 



128 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

that each range of townships should be made as much over six miles 
in width where it closes on to the next correction line north ; and it is 
further provided that in all cases where the exterior lines of the town- 
ships shall exceed, or shall not extend, six miles, the excess of defi- 
ciency shall be specially noted, or added to or deducted from the 
western or northern sections or half sections in such township, accord- 
ing as the error may be in running the lines from east to west, or 
from south to north. In order to throw the excess of deficiencies on 
the north and on the west sides of the township, it is necessary to 
survey the section lines from south to north, on a true meridian, leav- 
ing the result in the north line of the township to be governed by the 
convexity of the earth and the convergency of the meridians. 

Navigable rivers, lakes and islands are " meandered " or surveyed 
by the compass and chain along the banks. " The instruments em- 
ployed on these surveys, besides the solar compass, are a surveying 
chain 33 feet long, of 50 links, and another of smaller wire, as a 
standard to be used for correcting the former as often at least as 
every other day; also 11 tally pins, made of steel, telescope, tar- 
gets, tape-measure and tools for marking the lines upon trees or 
stones. In surveying through woods, trees intercepted by the line 
are marked with two chips or notches, one on each side ; these are 
called sight or line trees. Sometimes other trees in the vicinity are 
blazed on two sides quartering toward the line ; but if some distance 
from the line, the two blazes should be near together on the side facing 
the line. These are found to be permanent marks, not wholly recog- 
nizable for many years, but carrying with them their old age by the 
rings of growth around the blaze, which may at any subsequent time 
be cut out and counted as years; and the same are recognized in 
courts of law as evidence of the date of survey. They can not be 
obliterated by cutting down the trees or otherwise without leaving 
evidence of the act. Corners are marked upon trees if found at the 
right spot, or else upon posts set in the ground, and sometimes a mon- 
ument of stones is used for a township corner, and a single stone for 
n section corner ; mounds of earth are made when there are no stones 
nor timber. The corners of the four adjacent sections are designated 
by distinct marks cut into a tree, one in each section. These trees, 
facing the corner, are plainly marked with the letters B. T. (bearing 
tree) cut into the wood. Notches cut upon the corner posts or trees 
indicate the number of miles to the outlines of the township, or, if on 
the boundaries of the township, to the township corners." 



CHAPTER V. 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP. 

Physical Features — Old Settlers — William Goodlow — A Sad Incident — Caldwell 
Opens a Store —Paris — When Laid Out— Names of Commissioners — Florida a 
Candidate — Paris named by Mrs. J. .C. Fox — Donations for County Seat — Sale 
of Town Lots — Names of Some of the Purchasers — Parties Associated in Laying 
Out the town — Spotted Fawn — Pioneer Business Men — Old Race Track — Secret 
Orders — Banks and Bankers — Woolen Mills and Carding Machines — Flouring 
Mills— Paris Baud — Dedicatory Services of the New Christian Church — Public 
Schools of Paris — Business Directory. 

Jackson township is the central municipal division of the county, 
and contains the county seat. Its area is larger than that of any 
other township in the county, embracing 122 square miles. About 
one-fifth of the township is prairie. The land along the water 
courses is generally hilly and broken, with here and there a nar- 
row strip of bottom land, which is very productive. The southern 
portion of the township is best for agricultural purposes. The prin- 
cipal streams are Otter creek, the Middle and Elk forks of Salt 
river and Long branch. These water courses are well distributed, 
and form an admirable system of drainage. The township, taken as 
a whole, is a fair, average township, and the farmers are generally 
prosperous. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

The early settlers of Jackson township were generally from Ken- 
tucky, and, in fact, that grand old State has contributed more to the 
settlement of this entire region, including the Boone's Lick country, 
than any other two States combined. Her sons and her daughters 
have ever been in the front rank of civilization, and wherever they 
located, lived and died, there may be found, even to this day, among 
the present generation, many of the traits of character which they 
possessed. 

Of course, it is not expected that we will, or can give, the names of 
all the early settlers of Jackson township, or any other township in 
the county. This would, at the present time, be simply impossible, 
as more than a half century has intervened since the pioneers began 
to make their settlements, and no record of that date has been made 

(129) 



130 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

or preserved. We should be glad to record the names of all the men 
who braved the dangers and difficulties of pioneer times, and present 
a brief sketch of their lives, together with a few of their prominent 
characteristics. But time and space would preclude us from entering 
into details, which would doubtless prove to be of so much interest to 
the reader, and consequently we must content ourselves with the names 
of such of the pioneers as we have been enabled to secure. 

Of the pioneers of Jackson township we record the following names : 
James Runkle, Samuel Pool, Jeremiah Foreman, Samuel Curtright, 
Aaron "James, William Jackson, Rumsey Saling, Edmund Maddox, 
Reuben Burton, Charles Allen, James M. S. Berry, John W. McKin- 
ney, William Armstrong, Philip Williams, AVilliam Davis, Durrit 
Wills, George Adams, James Poage, Samuel Sprowl, Thomas D. 
Reed, Henry Thomas, Hiram McManama, John Forman, William H. 
Forman, Simon Duckworth, Otho Adams, Ovid Adams, Samuel S. 
Rowe, James Jackson, Charles Clay, Triposa Clay, Hiram Williams, 
Johnson Williams, Austin Moore, Travis Moore, William Arnold, Sr., 
William Arnold, Jr., Harvey Arnold, Talliaferro Bostick, John 
McKamey, Isaac Burris, Sandford Hoskins, Robert Simpson, Branch 
Miller, Davis Scott, John Saling, Jake Trumbo, Mike Trumbo, 
William Runkle, Paul Hereford, James Collins, James Robert, 
William Saling, James Saling, Daniel Saling, James Woods, John 
Woods, Archibald Rice, James Vaughn, Samuel Murray, John S. 
McGee, William McGee and John McGee. 

In giving the histor}^ of Paris, we will mention the names of the old 
settlers, including a number of the early business men of the town. 

Sandford Hoskins operated a distillery about the year 1837, nearly 
one mile east of Paris. An early school was taught by Rev. John 
Wright, a Presbyterian minister, just south of town. 

William Armstrong erected the first mill that was put up in the 
township. Although it was small and unpretentious, it did the grind- 
ing for a number of 3'ears for a large section of country. This mill 
ground both corn and wheat, and stood on the bank of the Middle 
fork of Salt river, about one mile east of Paris, and was a grist and 
saw mill. It was built in 1833. John Sears operated the first 
pottery, about five miles north of Paris, about the year 1838. 

William Goodlow was recognized as one of the best fiddlers in the 
country, and when spending an evening with his friends, he possessed 
the happy faculty of discoursing to them the most delightful music, 
often accompanying his instrument with an unique and improvised 
song, which was replete with wise and startling hits and felicitous 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 131 

iniiiiendoes, touching the vulnerability of some one or more of his 
entranced and rustic auditors. Goodlow was especially happy when 
playing for a dance. Upon such occasions the scintillations of his 
wit were resplendently luminous, and even the instrument itself 
seemed to be inspired with new life, and gave back its most thrilling 
notes to the amorous touch of its rustic owner. Never did Trouba- 
dour sweep the strings of his harp with half as much pride and self- 
assurance as did Goodlow when he sounded the notes of his violin at 
a country dance. He played many pieces to the delight of the 
dancers, but none permeated their very souls like that old familiar 
tune called, in yeoman parlance, "Chicken Pie." So irresistibly 
happyfyiug in its effects was it that even old age forgot its wonted 
infirmities, and was often found threading the mazes of the dance. 
The words of this memorable song were verj^ suggestive, the first two 
lines of which ran as follows : — 

Chicken pie and pepper, oh ! 
Are good for the ladies, oh! 

While " Chicken Pie" was universally liked as a favorite dish and 
as a favorite dance song, there was another melody that always en- 
livened the dancers, as they listened to its inspiring measures. This 
was " Buftalo Gals," and seemed to be played especially on moon- 
light nights, when the v^eather would permit of a dance under the be- 
witching beams of a silver moon. 

In these dances the women would often take part in the jigs, and 
although they did not make as much noise as the men, they success- 
fully vied with them in the intricacies and evolutions of the dance. 

A SAD INCIDENT. 

John McGee, w^iose name appears last in the list of old settlers 
above mentioned, together with his daughter, met with a painful and 
tragic death soon after he settled in the township. The incident was 
related to the writer hereof by one of the party who accompanied Mr. 
McGee to the county, and who was near by at the time of the unfortu- 
nate occurrence. 

John McGee and family emigrated from Kentuck}^ Mercer county, 
to Howard county, Missouri, in 1822. McGee remained in Howard 
long enough to make two crops, and in the spring of 1824 came to 
Monroe county — to Jackson township — and built a cabin, to which 
he moved his family. He had brought from Howard county nearly 
all of his household goods, and while returning with the last wagon 
load, he and his grown daughter Mollie had reached a point on the 



132 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

prairie on the head of Brush creek, and near the present farm of David 
McKamey, when they observed that the tall, dry prairie was on fire 
and burning rapidly towards them. They were driving some hogs at 
the time, and seeing a small ravine at the right of the road they 
drove the hogs down into it and laid down themselves in the ravine, 
thinking that they would in a manner be safe from the devouring 
flames. Mr. McGee took his coat off and covered his daughter with 
it, so as to shield her as much as possible. But a few moments 
passed before the fire, which was blown by a strong wind, was upon 
them. It soon passed over them, but burned them so severely that 
they died in about eight days thereafter. It was noticed that their 
hair and clothes were burned to such an extent that but little of either 
was left when they arrived at the house, which was about a mile away. 
They walked home after the occurrence and did not suffer much until 
about the third day. There was no physician nearer than forty miles, 
and none was sent for. The neighbors, who were very kind, but few 
in number, did all they could for the sufferers. They applied every- 
thing they could think of to alleviate the pain, which was intense 
after the third day, until they died. Poultices made of slippery-elm 
bark and flax seed were then the pioneer remedies, and were freely 
used. 

Mr. Ephraim Smith, who is now 72 years ©f age, and still a resi- 
dent of Monroe county, came with Mr. McGee to the county, and was 
driving Mr. McGee's cattle upon the day of the fire. He had just 
passed along the same road, and was at McGee's cabin when the latter 
and his daughter came up. Mr Smith says that the prairie caught on fire 
just before sundown. Some emigrant wagons had camped in the edge 
of the prairie the night before, and leaving their camp-fire still burn- 
ing in the morning, and a strong wind springing up late in the afternoon 
of that day, the fire was blown into the grass, which being very dry 
and inflammable, the prairie was soon a vast blazing sheet. 

CALDWELL OPENS A STORE. 

Green V. Caldwell came from New London, Ralls county, Missouri, 
in 1831, and located on the main highway, leading from Maple Grove 
in Monroe county, to New London in Ralls. Monroe county had not 
at that time been organized. Caldwell opened a small store and sold 
goods from 1831 until his death, which occurred about the latter part 
of the same year. His store was about two and a half miles south- 
east of the present town of Paris — where the poor farm is now 
located. He knew that a new county would soon be erected out of 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 133 

the present territory of Monroe county, and located where he did, 
believing that the county seat would ultimately be established at his 
place of business. 

According to information furnished by James R. Abernathy, Esq., 
Caldwell opened the first store in the county. Middle Grove also 
claims the honor of having the first, but from the best and most reli- 
able of living witnesses, it is generally conceded that Maj. William 
N. Penn sold the first goods at Stice's mill, near Florida, in 1831. 

PARIS. 

Paris, the county seat of Monroe county, M^as laid out in the sum- 
mer of 1831, the location having been selected by Hancock S. Jackson, 
of Randolph county ; Stephen Glascock, of Ralls county, and Joseph 
Holliday, of Pike county. The act creating and organizing the county 
named the above parties as commissioners to select the county seat. 

The town of Florida, which was laid out in 1831, was also a candi- 
date for the prospective honor of being selected as the seat of justice. 
Although not centrally located, it was at that time the most conven- 
ient trading point for the early settlers, who had generally taken 
claims in the eastern portion of the county. Besides, Florida Avas 
located on Salt river, which was thought to be a navigable stream for 
small boats, or rather that it could be made navigable by a small out- 
lay of money. A river port possessed superior advantages over what 
was termed an inland town. Steamboats were the very life of the 
town and lessened the expense of transportation for both passengers 
and freight. They contributed in the same measure to the growth 
and prosperity of the country or town as the railroads do to-day. 
The commissioners, however, doubtless having an eye single to the 
convenience of the entire population of Monroe county, after every 
portion of it should become settled, and not having any faith in the 
practical navigation of Salt river, very wisely selected the site of 
Paris as the location for the county seat. 

After they had performed their work and made the selection, they 
went to the home of J. C. Fox, then near Middle Grove, and perhaps 
as some consideration for the kind hospitality extended to them, Mrs. 
Fox was permitted the honor of naming the new town, which she 
called Paris, after Paris, Kentucky, her old home. 

DONATIONS FOR COUNTY SEAT. 

The following record, which was made at the first term of the circuit 
com-t in June, 1831, shows the names of the parties donating land to 



134 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

the county for the town-site of Puris, and the number of acres donated 
by each : — 

The commissioners appointed by an act of the General Assembly of 
this State entitled, " An Act to Organize the County of Monroe," ap- 
proved January 6, 1831, produced in court a deed from Hightower T. 
Hackney and Elizabeth, his wife, for ten acres of land, to be laid off 
on the east side of the north half of a tract of land known as the east 
half of the north-east quarter of section 10, in township 54, range 10, 
and bounded west by a line running parallel to the section line, be- 
tween sections 10 and 11, in said township; also one other tract of 
land contiguous to the aforesaid described ten acres, and also 
being a part of the aforesaid described half quarter section, to wit : 
iifteen acres to be hiid ofF in the north end of the south half of a tract 
known as the east half of the north-east quarter of section 10, of 
township 54, of range 10 ; also to be bounded south b}- a line running- 
parallel to the south boundary line of section 10, in the aforesaid 
township ; also a deed from James R. Abernathy and Rosana, his wife, 
for a tract of nine acres of land, being a part of the east half of the 
north-west quarter of section 11, township 54, range 10, to be run out 
contiguous to the land conveyed by James C. Fox and Ann, his wife, 
to the county of Monroe, and adjoining said lands on the east, (o be 
run out by an east boundar}^ line, parallel with the sectional line, and 
to be 90 poles in length upon the lines running north and south, and 
to be 16 poles wide upon the lines running east and west ; also a deed 
from James C. Fox and Ann, his wife, for a tract of 45 acres of land, 
to be laid off in the north end of the west half of the north-west 
quarter of section 11, township 54, range 10, west, by a line running 
parallel to the southerly boundary line of said section 11, which said 
deeds were severally made to the aforesaid commissioners, for the use 
of the said county of Monroe, and were duly acknowledged by the 
makers thereof, as appears by the certificates indorsed thereon. 

The above deeds of conveyance were considered sufficient by the 
court to pass the title to the town site, and were approved accordingly. 
The whole number of acres donated was 79. 

SALE OF TOWN LOTS. 

The first sale of lots took place September 12, 13 and 14, 
1831. During the three days 128 lots were sold, the sum realized be- 
ing $4,847.05. November 4, 1833, a second sale of 24 lots, which 
had not been paid for, and which had been forfeited, took place. These 
forfeited lots brought $254.81V3. It appears that Marshall Kelley 
purchased the two first lots that were sold ; the two purchased by him 
were lots 6 and 7, in block 12, for which he paid $301. These 
lots are now occupied by the Glenn House, and are assessed at 
|fi,500. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 135 

We will give the names of ti number of the parties who purchased 
lots, as they included many of the pioneers of Monroe county : — 

Edward M. Holden, Alexander Eobertson, George W. White, 
William Blakey, Thomas Barbee, P. K. W. Estle, Alexander Thomp- 
son, William D. Wise, Archibald Patterson, William Morrison, Abel 
M. Conner, Absalom Hurt, Robert Shaw, John Doss, Robert Hutch- 
inson, Jeff. E. Powers, Thomas Tyre, George Saling, Jordan Size- 
more, Thomas Hayes, Pleasant Ford, Alexander Colvin, John Burton, 
Samuel Roverty, Martin B. Gray, William W. Compton, Spencer 
Grogin, Francis Ratcliff, Bluford Davis, William Armstrong, Edward 
Camplin, Austin A. King, E. W. McBride, James Barnes, Austin 
Swinney, James H. Smith, Joel H. Gentry, Thomas Thompson, Will- 
iam Runkle, David Gentry, Moses Barter, William K Van Arsdale, 
James R. Abernathy, Simeon Burton, J. D. Caldwell, Eli Bozarth, 
Peter Keriiey, George Harrison, Wesley Hill, J. H. Curry, C. C. 
Acuff, J. C. Fox, Edward Turner, James Mappin, Silas King, John 
B. Hatten. 

PARTIES ASSISTING IN LAYING OUT THE TOWN. 

John S. McGee surveyed the town site. The following persons who 
assisted in and about the laying out of Paris, received for their ser- 
vices the sums set opposite their names : — 

Aka Adams, $7.50 ; John S. McGee, $35 ; Solomon Humphrey, 
$3.75; Joseph Holliday, $10; James R. Abernathy (clerk of sale of 
lots), $8; James C. Fox, $79.87V2 and $11.25 ; Ebenezer W. Mc- 
Bride, $6.26; Marshall Kelley, $19.08. 

SPOTTED FAWN. 

When the court-house square was being surveyed, the parties en- 
gaged in the work caught a wild spotted fawn. It was taken by 
James R. Abernathy to his home and raised until it grew to be a large 
deer. The court-house square was covered with hazel brush and a 
heav}' growth of large white oak trees. The hazel brush and oak 
trees have long since been supplanted by ornamental shade trees, 
and a beautiful and stately editice. * 

PIONEER BUSINESS MEN. 

The first houses in the town were erected by J. C. Fox and High- 
tower T. Hackney. The former commenced building a log house one 
year before the county seat was located. It still stands in the rear of 
the residence built by J. C. Fox. Hackney had put up a small cabin 

4 



136 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

some time before the county was organized, near the spot where the 
Old School Baptist Church stands. The first store house was built by 
J. C. Fox, on the corner of Main and Caldwell streets, and was occu- 
pied immediately by Fox & Caldwell with a small stock of goods. 
About the same time, or perhaps a little later, a man by the name of 
Conner opened a store in one room of the house which at that time 
stood where J. H. Hugley's residence is now located, on the east 
and north side of the river. He soon afterwards moved his goods 
into a building which was located about where Frank Margruter now 
lives, north of the square. The next store-house was built and opened 
by Maj. William Blakey, upon the site afterwards occupied by the 
Virginia house. 

John G. Caldwell and Thomas S. Miller, as Caldwell & Miller, 
Jeff. Wilcoxen, J. B. Howard & Co., Perry Gentry, James McMurtry 
and John Forsythe, as McMurtry & Forsythe, John E. Shropshire, 
Richmond Saling, Robert Caldwell, George Glenn and others were 
among the earliest business men. 

The first hotel was kept by Marshall Kelley, in a log building, 
where the Glenn House now stands. J. Lair, Alfred Wilson, John 
Davis, Henry Davis, Newton Wilson and William Turner were early 
blacksmiths. William Willis was one of the first shoemakers. Tallia- 
ferro Bostick and Jonathan Gore were saddlers ; William Armstrong 
and William Stephens were tailors. 

Among the more prominent and influential citizens of the town 
were the witty and eloquent Charles W. Flannagan, the self-made and 
earnest Ben Davis, the shrewd and positive William K Van Arsdale, 
the good and exemplary Anderson Woods and Alfred Wilson, the 
industrious and never-fagging James M. Bean and a host of others 
whose names have been forgotten. Near the town lived Dr. G. M. 
Bower, a member of Congress from this district in 1844. These men 
have all passed from the stage of action, some of them resting in the 
old cemetery north of the railroad, where — 

" The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep, " 

while others found honorable sepulture in newer and more distant 
homes. 

OLD RACE TRACK. 

In the early history of Paris, a few of the old settlers, to amuse 
themselves, opened a race track about a mile and a quarter south-west 
of the town, near Thomas and Christopher Burke's farm. Here met 
the sporting men and lovers of the turf for several years, drawn thither 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. lo7 

at stated times, to witness the speed of some strange or favorite horse. 
Among those famous coursers, whose popuhirity has come down to 
this day, were " Tom " and " Charlemagne," the former the property 
of Reuben Frigate, and the latter the property of the Bufords. The 
Bufords came from Kentucky, and were related to the Buford family 
of that State — many of whom have since been noted for their fond- 
ness for fine-blooded racers. To these races, people would come 
from a wide section of country, and would wager money, whisky, 
stock, or anything that they had, upon their favorite horse. Here 
could always be purchased the apple-cider and gingerbread of the 
olden time — a repast that the boys of that day can never forget. 
Here, too, were held the old-fashioned field musters, which were so 
common in the early settlement of this country. Associated with 
these musters is the memory of Gen. R. D. Austin and Col. William 
M. Sharp, who were the general oflBcers. The race track and the 
muster are now things of the past, so far as they pertain to Old 
Monroe. 

A fire occurred in Paris on the last day of December, 1873. 

SECRET ORDERS. 

Paris Lodge, iVo. 29, I.O.O.F. — Was organized March 2, 
1848, the charter members being William Taylor, A. J. Caplinger, P. 
A. Heitz, Marion Brown and Joseph Lefever. The above named 
members withdrew from the Hannibal lodge and organized the Paris 
lodge. The present officers are A. D. F. Armstrong, N. G. ; E. M. 
Alexander, V. G. ; William Rawlings, secretary ; J. T, Moss, P. S. ; 
M. W. Speed, treasurer. The lodge contains about 80 members; it 
owns the building where the lodge meets, is out of debt, and is in a 
flourishing condition. 

The Triple Link, of May 15, 1884, in speaking of the above lodge, 
says : — 

While in the hall of No. 29, at Paris, on the 26th, we looked into 
their records and investigated to some extent the history of the lodge. 
Their charter was issued under the administration of 1. M. Veitch, 
then Grand Master of Missouri, now a Past Grand Sire, and is dated 
March 21, 1848. The charter members were from Hannibal, having 
taken cards from Mystic Lodge, No, 17, for the purpose of instituting 
No. 29. Of these, we understand, but two are living, viz., A. J. 
Caplinger, of Paris, and Judge James Carr, of St. Louis, both of 
whom still retain membership in No. 29. 

The Bible in the lodge was purchased by the contributions of 36 
ladies of the place, whose names appear on the inside of the cover, the 
record bearing date March 15, 1849. How many of these good 



138 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

women are now living we were unable to ascertain, but it is safe to 
say that the majority have crossed the l)oundless river. Many of 
their posterity, however, hold membership in the lodge, the principles 
and teachings of which are in accord with the sacred book lying before 
them at everv meeting, and which was presented by the mothers for 
the o;uidance of their sons. 

Paris Lodge, No. 127, A. O. U. TF.— Was chartered May 25, 
1879, with the following charter members: Martin Bodine, George 
C. Brown, George Seibert, M. W. Speed, F. O. Collins, R. M. Bur- 
gess, H. P. Vaughn, John E. Horn, George W. Crow, T. G. Harley, 
B. F. Blanton, John Bower and C. Alexander. Its present officers are 
M. W. Speed, M. W. ; D. O. Bean, P. M. W. ; B. C. Smith, O. ; B. 
F. Blanton, G. ; S. S. Bassett, R. ; W. H. Strean, F. ; George Seibert, 
S. ; John S. Pool, R. 

Paris Union Lodge, No. 19, A. F. & A. M. — Was chartered 
March 1, 1835, with Stephen Barton as W. M. ; W. K. Van Arsdale, 
S.W., and John Heard, J. W. The officers for 1884 are: Theo. 
Bruce, W. M. ; E. T. Wetmore, S. W.; Henry P. Long, J. W. ; 
William F. Buckner, T. ; Joe^' M. Moss, Sec'y ; J. T. Hickey, S. D. ; 
J. M. Worrell, J. D. ; Richard Gentry, tyler. The finance commit- 
tee consists of D. H. Moss, G. B. Caldwell and J. S. McGee. 
The hall committee are S. S. Bassett, T. T. Rodes, H. P. Long. 
The regular times of meeting are the first and second Saturdays in 
each month. 

Monroe Chapter, No. 16, B. A. M. — The charter of this order 
was issued October 10, 1867, to replace the charter lost about 1861. 
At this time Abner E. Gore was made M. E. H. P. ; W. F. Buckner, 
E. K. ; Drury Ragsdale, E. S. The officers for 1884 are George B. 
Caldwell, M. E. H. P. ; Richard Thomas, E. K. ; James D. Evans, 
E. S. ; William F. Buckner, Treas. ; Joe M. Moss, Sec'y; Henry P. 
Long, C. of H. ; E. T. Wetmore, P. S. ; Sam. S. Bassett, R. A. G. ; 
William G. Smizer, M. 3d V. ; Thomas Chowning, M. 2d V. ; James 
S. McGee, M. 1st V. ; James L. Fisher, Sent. The first Monday in 
each month is their time of meeting. 

Parsifal Commandery, No. 44, K. T. — Was chartered May 6, 
1884. The charter members were A. Wood Terrill, George C. 
Brown, Jas. S. McGee, Theo. Brace, Geo. B. Caldwell, T. T. Rodes, 
S. S. Bassett, Jos. M. Moss, L. D. Finch, J. W. Wayland, A. Noland, 
J. L. Fisher. The officers for 1884 are Sirs A. Wood Terrill, 
E. C. ; Geo. C. Brown, G. ; Jas. S. McGee, C. G. ; Theo. Brace, P. ; 
Geo. B. Caldwell, S. W. ; T. T. Rodes, J. W. ; S. S. Bassett, T. ; 



HISTORY OF MOISEOE COUNTY. 139 

Jos. M. Moss, R. ; L. D. Finch, S. B. ; A. M. Burgess, S. B. ; Henry 
P. Long, W. ; Jus. L. Fisher, C. of G. ; Jno. C. Peirsol, 1st G. ; 
E. T. Wetraore, 2d G. ; Jno. R. Crosswhite, 3d G. 

Father Matthew Lodge, iYo. 358, I. 0. G. T. — Was organized on 
the 26th day of October, 1871, with the following as charter mem- 
bers:— Theo. Brace, Mrs A. E. Fowkes, T. B. Lunsford, W. J. 
Powell, Miss V. C. McCann, H. C. Kenyon, Mrs. Bell Mounce, W. 
H. Dawson, Miss Nettie Burnett, Miss Sallie Dawson, D. Myers, Miss 
Lucy Burnett, Mrs. R. L. Hocker, B. B. Broughton, Miss Mary J. 
Runkle, Miss Ella Matchett, Dr. A. E. Gore, John E. Horn, George 
W. Monson, Geo. W. Cunningham, Jas. C. Bean, R. S. Wilburn, 
John Matchett, H. W. Shortridge, J. C. Fox, W. W. Moffat, John 
W. Mounce, A. J. Caplinger, Thos. B. Veal, Miss Sallie Caplinger. 
The officers for the quarter ending July 31, 1884, were T. B. 
Broughton, AV. C. T. ; Miss Eva Dawson, W. V. T. ; Miss Bessie 
Manu'el, W. R. S. ; B. B. Broughton, W. F. S. ; Mrs. A. W. Brough- 
ton, W. T. ; John G. Harley, W. C. ; D. C. Greenman, W. M. ; Mrs. 
Eliza Dauson, W. I. G. ; Chas. Grow, W. C. G. ; Wm. H. Dauson, 
L. D. W. C. T. 

Paris Lodge, No. 1994, Knights of Honor. — Was organized on 
the 12th day of January, 1880, by J. W. Halsted, with the following- 
charter members: — James A. Robinson, Thos. J. Marsh, Thos. B. 
Broughton, P. J. Clapp, J. W. Mountjoy, F. A. Asmuth, R. H. West, 
T. LrFox, B. G. Dysart, Jas. Wilson, Jas. L. Fisher, R. B. Worrell, 
E. S. Reynolds, W. B. Craig, N. Ashcraft, C. F. Vaughn, A. W. 
Riggs, W. R. Vaughn, T. P. Bashaw, A. J. Austin, T. f. Ruby, N. 
G. Gosney, J. D. Bounds, F. V. Ragsdale, Theo. Brace, F. P. Vaughn, 
T. M. Dawson, Wm. L. Combs, C. M. Schrader. The officers for 
the term ending the 31st of December, 1884, are Thos. W. McCrary, 
dictator; W. T. Grear, vice dictator; B. F. Blanton, assistant dic- 
tator ; T. B. Broughton, reporter; R. H. West, Hnancial reporter; 
T. S. Shaw, treasurer ; Geo. C. Brown, chaplain; W. R, Basket, 
guide , J. L. Fisher, guardian ; J. G. Harley, sentinel ; N. Ash- 
craft, E. S. Reynolds, T. B. Broughton, trustees ; B. G. Dysart, 
medical examiner; T. B. Broughton, lodge deputy grand dictator. 

BANKS AND BANKERS. ' 

A branch of the Farmers' Bank of Missouri was established at 
Paris, in July, 1858, with Thomas Crntcher, president, and O. P. 
Gentry, cashier. It continued to do business until 1863, when W. F. 
Buckner, who was cashier at that time, proceeded to wind up the busi- 



140 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



ness ; his hist statement of the utfairs of the bunk, was made in 1865. 
The next banking enterprise was that of the Monroe Savings Asso- 
ciation, which commenced business October 1, 18(55. David H. Moss 
was president and John S. Conjers, cashier. Tlie capital stock was 
$20,000. It ran until May 1, 1871, when it was succeeded by the First 
National Bank of Paris, with a capital of $100,000, paid in. David 
H. Moss is president, John S. Conyers, cashier, and W. F. Buckner, 
assistant cashier. The statement of the First National Bank of Paris 
is as follows : — 



RESOURCES. 

Discounts 8181,352 0-1 

U.S. Bonds 125,000 00 

County and township bonds. 4G,G00 00 
Nat. Park Bank, New York. 31,973 59 
Tliird Nat. Bank, St. Louis. 35,049 38 
Continental Bank, St. Louis. 10,045 4(J 
M'rch'nts' Nat. Bank, Cliicajio 3,948 41 
Furniture and fixtures . . 1,000 00 

Expense 1,296 30 

Taxes 409 50 

Treasurer U. S 4,531 37 

Real Estate (3,000 00 

Premiums 4,275 00 

Casli 70,150 59 



LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock . . . 
Circulation .... 

Deposits 

Surplu 

Undivided profits . . 



.f 100,000 00 

90,000 00 

284,451 48 

31,000 00 

16,169 86 

$521,631 64 



^521,631 64 



WOOLEN MILLS AND CARDING MACHINES. 

The first carding machine that was operated in the county was put 
up by Green V.Caldwell, al)out where the poor farm is located, in 
1830. Caldwell opened a store at the same place as early as 1831. 
After the county l^ecame settled, carding machines were run at Florida 
and other places in the same vicinit}^ and several were located at 
Paris at different intervals. Among these was that of Charles Daw- 
son, who established a custom roll carding machine prior to 1866, 
which he continued to operate until about the year 1868. 

In 1866 Broughton Bros. (Benj. B and Thomas B.) erected at 
Paris what is known as a one set mill, which runs 200 spindles and 
two sets of custom cards. This mill manufactures about 15,000 yards 
of pure woolen goods everv season, which is sold to the local trade — 
purchasers coming also from the adjoining counties. These gentle- 
men employ upon an average 13 hands, and work up about 20,000 
pounds of wool, for which they pay from 15 to 50 cents per pound. 
Their pa3'^-roll sometimes shows an expenditure of nearly $1,800 dur- 
ing the season. They now have on hand $4,000 worth of goods and 
about 5,000 pounds of vvool. The mill is a three-story,brick ; the cost 
of building and machinery to the present time was $20,000. J. S. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 141 

Conyers was ti partnei- in the mill from 186(3 to 1871, and H. C.Ken- 
yon from 1871 to 1881. 

FLOURING MILLS. 

Among the early millers of Paris were Robb, Wallace and Crutcher, 
John, George and Frank Crow, and others whose names we could not 
get. The successors of the Crow Bros, were Grimes and Withers 
(G. P. Grimes and G. R. Withers), who rebuilt the mill in 1881 and 
in 1882. It is a fine brick building; is run by roller process, has a 
buhr for making cornmeal, and has the capacity to grind 125 barrels 
of flour per day. The mill has five sets of double and one set of 
single rollers, one 4-reel scalping chest, one 6-reel flouring chest, two 
single flouring reels, two centripetal reels, two case purifiers — double 
machines ; one Throop separator, one Throop brush machine and one 
smut machine. The mill is run by a Greenleaf 125-horse power 
engine. The flour is of an excellent quality and is sold to both home 
and foreign markets. 

PARIS BAND. 

This band was organized early in 1884, its members being F. H. 
Crane, Chas. Blanton, Ed. McGee, Sec. ; J. S. West, Carson McGee, 
Treas. ; Richard Gamble, Will Bassett, Tom Ransdale, Pres. ; Joe 
Caplinger, Phil Hale. 

[From Paris Mercury, July, 1S84.] 
DEDICATORY' SERVICES OF THE NEW CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

Sunday, July 20, 1884, in the forenoon, a large congregation 
gathered in the new Christian church, in this city, to witness and take 
part in dedicating that handsome edifice to the " worship of God and 
the good of humanity." People from far and near had gathered there, 
some from distant cities, to celebrate this happy event in the history 
of the congregation that has so long and faithfully labored here. After 
the vast audience had been seated, the choir opened the services by 
singing the song, " Welcome." Elder J. W. Mountjoy then read 
passages from the Scriptures suitable to the occasion, and ottered an 
appropriate prayer. After the choir had sung an anthem, Elder Alex. 
Proctor preached an able and interesting sermon upon the birth, growth 
and mission of the Christian Church. We could not do this grand dis- 
course justice by giving merely a synopsis of it, and, as we can not 
give it entire, we will state that it did the orator honor and delighted 
his audience, showing that his mind sparkles and his soul burns with 
the grand ideas and purposes that characterized the lives of the great 
reformers in the past. He is earnest and eloquent in delivery, gentle 
and child-like in manner, and may be justly termed one of the advance 
thinkers of the age. He is broad and liberal in his views, it being 



142 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

impossible for a little or selfish thought to ever find lodgment in a 
heart and mind like his. Gathered around the altar, listening to his 
discourse, were several who took part in the first meeting that ever 
assembled here in the name of the Christian Church — about fifty-one 
years ago. To these old patriarchs, who had watched the development 
of the congregation from a mere handful to its present large member- 
ship, that day witnessed the consummation of the crowning earthly 
epoch in the history of the church in this city. A number of the prin- 
cipal promoters of the organization of the chuich, and who cared for 
and earnestly worked for its success, have fallen asleep and rest from 
their labors. To these Mr. Proctor paid a touching and beautiful trib- 
ute, entwining a crown of roses upon the brow of each no less fresh 
and beautiful than the lovely flowers that decorated the pulpit and 
dais on this occasion. 

After the communion services, the audience dispersed to meet again 
at three o'clock. 

The services in the afternoon consisted of songs by the choir and 
short speeches of congratulation by the ministers present. After a 
few appropriate remarks by the pastor. Elder H, B. Davis, thanking 
the building committee — Daniel Eubank. S. P. Birkit and S. S. Bas- 
sett — for the noble manner in which they had discharged the duties 
assigned them, Judge D. H. Moss, one of the principal factors in the 
church enterprise, in behalf of the building committee, offered the 
following as a report of the committee : — 

RESOURCES. LIABILITIES. 

Total amount paid into tlie Jos. Dirigo, stone work . . $1,553 35 

hands of tlie building com- Geo. W. Seibert, brick . . . 2,451 1)5 

mittee derived from sub- J. W. Austin, carpenter work . 1,350 00 

scriptions, sale of seminary Lumber 1,701 20 

lots and old building . . $10,553 35 David H. Moss, Jr., painting . 310 00 

Freight bills 63 40 

Stained glass 500 00 

Carpets 240 00 

Chandeliers 139 00 

Seats 750 00 

Pulpit furniture 100 00 

Plastering 874 00 

Stone steps 150 00 

Frescoing 250 00 

Fence 500 00 

Total value church property, $10,932 90 

Judge Moss explained that the frescoing, fencing and steps were 
yet to be paid for, and that there is a balance on hand of $490 for that 
purpose. Of the entire subscription made to the building fund, but 
$29 was unavailable, and that was caused by death and inability. The 
building and furniture is paid for in full. 

Following the reading of the report. Elders Surber and H. F. Davis, 
of Monroe City; Jacob Hugley, evangelist; Rev. J. T.Williams, 
pastor of the Baptist Church of this city; John Burns, of St. Louis ; 
Elder Proctor, of Independence, and that grand old soldier of the 
Cross, Elder J. C. Davis, of Woodlawn, all made short and spirited 



HISTORi' OF MONROE COUNTY. 143 

speeches, congratuL-iting the church and the coramuiiity upon the 
erection of so beautiful a temple in their midst. 

At night, Elder Proctor preached a sermon upon the " Glorification 
of Christ." It was conceived by a master mind, and delivered in an 
earnest and captivating manner. After the conclusion of the services, 
Elder Proctor left for his home in Independence, his departure being 
keenly regretted by all. 

We can not close this article without speaking a word of praise for 
the most thrilling and lovely music rendered by the choir, which is led 
by Mr. Philip Hales. 

THE BUILDING 

is a handsome brick structure 96 feet long, 47 feet wide, and 47 feet 
to top of roof. The windows are arched with stone, the walls orna- 
mented with pilasters, each one crowned with a stone cap or entabla- 
ture. The tower, built in the north-west corner of the church — the 
house facing the west — is 90 feet high, mounted with an iron cross. 
The auditorium room is 44x57 feet, with an arched ceiling 26 feet high 
in center. The floor inclines 29 inches from front to rear. The 
ceiling is of corrugated wood, painted in panel and is very neat and 
handsome. The seats are of ash, the ends being of walnut. The 
windows are of stained glass, the designs upon which are very pretty. 
The carpet is red and harmonizes with the other furniture of the room 
The pul[)it is on a dais in the east end of the church, and is a neat 
little affair of oiled walnut. One large and two small walnut chairs, 
upholstered with velvet, complete the pulpit furniture. In front is a 
class-room, 18x34 feet, separated from the auditorium by heavy 
ascending doors, and when occasion requires both rooms can be thrown 
into one. One of the rear rooms serves as a sUidy room and connects 
with the baptistry, which is situated on the left of the pulpit. The 
chandeliers are beautiful and give an abundant light. The carpenter 
work by J. W. Austin, and the painting by David H. Moss, Jr., are 
both good jobs of work, while the foundation and brick work are 
excellent. The buildinoj throu2:hout is a tine job of work. 

The acoustic properties are perfect, the speaker being heard with 
ease in any part of the house. 

The church is entered through the tovver, which serves as a vesti- 
bule. Seating capacity of the house is about 600. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF PARIS. 

The public schools of Paris were organized, as stated below, in 
1867. The enrollment of white children numbered at that time 268 ; 
colored, 137 ; number enrolled white children in 1884, 323 ; number 
colored children, 168. Under the management of the different prin- 
cipals and teachers the schools, both white and colored, have done 
well. The object of the teachers has been, not only to raise the 
schools to a higher grade, but to so conduct them that their utility 



144 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

would be recognized and acknowledged by all. How well they have 
succeeded is seen in the interest manifested upon the part of the 
citizens of Paris at each commencement ; in fact, everybody is now a 
friend of the public schools. 

The following in reference to the public schools of the town, fur- 
nished by T. B. Robinson, Esq., embraces many interesting facts and 
figures : — 

The school district of Paris was organized under special law for the 
organization of towns and villages on the 12th day of August, 1867, 
with the following board of directors: William J. Howell, president; 
T. B. Kobinson, secretary ; William T. Nesbit, treasurer ; D. O. Bean, 
A. B. Long, Ephraim Ashcraft. 

Teachers, session 1867-68: Principal, R. A. Bodine ; salary, $800; 
assistants, Mrs. R. A. Weedon, $50 per month ; Miss Nannie Bennett, 
$40 per month ; Miss M. L. Brown, $50 per month. Colored school, 
Miss Hawkins, $30 per month, and Miss Martha Anderson, $40 per 
month. 

The white school was tauo-ht in the male academv buildino- and the 
colored school in the Colored Baptist Church. The tax levy for 1868 
was three-fourths of one per cent for school purposes. The term was 
40 weeks. 

In 1868-69 the board was the same as above. 

The white school was taught in the Female Seminary property for 
40 weeks, and the colored school at the colored church 28 weeks. 
One-half of one per cent tax was levied for 1868. 

For 1869-70 the board of directors were J. J. Armstrong, presi- 
dent; T. B. Robinson, secretary ; D. O. Bean, treasurer; Cicero 
Alexander, E. Ashcraft and W.J. Howell. 

A term of school of eight months was taught in the new Baptist 
Church. 

On the 1st day of March, 1870, the board bought of E. M. Poage the 
ground situated on Main street, the site of the present school building, 
for the sum of $1,300, and afterwards having adopted plans and 
specifications drawn up by R. E. Hageman for a school house, adver- 
tised for bids for the building of the same. These bids were some of 
them satisfactory to the board, and on the 18th day of June, 1870, a 
contract was made by the board with Messrs. Eggleston & Willard, 
of Macon City, Missouri, for the erection of a two story seven roomed 
brick school house for $10,277, the same to be completed by the 1st 
of September, 1870, in accordance with plans and specifications [)re- 
pared by them and adopted by the board. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 14 5 

The board appointed Mr. John Nesbit as superintendent of the 
work under said contract. 

To pay said building bonds were issued and sold by the board, bear- 
ing 10 per cent interest, and running from three to nine 3'^ears after date 
to the amount of $11,000, and a tax was levied to pay for ground in- 
terest on bonds and to run the schools of 1 V2 per cent for the year 

1870. The school building was completed about the first of January, 

1871, and was furnished with the best iron double desks and seats 
sufficient to accommodate 200 pupils, the capacity of the entire build- 
ing when furnished being 400 pupils. 

In 1870-71, the board was the same as before. 

The school opened January 8, 1871, and continued for a term of 
6 months. The school was first graded this session, and a course of 
seven grades, embracing a year in each grade, adopted for the grammar 
school and a course of four years in the high school, embracing the ele- 
ments of the natural sciences, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, 
general history, English literature, mental and moral philosophy and 
political econon)y. 

In 1871-72 the board consisted of A. M. Alexander, president ; T. B. 
Robinson, secretary; D. O. Bean, treasurer; E. Ashcraft, R. N. 
Bodine and W. J. Howell. The teachers were : F. B Wilson, princi- 
pal ; J. A. Scott, assistant; Misses Jennie Marr, L. Lewis, Nannie 
Pool, Kate Bodine. Cohered School — Miss E. J. Campbell, E. Bur- 
nett, Assistant ; H. C. Terrill. 

The school term lasted eight months. The tax levy for 1872 was 1 
per cent. 

In 1872-73 the board was A. M. Alexander, president ; T. B. Rob- 
inson, secretary; William Bowman, treasurer; R. N. Bodine, W. J. 
Howell, E. Ashcraft. The teachers were: Principals, W. D. Collins 
and M. B. Almond ; Assistants, Miss Mattie McNutt, Mrs. M. E. Las- 
ley, Mrs. Sallie Shearman, Misses Nannie Burnett and Kate Bodine. 
The colored school was taught by H. C. Terrill, assisted by Mrs. 
Mary Vivion. 

The term of school was for nine months. 

Dunng 1873-74, the board had for president, A. M. Alexander ; T. 
B. Robinson, secretary ; William Bowman, treasurer : R.N. Bodine, 
E. Ashcraft, P. T. Bof)n. The teachers were: Principal, B. S. 
Newland ; Assistant, D. C. Gore ; Mattie McNutt, E. M. Carter, Kate 
Bodine. Of the colored school, H. C. Terrill was teacher; Assist- 
ant, Mrs. Mary Vivion. 



146 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

The regular tenii of the school was fixed at 36 weeks for both 
schools. 

The tax levy for 1874, was nine-tenths of one per cent. 

In 1874-75 die board of directors were A. M. Alexander, presi- 
dent ; T. B, Robinson, secretary ; Wm. Bowman, treasurer ; S. S. 
Bassett, M.W. Speed, P. T. Boon ; W. F. Buckman in place of Mr. 
Boon who resigned. Teachprs — B. S. Newland, principal ; Assistants, 
Miss Lizzie Kable, Miss Mattie McNutt, Miss Kate Bodine, Miss E. M. 
Carter. Colored School, H. C. Terrill, Mrs. M. Vivion. 

The tax levy was nine-tenths of one per cent. 

The directors for 1875-76 were A. M. Alexander, president; T. 
B, Robinson, secretary; S. S. Bassett, treasurer; B. B. Broughton, 
T. B. Bashaw, M. W. Speed. Teachers — J. B. Bradley, principal; 
Assistant, W. S. Sears, Miss Annie Bishop, Miss Mattie McNutt, Miss 
E. M. Carter, Miss Mollie Ashcraft. Colored School, F. L. Barnett, 
Assistant, Georgiana Mead. 

The tax levy for 1876 was nine-tenths of one per cent. 

On the 18th day of September the board made an order for the re- 
funding of $8000 of the outstanding building bonds at 8 per cent 
interest and falling due in one, two, three, four and five years after the 
1st day of January, 1876, and the new bonds were issued and sold at 
par to Col. P. Williams. This terin two students completed their 
high school course and received certificates of graduation, to wit: 
Willie H. Robinson and Tirey Ford. 

In 1876-77 the board was the same as last year. Teachers — J. B. 
Bradley, principal; Assistants, A. H. Jamison, Miss Anna Bishop, 
Miss Mattie McNutt, Mrs. S. A. Iglehart ; Colored School, W. H. 
Grant, Assistant, Sadie Stone. 

The tax levy was nine-tenths of one per cent. 

During 1877-78, the board was comprised of G. W. Moss, presi- 
dent ; T. B. Robinson, secretary ; Wm. Bowman, treasurer ; D. O. 
Bean, A. E. Gore, Thos. Brace. Teachers — J. B. Bradley, prin- 
cipal ; W. E.Chambless, principal ; Assistants, A. S. Houston, Miss A. 
M. Bishop, Miss E. M. Carter, Mrs. S. A. Iglehart. Colored Scool, 
Clay Vaughn, Assistant, Sadie Stone. 

The tax levy for 1878 was nine-tenths of one per cent. 

Prof. Bradley resigned March 2, 1878, and the Rev. W. E. Cham- 
bless was employed to fill out the term. 

For 1878-79, the board was the same as last year. The teachers were : 
Principal, W. E. Chaml)less ; Assistants, A. S. Houston, A. W. Riggs, 
Miss Nannie Duncan, Miss Julia McBride, Miss Mattie McNutt, Mrs. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 147 

S. A. Iglehart. Colored School, Clay Vaughn ; Assistant, Rebecca 
Winn. 

A tax was levied for 1879 of nine-tenths of one per cent. 

Mr. Houston left the school February 21, 1879, and Mr. Riggs was 
employed to fill out his term as first assistant. This term there were 
seven graduates who received, under the order of the board, diplomas 
of graduation in the high school department, to wit : Misses Mollie 
Dawson, Lucy V. McNutt, Viola B. Rawlings, Kate Moss and Carrie 
Wilson, and Messrs. William H. Bratner and Ebon Alexander. 

In 1879-80 the board was G. W. Moss, president; T. B. Robinson, 
secretary ; William Bowman, treasurer ; D. O. Bean, A. E. Gore, T. T. 
Rodes. Teachers — Principal, W. E. Chambless ; Assistants, A. W. 
Riggs, Mrs. L. A. Riggs, Miss Julia McBride, Miss Mattie McNutt, 
Mrs. S. A. Iglehart. Colored school, Clay Vaughn, and Mrs. F. D. 
Vaughn. 

The tax levy was nine-tenths of one per cent. The graduates this 
term were Misses Sallie Bell McNutt, Nora Lasley, Kate M. Blakey, 
Maggie Graham and Callie Broughton, and Anderson W. Buckner and 
Edwin G. McGee. 

In 1880-81 the board wa.s G. W. Moss, president; T. B. Robinson, 
secretary ; William Bowman, treasurer ; D. O. Bean, S. S. Bassett, T. 
B. Bashaw^ Teachers — Principal, W. E. Chambless ; Assistants, A. 
W. Riggs, Mrs, L. A. Riggs, Miss Julia McBride, Miss Mollie Bow- 
ling, Mrs. S. A. Iglehart. Colored school, G. B. Vivion ; Assistant, 
L. V. Gordon. 

The tax levy was six-tenths of one percent. The last of the bonds 
issued for building the school-house were paid oft' January 1, 1881. 
Graduates this term : Miss Jennie N. Burgess, and John M. Burgess. 

During 1881-82 the board had as directors : G. W. Moss, president ; 
T. B. Robinson, secretary ; William Bowman, treasurer ; S. S. Bassett, 
T. P. Bashaw, W. F. Buckner, D. H. Moss to fill vacancy. Teachers : 
Principal, J. M. McMurry ; Assistants, N. W. Riggs, Mrs. S. A. Riggs, 
Miss Mollie Bowling, Miss Julia McBride, Miss Jennie Burgess. Col- 
ored school, G. B. Vivion ; Assistant, L. V. Gordon. 

The lev}^ of nine-tenths of one per cent included three-elevenths of 
one per cent for buying site aud erecting a building for colored school. 
Dr. G. W. Moss having died in August, 1881, the board, on the ninth 
of September, 1881, elected D. H. Moss to fill out his term, and Mr. 
S. S. Bassett was elected president of the board. Graduates this term : 
Misses Jessie Holdsworth, Nellie Ann Haydeu and Marj' E. Cunning- 
ham, and Messrs. William H. Bassett and William H. Alexander. 



148 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

In 1882-83 the board was S. S. Bassett, president ; T. B. Robinson, 
secretary; William Bowman, treasurer; W. F. Buckner, D. H. 
Moss, T. P. Bashaw. Teachers — Principal, J. M. McMurry ; 
Assistants, A. W. Riggs, Mrs. L. A. Riggs, Misses Mollie Bowling, 
Jennie Burgess, Carrie Wilson, Joan Ross. Colored School — G. B. 
Vivion ; Assistant, L. C. Johnson. 

The tax levy was eighty-five one hundredths of one per cent. On 
the 27th day of May, 1882, a severe wind storm carried off the roof 
of the school building and the board appointed Mr. D. O. Bean as 
commissioner to employ the necessary hands and buy the 
necessary material to repair the building, and in payment of 
his bill for such repairs, amounting to $983.23, issued to 
him warrants for that sum bearing 8 per cent interest from 
date. The action of the board, though not strictly authorized 
by law, was afterwards ratified l)y the district in voting the 
necessary taxes to meet the warrants issued for costs of such 
repairs. 

Graduates this term were Misses Mary Alexander, Annie Moss, 
Carrie Bean, Ida Bryan, Lillie Blanton, Pauline Caplinger and Nora 
Burgess. 

In the summer of 1883 the board had erected on the lots purchased 
of T. L.Foxa substantial two-room brick school house for the use of 
the colored schools, at a cost of $1,125, the work being done under 
the superintendence of a committee consisting of Messrs. James N. 
Powers, T. P. Bashaw and T. B. Robinson. The building has a seat- 
ing capacity of 100. 

In 1883-84 the board was S. S. Bassett, president ; T. B. Robinson, 
secretarv ; William Bowman, treasurer ; D. H. Moss, W. F. Buckner, 
A. E. Gore, R. N. Bodine. Teachers — Principal, J. M. McMurry; 
Assistants, J. T. Vaughn, Misses Joe Gwyn, Carrie Wilson, Mollie 
Ashcraft, Joan Ross. Colored School — G. B. Vivion, L. C. Johnson. 

The tax levy was seventy-one hundredths of one per cent. 

Mr. Bowman having died in November, 1883, Dr. A. E. Gore was 
elected by the board to fill out his term and Mr, Buckner was 
elected treasurer of the board. 

The graduates for this term were Misses Ida B. Harlej^ Stella L. 
Bassett, Gussie L. Holds worth, Carlotta V. AVest and Eva L. 
Dawson. 

The following corps of teachers are elected for the next school year 
commencing September 22, 1884 : Principal, W. D. Christian; 
Assistants, J. T. Vaughn, Misses Susie F. Powell, Carrie AVilson, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 149 

Sallie B. McNutt, Mollie Ashcraft. Colored School — G. B. Viviou : 
Assistant, Mrs. L. C. Johnson. 

BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 

A. M. Alexander, lawyer ; Cicero Alexander, express agent ; 
Alexander & Son (Ehin M. and Cicero), grocers ; A. De F. Arm- 
strong, bookseller; Nimrod Ashcraft, wagon-maker; Ashcraft & Son 
(Ephraim and Henry), blacksmiths ; Mrs. Alice Barrett, proprietor 
Sonthern hotel; L. S, Bassett & Sons (Samuel S., George B. and 
Tandy G.), dry goods ; Daniel O. Bean, contractor ; Birkit & Bodine 
(Sebastian B. Birkit and Massey G. Bodine), grocers; J. B. Bland 
& Son (John B. and James A.), marble cutters; Benjamin F. 
Blanton, editor and proprietor of Monroe County Appeal; Robert 
N. Bodine, lawyer; Rev. William Brooks (colored Methodist); 
George C. Brown, grocer; Broughton Bros. (Benjamin B. and 
Thomas B.), woolen mill; Thomas Buerk, boots and shoes; M. G. 
Burnett & Co. (Mary G. Burnett and Maggie E. Gannaway ), milliners ; 
Hamilton Campbell, blacksmith ; Thomas A. Caplinger, druggist ; A. 
J. Caplinger, mayor ; D. L. Cooper, harness-maker ; James W. Clark, 
livery stable; George Caplinger, blacksmith; C. A. Creigh, circuit 
clerk and recorder; Samuel Crump, barl)er ; J. M. Crutcher, judge 
of probate; Thomas Crutcher, county clerk ; James A. Curtwright, 
deputy county clerk; Rev. H. B. Davis (Christian); Mrs. Eliza 
Dawson, milliner; Adam Fisher, proprietor Dooley house; Benjamin 
G. Dysart, physician; First National Bank of Paris, capital $100,000, 
David H. Moss, president, John S. Conyers, cashier; Gannaway & 
Burnett (Thomas B. Gannaway and Charles Burnett), drugs; 
Thomas B. Gannaway, county treasurer; Harry W. Garr, 
saw-mill, six miles west; Glenn House, James M. Worrell 
proprietor; Mrs. Lula Gosney, dressmaker and milliner; N. G. 
Gosney, machine agent; Chas. G. Goetz, cigar manufactory; 
Abner E. & David C. Gore, physicians ; Thomas P. Halls, restaurant ; 
Phillip Halls, confectioner and caterer; Rev. William Hancock, col- 
ored Christian; T. G. Harley & Bro. (Thomas G. and Franklin F.), 
dry goods ; William Henning, coal miner, one mile west ; J. A. Jack- 
son, Sheriff; Mark B. Lowenstein, dry goods; Albert B, Long, 
oTocer ; H. P. Long, drugo-ist ; Rev. R. H. Longdon, colored Meth- 
odist ; G. W. Martin, potter ; Francis Margruter, grocer ; Thomas J. 
Marsh, butcher; Edward L. Majors, druggist; Mason, Bashaw & 
Burnett (Abe Mason, Thomas P. Bashaw, Joe Burnett), editors and 
proprietors Paris Mercury; McCrary & Wills (T. W. McCrary & 



150 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Edward C. Wills), grocers; Frederick M. Moss, physician; James 
T. Moss, city clerk; Meyers & Son, carpenters; J. H. Noel, 
dry goods; J. W. Nixon, saw mill, seven miles south-east; T. 
W. Pitts, saddler and harness-maker; W. K. Poage & Co. 
(William K. Poage and John S. Poll), clothing; Poage & Cald- 
well (Ephriam M. Poage and George B. Caldwell), hardware; 
James M. Powers, capitalist ; Samuel M. Reiley, dentist ; Rey- 
nolds & Bryan, (Edward S. Reynolds and Joseph B. Bryan,) hard- 
ware ; Alexander Richards, barber; Temple B. Robinson lawyer; 
Howard Rodes, billiard room ; Joseph A. Rodes, lawyer and prosecu- 
ting attorney ; Louis Rose & Son (Louis and John), boots and shoes ; 
Rose & Harlow (Miss Dora Rose, Maggie Harlow), dress-makers and 
milliners ; Joseph T. Sanford, lawyer ; George Seibert, city marshal; 
Josiah D. Simpson, jeweler ; Henry Slodek, baker: F. A. Sladek, 
billiard-room; Jeremiah Smith, apple evaporator; Spalding & Speed 
(William E. Spalding and Matthias W. Speed), furniture; Sproul 
Bros. (William E., Thompson B.), saw mill, seven miles south-east; 
Frank Wise, druggist ; Oliver P. Vaughn, rail road agent ; Joe West, 
dentist; West & Conyers (Robert H. West and W. S. Conyers), 
dry goods ; John S. West, harness-maker ; Wetmore & Cissell 
(Edward T. Wetmore and John Cissell), livery ; Rev. John T.Williams, 
Baptist; Walter AVilson, blacksmith; Grimes & Withers (G. P. 
Grimes and G. R. Withers), flouring mill. 



CHAPTER YI. 

JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP. 

Jefferson aad ladiao Creek Towaships — Physical Features — Old Settlers — Florida 

— Its History — Mills ^ Mark Twain — Early Business Men — Professional Men 

— Sketch of Mark Twain — The Town Incorporated — Secret Orders — Picnics 

— Stoutsville — Its History — Business Houses — Pottery Manufactory — Ship- 
ments — Indian Creek Township — Physical Features — Elizabethtown — Clapper 
Station. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Jefferson township lies east of eTackson, and extends from the line 
of the latter to Ralls county, and contains about eighty-two square 
miles. About one-seventh of the township is prairie. There is pro- 
bably more rough land in Jefferson than in any other township in the 
county. The soil, however, is well adapted to blue grass, but much of it 
produces good corn and wheat ; in fact, there is no better wheat sec- 
tion than that found in the south-eastern portion of this township. 
Like Jackson, Jefferson township has an abundance of water, which 
is found at all seasons of the year, in the North, Middle, South and 
Elk forks of Salt river, saying nothing of their numerous confluents. 
The above named streams unite in this township, and form Salt river, 
which at one time in the early settlement of the country, it was 
thought could be made navigable. 

Jefferson township was one of the earliest settled townships in the 
county; the pioneers who first emigrated thereto were generally from 
Kentucky, and were men of sterling worth of character. Many of 
their descendants still reside there, and refuse to abandon the habita- 
tions of their fathers, believing after all that old Monroe is as much 
of an El Dorado as can be found in this Western country. 

Among the early settlers of the township we record the names of 
the following: Maj. William N. Penn, Hugh A. Hickman, Peter Stice, 
Andrew Rogers, Allery Rogers, Aniel Rogers, Johu Newsome, William 
Bybee, Enoch Fruit, John Scobee, Stephen Scobee, Wm. Carter, 

Richard Cave, Willis Samuel, Bazil Crew, Samuel Darnes, 

Darnes, Buchanan, Milton Wilkerson, Edward Damrel, Robt. 

Donaldson, John Witt, Abernathy, Anderson Hickman, Jack- 
son Hickman, Darius Poage, Levi Hall, Benj. Mothershead, Milas 

5 (151) 



152 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Johnson, John McNutt, Merritt Violet, Kobert George, Lunsford 
Morton, Ezekiel Phelps, Dennis Thompson, Underwood Dooley, John 
Alfred, Anderson Ivie, Joseph White. 

FLORIDA 

is situated upon a high point of land between the Middle and North 
forks of Salt river, near their junction, in the eastern part of Monroe 
county. This seems to have been selected as a suitable place for a 
settlement even by the aborigines and the mound builders, as numer- 
ous piles, in a perfect state of preservation to this day, fully attest. 
The hills, covered with a heavy growth of timber, protected them 
from the bleak winds of winter and furnished, also, a hiding-place for 
deer and turkeys, upon which, to a great extent, they must have sub- 
sisted. The shoals, too, upon which the mills are built, supplied, 
them an excellent place for spearing fish ; for the water in those days, 
before the ground was broken by the plow, was clear. 

The two mills, which formed the first starting points of the town, 
were built about the same time, in 1827. The mill upon the South 
fork was erected by Peter Stice, a jolly Dutchman ; that on the North 
fork by Richard Cave. Stice's mill was purchased by Hugh A. Hick- 
man during the fall of 1830 and operated by him for nearly 40 con- 
secutive years. Perhaps no mill in the State was ever run so long by 
the same individual, nor was ever a business more faithfully managed 
than was this loved calling by the old Captain, as he was familiarly 
called. 

He resided on a splendid farm about two miles from the mill ; but, 
though rich and sightly as it was, it never occupied much of his atten- 
tion. The mill was his delight, and to the mill he went every day, 
rain or shine. He was a splendid horseman and fond of a fine horse, 
and his large and portly figure, as he rode backwards and for- 
wards to his mill, is well remembered by most of the people in 
the surrounding country to this day. He died, loved by his family 
and respected by his many customers for his high sense of justice and 
cheerful, friendly disposition. He sold the mill in the spring of 1868 
to Messrs. Clark & Gaitskill ; they to M. B. Clark, and he to the 
Powers Bros. To the mill these enterprising young men attached a 
steam engine, and carried on the most extensive lumber business in 
the county. They retained in the neighborhood of the mill some 15 
or 20 men, with teams in proportion, engaged in cutting, hauling and 
sawing logs. What lumber they could not sell at home they took to 
Monroe City and sold to the railroads, thus giving employment to a 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 153 

great number of men and teams. They also ran the grist mill con- 
stantly, making a good article of flour and did a large amount of 
work. The Powers Bros, sold to Goss & Vandeventer (John C. Goss 
and John W. Vandeventer). 

The mill on the North fork was built by Richard Cave and sold by 
him to Dr. Meredith, a physician from one of the New England States. 
From Dr. Meredith it was purchased by Boyle Goodwin and operated 
by him with moderate success, and sold to A. M. Hickman about 
1852. "Aleck," as he was familiarly called, devoted his attention 
exclusively to the mill, and was, by his mechanical skill, good judg- 
ment and experience in milling, enabled to make it a splendid financial 
success. He kept workmen engaged in repairing and improving 
during the whole of his administration, and would tolerate no work 
about his premises that was not done in the best possible manner. 
He thus constructed one of the best country mills in the State — neat, 
convenient and durable. Much of the work in this mill, if properly 
cared for, will be good for a hundred years to come. '*Aleck" is 
complimented by his many customers to this day for his great care 
and skill in his business, and his integrity and sense of justice were 
of the highest order. 

His brother, Joseph G. Hickman, succeeded "Aleck" in the opera- 
tion of the mill. He has completed in good style the attachment of 
an engine, but uses steam only in dry weather. He designs extensive 
improvement of his water-power, and claims at least to be always on 
hand and to do his best. His assistant miller, Mr. James Rouse, has 
been with him a number of years, and is to be relied upon as a man 
of strict integrity. He takes as much interest in the business as the 
proprietor himself, and is undoubtedly a first-class miller. He has 
never had a harsh word with a customer since he has been tending the 
mills. 

The business done by the mills from 1845 to 1860, was perhaps the 
largest milling business ever done in the county. Large quantities of 
flour were hauled regularly to Hannibal and Mexico, and shipped from 
thence to St. Louis, until the Hickman flour was well known at one 
time in that city. Hugh A. Hickman ran out several boats loaded 
with flour to Louisiana, on the Mississippi, at the mouth of Salt river, 
and brought back one boat lightly loaded with sugar, cofl'ee and other 
articles of merchandise. Florida was declared the head of navigation 
on Salt river, and was thought by those brave and ambitious pioneers 
to be a favorable point for the founding of a great commercial town. 
The town was accordingly laid ofi" by Maj. Wm. N. Penu, Hugh A. 



154 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNXr. 

Hickman and others, and although the bright dreams which swelled 
the hearts of these noble pioneers were not realized, Florida has 
always held the rank of a respectable and enterprising village. From 
this point and vicinity have emanated some of the most prominent 
business men of North-east Missouri, as well as Mark Twain, a writer 
of national reputation, and probably the most celebrated humorist 
ever produced by the United States. 

The house in which Mark Twain was born is still standing, and is 
now used as a printing office by the Monroe County Democrat. It is 
a one-story frame building, containing two rooms. Mark Twain was 
born in the north room of this building, according to the best infor- 
mation, furnished by Mrs. John A. Quarles, who is his aunt by mar- 
riage. 

The first store in the vicinity was kept by Maj. Penn for a man 
named Roundtree, at Stice's mill, and was in operation there in 1831. 
He afterwards removed to Florida, and from thence to Paris, where 
he. acted for more than 20 years as county clerk. Since the formation 
of Florida there has been a great number of men engaged in the mer- 
cantile business in the place, with varying success. Prominent among 
the old merchants were John A. Quarles, R. H. Buchanan, Milton 
Wilkerson, Presley Wilkerson and Mason Wilkerson. They have all 
crossed the dark river save Uncle Mace, who still lives in the town, 
and engaged in bee culture, a business in which he is quite an expert. 

Mr. Wilkerson came to Jefferson township with his father, William 
Wilkerson, in 1829, from Clark county, Kentucky, and located about 
four miles from Florida. At the same time came his brothers, 
William, Presley, Morgan and Milton, and his sister, Mrs. Sally 
Tally, all of whom are now dead. The first house in Florida was 
built by Judge Damrell. Jeremiah Upton built the next: both of 
these were used by them as residences. Among other early merchants 
were James Bryant, James R. Payne and James Herndon. Dr. Willis 
was the first resident physician. He was drowned in Salt river whilst 
on a professional visit. It was supposed at the time, by some persons, 
that he was killed ; this supposition, however, was never verified. 
His body was found, a few days after he was missing, some distance 
below the ford where he was drowned. Dr. Wm. Proctor and Dr. 
Walton were also pioneer physicians. R. H. Buchanan was the first 
blacksmith. Washington Moberly was the first tailor. Willard Buck, 
a one-legged man, was the shoemaker. At an early day Anthony 
Leake operated a carding machine. 

The town was incorporated in May, 1883. The first city officers 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 155 

were James L. Pollard, chairman of the board ; John D. Poage, clerk ; 
W. E. Eosell, marshal. 

SECRET ORDERS. 

Florida Lodge, No. 23, A. F. and A. M. — Is one of the oldest 
in the State, it having been organized as early as May, 1852, with the 
following charter- members : W. N. Tanday, T. J. Chowning, John 
F. Yonng, John A. Quarles, P. S. Darnes, Mason Wilkerson, Milton 
Wilkerson, Jonathan Abby, Alvin Mennifee and B. C. Pollard. 
The present officers of the lodge are T. Chowning, W. M. ; J. W. 
Hurd, S. W. ; T. Wright, J. W. ; J. L. Clark, S. D. ; B. F. White, 
treasurer ; Benjamin Utterback, J. D. ; E. H. Goodier, secretar}' ; 
Mason Wilkerson, tyler. The hall is over J, L. Pollard's harness 
store, and is owned by the lodge. The room is neatly furnished, and 
everything paid for. The lodge has about 40 members in good 
standing. 

Triple Alliance — Was organized about three years ago and is in a 
flourishing condition. 

MARK TWAIN LITERARY SOCIETY. 

This society was named in honor of Mark Twain, who at the date 
of its organization (in 1880) presented it with $25 in cash, and a copy 
of each of his books. Thinking a brief biographical sketch of Mark 
Twain would be read with interest, especially by the people of Florida, 
we here insert it : — 

Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) was born in Florida, November 
30th, 1835. He attended a common school until ten years of age, 
when he became an apprentice in the office of the Courier, at Hanni- 
bal, Missouri, and afterwards worked at his trade in St. Louis, Cin- 
cinnati, Philadelphia and New York. In 1855 he went to New 
Orleans, intending to take passage for Para to explore the Amazon 
and to engage in the cacao trade, but the fact that there was no ship 
from New Orleans to Para prevented the fulfillment of his plan. On 
his way down the river he made friends with the pilots and learned to 
steer the boat, and for the consideration of $500 they engaged to make 
him a St. Louis and New Orleans pilot. He finally secured a situa- 
tion as pilot at $250 per month. In 1861 his brother was appointed 
Secretary of the Territory of Nevada, and Samuel accompanied him 
as his private secretary. He worked in the mines for about a year. 
He then shoveled quartz in a silver mill for $10 a week for one week. 
He became city editor of the Virginia City Enterprise and held the 



156 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

position three years. Part of the time he reported legislative pro- 
ceedings from Carson and signed his letters " Mark Twain." The 
name was a reminiscense of his steamboat days on the Mississippi, 
where it is the leadman's term to signify a depth of two fathoms of 
water. From Virginia City he went to San Francisco, and for five 
months was a reporter for the Morning Call. In 1866 he went to 
the Hawaiian Islands, remaining six months, when he retnrned to San 
Francisco and Nevada and lectured through those States. He went to 
the East and published " The Jumping Frog and other Sketches." 
In 1867 he went to Egypt and the Holy Land and wrote his book 
entitled " The Innocents Abroad." He edited a daily paper in Buffalo, 
and visited England in 1873. In 1872 he published "Eoughing It." 
His residence is at Hartford, Connecticut. 

Florida and vicinity have been for many years a great resort for 
picnicers and those'wIio"lire fond of summer rambles and sylvan sports. 
Salt river near by is a beautiful stream of water, and its banks are 
still covered witji nativ^ forest trees, whose cooling boughs and 
shady retreats, are often sought by both the aged and the young. 
Besides, the river furnishes an abundance of fish which are caught 
and cooked on the ground and eaten by the merry picnicers. These 
picnics have been in vogue for eighteen years, the last annual one 
occurring August 21, 1884, 

STOUTSVILLE. 

Stoutsville is located in the north-western part of Jefferson town- 
ship, on section 13, township 55, range 9, on the line of the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas Railroad, and was laid out in 1871. The town was 
named after Robert P. Stout, a wealthy and influential farmer who re- 
sided in that vicinity. He came to Monroe county from Kentucky at 
an early day and died at the age of about 67 years. His widow gave 
the railroad company six acres of land, and to express its appreciaton 
of the gift, it named the town as above stated, in honor of her husband. 
His wife and only child are dead. 

The first business house in the young town, was erected by Dennis 
Thompson and used as a grocery store. Perry Kincaid built the next 
house, which was occupied as a saloon. 

The first dry goods and general store was opened by Henry Dooley 
and J. R. Nolen. 

Dennis Thompson opened the first drug store, followed soon after 
by Henry F. Woodson and A. P. Vance. 

Jethro Hardwick was the pioneer blacksmith. Dr. Hagan was the 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 157 

first physician. The postmasters have been Albert Price, J. R. Nolen 
audA. G. Dooley — Dooley being the present postmaster. 

The Old School Baptists ^ erected a church edifice on the town site 
many years before the town was thought of. It was constructed of 
logs ; the present building is a frame one. The Missionary Baptists 
built a church in the town about the year 1876. The town possesses 
a public school, telegraph and express office ; two daily mails by rail- 
road, and one mail, daily, to Florida by hack, seven miles distant. 

The business houses are 3 dry goods and general stores ; 2 drug 
stores ; 3 blacksmith shops ; 1 saw and grist mill ; 1 livery stable ; 2 
hotels and 2 physicians. J. E. Smelser is the depot agent. 

One mile north-west of Stoutsville is located the extensive pottery 
works of J. W. Conrad, which were opened about six years ago. 
Among the large farmers who reside in the vicinity of Stoutsville are 
Judge Henry Dooley, H. J. Clapper, H. J. Priest and Martin J. Clark. 
The shipments from the depot during the past twelve months, begin- 
ning with August 1, 1883, have been as follows: Live stock, 80 
cars ; wood, 115 ; lumber, 15 ; wheat, 8 ; oats, 8; and stoneware, 10 
cars. 

INDIAN CREEK TOWNSHIP 

embraces an area of 26 square miles, and is the smallest municipal 
division in the county. It is situated in the north-eastern part of the 
county, and is separated from Marion county by a strip of territory three 
miles in width and forming a part of Monroe township. It is also 
separated from Ralls county by a portion of territory from two to three 
miles in width. The North fork of Salt river, flows through the 
southern portion of the township ; there are two or three other small 
streams, tributaries of the North and Middle forks of Salt river, which 
afford stock water the greater part of the year ; among these is Shell's 
branch. About four miles of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Rail- 
road passes through the western portion of the township. 

The land in this township is nearly all prairie, and is well adapted 
to agriculture. The south-eastern portion of the township contains 
a section of the country called the Barrens. School-houses are num- 
erous, there being no less than six in the township. These are located 
on sections 23, 10, 20, 8, 5 and 6. 



1 The Old School Baptist Church above named, is the oldest religious denomination 
in the township ; the first house was erected prior to 1840. Hiram Thompson, Wm. 
Wilkerson, W. J. Henderson, Job Dooley and Underwood Dooley were among the 
constituent members. 



.^- 



158 HISTORY or MONROE COUNTY. 



EARLY SETTLERS. 



Matthew W. Carswell, Andrew Ariiett, Henry Bramblett, Zarby 
Pariss, Sarah Pariss, Lewis Scobee, Martin J. Lyle, John Dale, John 
D. Green, Anna L. Lawrence, Richard Miller, Eichard Miles, John 
Taylor and William K. Brooks were among the first to settle in this 
township. 

ELIZ ABETHTOWN . 

This little village is located on Indian creek, six miles south-west of 
Monroe City, and is 17 miles north-east of Paris. The population is 
about 350; two dry goods houses, two drug houses, three groceries, 
two blacksmith shops, one good hotel, one very fine house, and the 
finest church in the county. Catholic. Its dimensions are 100x50, and 
will comfortably seat a congregation of 800 persons. Its spire is 110 
feet high. The town was laid out in 1835 by a Mr. Swinkey, 
and for some time bore this name. Mr. Swinkey's Avife 
was named Elizabeth, and the town was finally named in honor of 
her. Prof. Hagan is principal of the school, which numbers 75 pupils. 
The voting population of the precinct is 160, and 154 of that number 
are Democrats. Thomas Yates and Dick Miles are the two oldest 
settlers in this part of the county. Mr. Miles is in his eighty-first 
year, and Mr. Yates is 73, and both are stout and hearty and bid fair 
to live 20 years longer. 

CLAPPER. 

Clapper station is located on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Eailroad, 
eight miles from Monroe City and fourteen from Paris, and is pleasantly 
situated on a beautiful prairie, surrounded on the south and west by the 
Salt river timber, and on the east and north by the fine young timber 
of Indian creek. The view is one of surpassing beauty, the prairie 
gently undulating, dotted here and there with orchards and orna- 
mental groves, from which cosy farm-houses and barns appear in the 
foreground, all showing signs of thrift and the industry of the farm- 
ing community. There are several large stock farms in the vicinity. 
Among these are the farms of Thomas Tewell, who has as good stock 
as can be found in the State ; also the Buckman brothers, who are 
raising fine stock by the quantity, and running the largest and best 
stock farm in the county. «T. H. Jett, who owns a fine farm one mile 
from the station, is the stock dealer for this place, and has within the 
last three years shipped 100 car loads of stock. 

Among the fine farms lying contiguous may be named those of 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 151^ 

John H. Clapper, who has recently erected one of the largest and 
most commodious houses in this part of the county, and that of Col. 
William M. Priest, who owns one of the best improved farms in the 
county, and far fertility the soil on his farm is unsurpassed. But 
space forbids giving a complete description of all the farms near by. 
Suffice it to say, there is no place that offers better inducements to 
the tiller of the soil than do the fine lands lying in the immediate 
vicinity of Clapper station. 

Clapper station took its name from Mr. Henry Clapper, who was 
largely instrumental in getting the railroad built through this section, 
and out of respect, and appreciating his services, the citizens called 
the station by his name. (Mr. Clapper has since died.) The 
population is about 100 ; two stores, a blacksmith and wagon shop, 
all of which are doins: a good business. 




CHAPTEE YII. 

MONROE TOWNSHIP. 

Physical Features — Railroads — More Norttiern People in This Township Than in Any 
Other — Large Farmers — Old Settlers — Monroe City — Its History — Advance- 
ment — Surrounding Country — Pioneer Business and Business Men — Manufac- 
turing Establishments — Monroe Institute — Its History — Names of Stockhold- 
ers — Success of the Institute — Teachers and Officers — Public Schools — Secret 
Societies — Monroe City Bank — Churches — Laying of Corner Stone of New Bap- 
tist Church — Catholic Church — Hereford Association — Shipments. 

Monroe township occupies the north-eastern portion of the county, 
and is essentially a prairie district. The soil is of an excellent quality 
and the township, agriculturally, is considered equal to any in the 
county. There are but a few streams veining its surface, and these 
are found in the south-eastern portion of the township. It is the 
smallest township in area in the county, excepting Indian Creek, and 
contains 31 square miles. 

A little more than four miles of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Rail- 
road pass through the north-eastern part of the township, and the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad enters the same at section 18, 
in the north-east corner and, traversing its entire width, passes out 
at section 30. This is the only township in the county through which 
more than one railroad passes. 

There are more Northern or Eastern people in Monroe township 
than in any other township in the county ; the earliest settlers, how- 
ever, were from Kentucky and Virginia. Coal was discovered on the 
farm of Benedict Carrico many years ago, but was never worked to 
any considerable extent other than for the local trade. Among the 
large stockmen and farmers of the township are James M. Proctor, 
who deals in Hereford and short-horn cattle ; John Nolen, who raises 
sheep and hogs ; W. P. Bush, cattle and mules, and Henry Hurnham, 
who formerly made a specialty of sheep, but now raises sheep and 
cattle. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

The following named persons are some of the early settlers, who 
entered land and made homes in Monroe township : James Dale, one 
of the first pioneers who came to the county ; Morgan Parish, Beiie- 
(160) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 161 

diet Carico, Ramey Dye, Phanty Dye, Joseph Hagan, Fielder Hagan, 
Thomas Hurd, Simeon Utterback, William Miles, Mr. Buckman and 
sons, Jasper Corning, John H. Taylor, John Little, Hillary Hardesty, 
Luther and Jerry Jackson, Stephen F. Thrasher, William Jenuison, 
Samuel Oakley, Robert Lewellen (the first settler in the township), 
Abraham Winset, Charles Fowler, Leonard Green, John McMillin, 
Jr., Jacob Abell, Richard J. Hutchinson, Samuel Lamb, Richard T. 
Haines, William M. Halstead, John C. Johnston, David McGee, Will- 
iam E. Dodge, Thomas Eustace, Alexander Winset. 

MONROE CITY. 

The following history of Monroe City, was taken from the JVews, in 
its issue of July, 1876 : — 

" The first time the writer saw the place where Monroe City now 
stands, was in the early summer of 1841 or 1842. This whole prairie 
was then a pathless sea of grass : there were a few small farms in the 
€dges of the timber, but from the spot on which the seminary now 
stands, no improvement whatever was visible in any direction. The 
place last named was called "The Mound," and one of the land- 
marks along; with "The Round Grove," " The Lone Elm " and some 
others, by which travelers were guided in traversing the lonely prairie. 
It was not until some ten years later that the farms began to encroach 
much upon the great body of open land lying between North and Salt 
rivers. In 1852, the first accurate surveys for the Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railroad were commenced ; these were completed in the fol- 
lowing year, and 50 miles of the road, extending from Hannibal to the 
head of Crooked creek, were put under contract. After that date 
there was a steady increase of immigration to this vicinity, with a cor- 
responding extension of old farms and opening of new ones. The 
work on the railroad progressed slowly, so that it was not until 1857 
the track was laid in Monroe county. Mr. E. B. Talcott was at that 
time partner of Mr. John Duff in the contract for building the road. 
This placed him in a position to know where stations would be needed 
and using that knowledge with the business energy and judgment for 
which he was conspicuous, he purchased the east half of section 13, 
township 56, range 8, and laid off the north half of it into what is now 
known as the " Old Town of Monroe City." 

This was in the spring of 1857. He also immediately commenced 
the erection of the hotel now known as the Livingston house. The 
present proprietor of this hotel and Mr. J. M. Preston made the first 
improvements ; the former having made a contract on the 1st of 
March with S. F. Hawkins for the erection of a store house, in which, 
on the 1st of April following, he opened the first stock of goods of- 
fered for sale in the town. On the 4th of July the same year, an old- 
fashioned barbecue was held and a public sale of lots took place. 
Several of the purchasers* immediately commenced the erection of 



162 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

stores and dwellings, and by the close ©f the year, the place began to 
assume quite a village-like appearance. 

The proprietor of the town, Mr. Talcott, having offered to give the 
out-lot upon which the seminary now stands for the site of such an 
institution, a charter for such a purpose was secured from the 
Legislature. The stock was mostly taken by the farmers in the 
neighborhood, and the buildings were erected in the summer of 1860 ; 
and in the autumn of the same year by the Messrs. Comings, who 
have had the control of it uninterruptedly ever since. During the 
war this building was taken possession of and occupied by the United 
States troops in 1861, and the town was the scene of one of the most 
satisfactory battles fought throughout the entire campaign — most 
satisfactory, because not a drop of human blood was shed on either 
side. The effect of the civil war was not only to check all improve- 
ment, but in fact to diminish the population of the town. But imme- 
diately on the restoration of peace business was resumed and business 
revived. The original town plat embraced only the north-east quar- 
ter of section thirteen. An addition on the east was made by T. W.^ 
Davis, the plat recorded February 7, 1867, and another by Dr. E. 
Bailey on the south, the plat recorded March 4, 1872. The first 
church building erected was St. Jude's, which was begun in 1866,. 
and first occupied for worship about July 4, 1867. This was fol- 
lowed by the Christian Church in 1869; the Baptist in 1870; the 
Presbyterian in 1871 ; the Methodist South is now in process of erec- 
tion. A building which had been used for a private school-room by 
Mr. J. M. McMurry, was purchased for public school purposes in 
1867, and has been used for such purpose until the close of the past 
scholastic year. One which it is hoped will do more credit to the 
town and afford better facilities to both teachers and pupils is now 
under contract to be finished in time for the fall opening at the usual 
time. The incorporation of the town was effected in 1869, trustees 
being Messrs. H. Cary (who was elected chairman), W. P. Bush, T. 
M. Hubbard, S. E. Comings and F. B. Sheetz. The town owes its 
existence to the construction of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad 
and its prosperity has been furthered and its facilities increased by 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway, which commenced opera- 
tion in 1871. A banking institution under the title of the Monroe 
City Bank commenced operation in 1875, John B. Randol being 
president and W. R. P. Jackson cashier. At the present time the 
town has a population of about 800, has eleven stores for dry goods, 
groceries and general merchandise, three drug stores, one printing- 
office, two hardware and tin stores, two furniture stores, two wagon 
and .carriage manufactories, one for ngricultural implements, one 
marble yard, one flouring mill, one jeweler and one lumber yard. 

If the growth of the town has been slower than that of some others, 
it is a satisfaction to know that it has been substantial ; relying on the 
basis of a good surrounding country, peopled by those who for intelli- 
gence, industry and enterprise will bear comparison with any simi- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 163 

lar community in our State. The future of the town, it is believed, 
will depend upon the enlarged development of the aoricultural re- 
sources of the surrounding country — on the continued encourage- 
ment given our educational institutions, both public and private — on 
the liberal support and increase of our manufacturing interests — on 
the continued activity and enterprise of our business community, and 
above all, on the maintenace of a public character, marked by morality 
honesty and liberality. 

Monroe City, which now contains a population of about 1,200, is the 
largest and most important town in the county, excepting Paris. The 
people are wide-awake and enterprising, and have done much to for- 
ward the interests of their little city, both its material and educational 
interests, and are justly proud of the advancement they have made, and 
the present position the town occupies, as to business and financial 
solidity. It is the only town in the county which has the advantage 
of two railroads. These, centering as they do at Monroe City, give the 
farmers, business men, and shippers, ready and cheap markets for 
what they may buy or sell. 

The surrounding country consists principally of level prairie, which 
presents to the eye a pastoral landscape of great beauty. This prairie 
is dotted over with ftirm houses, many of which have been built not 
merely as places of abode, but exhibit in their construction and out- 
side appearance and equipments, much taste and ornamentation. 

The farmers are generally thrifty, not a few of whom are large 
landed proprietors, and have made the pursuit of agriculture a suc- 
cess. Here they surely possess, in a great measure, that most essen- 
tial prerequisite to good farming, rich land, and have ample room to 
carry out their most sanguine wishes as tillers of the soil. 

As already stated J. M. Preston erected the first building that was 
put up in Monroe City. It stood on Winter street. J. M. Preston 
opened the first business house, it being an eating house. The first 
regular dry goods store was opened by John Boulware. John Wells 
was the first saddler. Al. Gorrall was one of the early blacksmiths. 
Dr. Thomas Proctor was the first physician, locating in August, 1864. 
Judge Thomas Van Swearinger was the pioneer attorney, becoming a 
resident before the Civil War. Buchanan & Freeman, agents of Rowe 
& Toll, of Hannibal, Mo., were the first lumber merchants ill the 
town. Mrs. Locke taught the first school ; Prof. J. M. McMurry 
taught the first public school, in 1866. The present public school- 
house is a brick building, and was erected at a cost of $4,000. Dr. 
Thomas Proctor and Prof. J. M. McMurry opened the first drug store. 
John Gates was the first postmaster. Among the manufacturing insti- 



164 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



tutions are the Monroe City Creamery Company, which was chartered 
during the hitter part of the year 1872 by a joint stock company, J, 
A. Peirsol, general manager ; the broom factory of Patrick Cochlin, 
and the hay stacker and rake factory of Eli Wayhmd. S. B. Gilliland 
also makes hay rakes. C. H. Poage also manufiictures hay rakes and 
bee-hives, and operates a planing-mill. Two wagon factories are in 
operation. 

MONROE INSTITUTE. 

This institution of learning is looked upon by the people of Monroe 
City with just pride. It was built almost contemporaneously with the 
founding: of the town, and has continued to bestow its benefits and 
privileges from the date of its existence to the preseut time, with the 
exception of a short interval during the war of 1861. The institute 
building is a two-story brick with basement, and contains 24 rooms ; 
it was erected in 1860 by a joint stock company, the stock being divided 
into 113 shares, which were taken at $50 each. The following persons 
are the stockholders: — 

Elijah Bailey, T. N. Read, Daniel Johnson, G. N. Davis, A. 
Warner, H. H. Lee, A. B. Combs, Alfred Pond, J. W. Sparks, J. 
F. Cassady, William L. Owens, John B. Lee, William B. Sparks, E. 
H. Griffith, John Boulware, W. K. Anderson, T. D. Freeman, Moses 
McClintic, John O. Wood, James A. Burdett, William Gough, B. 
F. Green, W. H. Byrd, Samuel Vance, B. F. Griffiith, J. L. Owen, 
N. D. Bradley, W. E. Jones, E. B. Talcott, Hebra A. Hough, 
William Scofield, F. B. Sheets, William B. Okeson, William C. 
Broughton, J. D. Clark, Lorel Rouse, John Shaw, H. C. Fuqua, 
Thomas Yates, John Jones, G. B. and S. E. Comings. 

The Messrs. Comings were the largest stockholders, having pur- 
chased shares to the number of 25. The building cost between $9,000 
and $10,000, and is located in the northern part of the town, upon 
seven and a half acres of ground, which was donated by friends of the 
institution. The grounds are handsomely laid out and are ornamented 
with a variety of shade trees, shrubbery and blue grass, and, taken 
as a whole, constitute just such a site and surroundings as would 
render attractive an institution of learning. The school opened in 
1860, under the management of S. P. and S. E. Comings, who were 
capable and experienced educators. These gentlemen were succeeded 
in 1876 by Rev. James S. Green. No school was taught during the 
war, the building being occupied a portion of the time by Union 
soldiers. Rev. Green was succeeded in 1879 by Rev. I. R. M. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 165 

Beeson, who remained the principal until 1882, when Prof. A. Wood 
Terrill took charge. Under his supervision the school has greatly 
prospered, there being about 100 pupils in attendance during the 
scholastic year of 1883-84. Prof. Terrill and his wife are widely 
and favorably known as accomplished teachers and are doing a grand 
and noble work for those who are placed under their tuition. The 
present term of the school opened September 2, 1884. In addition to 
the course in the scientific department of this school there is a classical 
course. 

The school has no endowment, but depends upon the patronage of 
the public for its support and maintenance. 

Its board of directors are James M. Proctor, James S. Green, J. B. 
Eandol, A. Wood Terrill, J. A. Peirsol. 

The officers of the board are James S. Green, president ; James M. 
Proctor, secretary ; J. B. Randol, treasurer. 

The faculty consists of A. Wood Terrill, A. M., principal, math- 
ematics, physics and German; Mrs. A. W. Terrill, M. A., history, 
English and philosophy; R. M. Walker, A. M., Greek and Latin ; 
Miss Bettie Hopper, vocal and instrumental music; Miss Ettie Jones, 
painting and drawing; Miss Gallic White, principal preparatory 
department. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The public school building, as already stated, is a handsome brick 
edifice, which cost about $4,000, and is well equipped for school work. 
These schools are under the superintendency of Prof. R. D. 
Wood, an experienced educator, who is doing much to raise the 
standard of the schools. The enrollment list shows about 160 white 
and 20 colored children. 

SECRET SOCIETIES. 

Monroe City, for its population, has a greater number of secret 
orders than any other town in the State, and each and all of these 
societies are well supported, one or two being liberally patronized by 
the ladies. 

Royal Arch Chapter, No. 104, A. F. & A. M. — This lodge 
was organized in February, 1873, with the following charter mem- 
bers : J. M. Proctor, Robert Walker, Edward Walker, Thomas 
Griffith, Harrison Gary, Hayden Griffith, James W. Wayland, A. 
Wood Terrill, W. S. McClintic, A. F. Barr. The present officers 
are A. Wood Terrill, H. P. ; W. S. McClintic, K. ; Robert Walker, 
scribe ; W. Shields McClintic, secretary. 



166 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Monroe Lodge, No. 64, A. F. & A. M. — Had its date of charter 
June 2, 1866. The charter members were Alexander F. Barr, Kobert 
H. Walker, Moses McClintic, Heber A. Hough, Nathaniel C. Cooper, 
Harrison Cary, Charles Swift, Daniel C. Byrd, William S. McClintic, 
James W. Jackson, N. W. Drescher, A. P. Vance, W. H. Byrd. The 
present officers are James L. Lyon, W. M. ; W. R. P. Jackson, S. 
W. ; Charles W. Overman, J. W. ; B. O. Wood, Sec. ; W. B. A. 
McNutt, S. D. ; John Shearman, Treas. ; J. C. Peirsol, J. D. ; J. H. 
Blincoe, steward ; S. B. Gilliland, steward ; J. C. Hartman, tyler. 

Monroe City Lodge, No. 268, I. O. 0. F. — Was instituted in 
1872. The charter members were H. P. Josselyn, Eichard Asbury, 
Robert B. Bristow, J. W. Clark, W. B. Sibley, James H. Sullivan, 
J. A. Gerrard. The present officers are B. F. Hickman, N. G. ; J. 
H. Grady, V. G. ; George A. Hawkins, Sec. ; George Durrant, 
treasurer. 

Lodge No. 168, A. O. U. TT. — Was organized December 8, 1879, 
the charter members being B. M. Ely, W. B. A. McNutt, James W. 
Johnston, B. F. Hickman, A. E. Cary, D. R. Davenport, B. O. 
Wood, E. O. Sutton, W. M. Wakefield, J. B. Anderson. Present 
officers, W. T. Clark, P. M. W. ; E. S. Stoddard, M. W. ; Joseph 
Derigo, Foreman ; George W. See, O. ; A. E. Cary, recorder ; H. A. 
Graves, G. ; B. M. Ely, I. W. ; B. F. Hickman, O. W. Trustees, 
John C. Peirsol, William Cranston, B. M. Ely. The lodge has 39 
members. 

Farmers and Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association — Was organized 
May 21, 1884. The charter members were L. W. Arnold, C. W. 
Overman, Mrs. M. E. Greenleaf, John Hanley, Charlotte Turner, J. 

D. Evans, Adolphus Noiand, George L. Turner, Theresa Simpson, 
R. T. W. Lee, James S. Randol. 

Cary Council, No. 2, R. T. of T. — Had as charter members 
John B. Randol, Harrison Cary, Jerome Winigter, Horace J. Kent, 
Henry F. Davis, Sallie M. Hickman, Emma C. Jones, Eudora E. 
Hawkins, Mary L. Davis, James T. Jones, Richard Asbury, George 
A. Hawkins, Charles C. Wakefield, Ben F. Hickman, Thomas Hen- 
dricks, William Scofield, James H. Sullivan, Mary E. Graves, Mary 

E. Hendricks, Zeulado Cary, James K. Bliucoe, Clay B. Clark, Nor- 
man W. Eakle, S. R. Eakle. 

Monroe City Camp, No. 89, Triple Alliance — W^as organized 
January 10, 1884. The charter members were James S. Randol, C. 
G. Stewart, J. B. Anderson, W. E. Moss, H. E. Schofield, J. W. 
Strean, J. R. Griffith, J. P. Brashears, John J. Rogers, A. R. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 167 

Wheeler, W. T. McDauiel, George W. Shaw, E. L. Anderson, 
George B. Anderson, H. C. Fiiqua, George L. Turner, 
J. O. Gooch, Thos. P. Shaw, T. J. Sharp, Walter Fay, A. 
Wood Terrill, Mrs. George Lively, George W. Tompkins, John Hanley, 
Mrs. M. E. Noland, M. A. Priest, Mrs. A. Farrell, Miss Eroda Far- 
re)l,Mrs.M. J. Demaree, S. G. Demaree and M. A. Crosby. The 
present officers are J. S. Randol, P. ; C G. Stuart, K. ; J. B. Ander- 
son, C. C. ; S. G. Demaree, C. G. ; H. E. Schofield, Ist lieutenant; 
J. W. Strean, 2nd lieutenant; W. E. Moss, treasurer; George W. 
Tompkins, secretary. 

MONROE CITY BANK. 

This bank was established in 1875, with a capital stock of $20,000. 
The last statement made by this bank. is as follows : — 

RESOURCES. LIABILITIES. 

Cash f 15,110 53 Deposits f 91,048 75 

Bills receivable ' 51,651 48 Capital stock 20,000 00 

Due from banks 42,301 18 Undivided earnings .... 814 44 

Real estate 1,500 00 

Furniture and fixtures . . . 1,300 00 $111,863 19 

R. V. Sullivan, Pres. 

#111,863 19 Thos. Proctor, Cash. 

CHURCHES. 

Monroe City is not only rich in the number and variety of her se- 
cret and social societies, but also has a number of religious organiza- 
tions and church edifices, which are highly creditable to her moral and 
reflecting people. It contains a Christian, Methodist, Presbyterian, 
Episcopal and Baptist Church. The Baptists have now in process of 
erection a new church edifice. We give below an account of the cer- 
emonies of the laying of the cornerstone, which we have taken from 
the Paris Mercury in its issue of July 4, 1884 : — 

LAYING OF THE CORNER STONE OF THE NEW BAPTIST CHURCH IN MONROE 

CITY. 

Last Saturday was a gala day for Monroe City, and it will long be 
remembered in the annals of that flourishing little town as a day most 
happily enjoyed, more particularly by the Masons. About 4i 
o'clock a procession was formed on Main street, consisting of Parsifal 
Commandery, No. 44, of Paris, commanded by E. C. A. W. Terrill ; 
Monroe City Lodge of A. F. and A, M., together with a number of 
brethren from other lodges, and the Grand Lodge. Leading the van 
was a brass band, which enlivened the march with stirring music. 
Parading the principal streets of the city the knights, in their gay 
uniforms and glittering arms, presented a fine appearance, as also did 
the Masons in their white aprons. 

6 



168 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Halting around the corner stone of the church, on the corner of 
Main and Catherine streets, the ceremonies of laying the stone were 
performed in a graceful and appropriate manner, under the rites of 
Ancient Craft Masonry. Acting Grand Master Hon. J. P. Wood, of 
Ralls county. Past Grand Master ; Col. R. E. Anderson, of Hannibal, 
acting Deputy Grand Master ; Col. W. B. Drescher, of Hannibal, 
acting R. W. G. S. W. ; Major W. R. P. Jackson, of Monroe City, 
acting R. W. G. J. W., and Rev. J. S.Green, Chaplain — constituted 
the Grand Lodge. 

A copper box was inserted in the stone, which contains a copy of 
the Monroe City News oi June 26, 1884, containing a synopsis of the 
history of the church ; a copy of the ordinances of the city of 1879 ; 
a catalogue of Monroe Institute of the past session ; a copy of the 
Old and New Testament Scriptures, and a manuscript roll of the mem- 
bers of the cono-reo-ation. 

After the ceremonies, the column marched to the beautiful grounds 
of the Monroe Institute, where the Masons, and a large number of 
ladies and others^, listened to a masterly address by that silver-tongued 
orator. Col. R. E. Anderson. The address was full of good Masonic 
doctrine, couched in beautiful language, and delivered in a style char- 
acteristic of the orator. At the close of the address, Hon. J. P. 
Wood made a few appropriate remarks, followed by a timely speech 
from Eminent Commander A. Wood Terrill, to the effect that supper 
was ready. Under the shade of the trees of the Institute grounds 
long tables had been erected, and to these the assembly at once re- 
paired. The supper was complete in every respect, and the meats, 
berries, ices and cakes were especially attractive, evidencing the fact 
that the ladies of that section understand the culinary art. 

At ni^ht an entertainment was given in the recitation-room of the 
Institute, consisting of vocal and instrumental music, recitations, etc. 
Misses Scheetz, Brummel and Hattie Lyons, and Master Willie Scho- 
field brought down the house, and deserve great credit for the man- 
ner in which they acquitted themselves. The recitation by Miss Bishop 
was well received and highly eulogized. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The Catholics of Monroe City have bought the old Baptist Church, 
and will soon have regular services here. The tirst meeting will be 
held on Sunday, August 31st, by the Rev. Father Casey, of Shelbina, 
who will have charge of the church. 

HEREFORD ASSOCIATION. 

Under date of August 7, 1884, the Monroe City Neios has this to 

say of the Hereford Association which has been successfully organized 

in that city : — 

Monroe City, Mo., August 1, 1884. 

The Hereford breeders of Monroe City and vicinity met over the 
furniture store of F. M. Wilson, at 3 o'clock p.m., and were called to 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 169 

order by J. O. Wood, of Canton. J. M. Gentry, of Hannibal, was 
elected temporary chairman, and O. J. Wood, of Ralls county, tem- 
porary secretary. 

Col. W. C. Splavvn, of Centre, was called upon to state the object 
of the meeting, and responded by stating that the principal object 
was the promotion of the interests of the breeders of Hereford cattle, 
by comparing experiences of the members ; advertising the sale of 
calves through the association ; bringing calves together for the pur- 
pose of comparing them, and doing many other things which would 
naturally be suggested as we advance, that would be of mutual bene- 
fit. 

A committee was appointed to report business to the meeting. 
After retiring for a i'ew minutes they returned and submitted the fol- 
lowing report : — 

We, your committee, recommend, first, that this meeting go into a permanent 
organization. 

Second, that a committee of tliree be appointed to draft constitution and by-laws to 
govern this body, and report at a future meeting. 

Third, that this association offers a premium on the following named calves, to be 
exhibited at Monroe City : — 

For the best grade Hereford bull calf of 1884. 

Second best grade, Hereford bull calf of 1884. 

For a herd of five of the best Hereford bull calves of 1884. 

For a herd of five of the second best Hereford bull calves of 1884. 

For the best grade Hereford heifer calf of 1884. 

Second best grade Hereford heifer calf of 1884. 

For a herd of five best grade Hereford heifer calves of 1884. 

For second best herd of five grade Hereford heifer calves of 1884. 

Fourth, that this association advertise the bull calves of its members in some stock 
journal that has the widest circulation in the West and South-west, and that the ex- 
pense thereof be equally borne by the owners of the calves so advertised, to be pro- 
rated by the number of calves each. 

Fifth, that there be a corresponding secretary elected, whose business it shall 
be to attend to the advertising of the calves for sale by the members of this associa- 
tion. 

W. C. Splawn, 
Jas. S. Scott, 
J. O. Wood, 
O. J. Wood, 

Committee. 

The report of the committee was adopted by sections. 

Col. Splawn moved that the association proceed to elect a president, 
vice-president, secretary, corresponding secretary and treasurer. 
Carried. Col. W. C. Sphiwn, J. M. Proctor and John O. Wood were 
put in nomination for president, and J. M. Proctor was elected. Col. 
Splawn was elected vice-president by acclamation. O. J. Wood was 
elected secretary in the same manner. For treasurer, E. S. Hampton 
and J. S. Scott were placed in nomination, and Mr. Scott was elected. 
W. Shields McClintic, E. S. Hampton and W. T. Clark were 
then nominated for corresponding secretary, and Mr. Hampton 
elected. 

Col. Splawn moved that the secretary be authorized to solicit mem- 
bership, and that an entrance fee of $1 be charged. Carried. 
The following gentlemen were enrolled as members of the associa- 
tion : — 

(180) 



170 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

James M. Proctor, Monroe City ; W. A. Davis, George W. Piper, 
Joseph M. Gentry, Hannibal ; S. F. Strode, W. C. Splawn, Centre ; 
L. H. Redman, Ralls county; John O. Wood, Canton ; E. S. Hamp- 
ton, N. L. Hume, Ralls county ; H. C. Jones, S. C. Watson, Hanni- 
bal ; W. H. Fuqua, Ralls county ; W. Shields McClintic, E. S. Boul- 
ware, Hunnewell ; B. G. Moss, James M. Howe, J. W. Calvert, 
Marion county; James S. Scott, W. T. Clark, Monroe City; George 
W. Tooley, O. J. Woods, Ralls county. 

On motion of J. M. Gentry, W^. P. Bush was made an honorary 
member of the association. 

A motion that this association offer a premium for the different 
rings of calves to be shown, and that an entrance fee be charged the 
exhibitors, sufficient to cover the same, was lost after a long and 
heated debate, in which J. M. Gentry, Col. Splawn, J. O. Wood, L. 
H. Redman and others took part. 

A motion was then made that premiums be offered for the different 
rings of calves shown, and that a committee be appointed to provide 
and arrange and provide for same, and to fix entrance fee. Lost. 

W. P. JBush offered the foUowing, which was adopted : — 

Besolved, that an entrance fee be charg;ed each calf entered for exhibition, and that 
the chair appoint a committee of three to arrange for the exhibition of calves, to offer 
a premium on each class, and to fix the amount of entrance fee, the same to be suffic- 
ient to cover all expenses of the exhibition. 

E. S. Hampton, W. Shields McClintic and J. O. Wood were ap- 
pointed as the committee. 

Col. Splawn, Joseph M. Gentry and L. H. Redman were appointed 
to draft constitution and by-laws to govern the association, and in- 
structed to report at next meeting. 

On motion it was ordered that this association convene again in 
Monroe City on Saturday, August 30, at 2 o'clock p.m. 

Motion that this association solicit grade Hereford steers out of the 
bulls of 1885, to be fed " for all that is in them," as an experiment, 
to arrive at as near as possible, whatever merit there may be in the 
breed. Carried, and seventeen head were promised. 

On motion the corresponding secretary was instructed to find out at 
earliest date possible the terms of advertising, and collect the amount 
from each member haviug calves to advertise, as provided in commit- 
tee's report. 

It was moved and carried that Col. Splawn be requested to address 
the association at the next meeting on the breeding and the different 
breeds of cattle. Adjourned. 

J. M. Proctor, President. 
O. J. Wood, Secretary. 

SHIPMENTS. 

Below we give a carefully prepared statement of the shipments from 
each of the railroad depots in Monroe City. This statement embraces 
a period of one year, beginning August 1, 1883 : — 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 171 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas It. R. — Hay, 40 cars; cattle, 22 
cars; horses, 4 cars; calves, 3 cars; rnules, 1 car; horses and mules, 
2 cars ; wheat, 4 cars ; oats, 3 cars ; emigrants' outfits, 5 cars ; hoop- 
poles, 1 car; ajDples, 1 car; corn, 2 cars; household goods, 1 car; 
old iron, 2 cars; ha}'^ stackers, 2 cars. Total, 93 cars. 

Hannibal and St. Joseph R. R. — Hogs, 140 cars ; cattle, 52 cars ; 
sheep, 19 cars; horses and mules, 13 cars ; ties, 277 cars; oats, 15 
cars; corn, 2 cars; wheat, 15 cars; logs, 11 cars; lumber, 46 cars; 
scrap iron, 2 cars ; hay, 2 cars ; hoop-poles, 5 cars ; emigrants' out- 
fits, 7 cars ; apples, 2 cars ; poultry, 1 car ; hay rakes and stackers, 5 
cars. Total, 514 cars. 

BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 

Miss Ora Anient, music teacher ; Anderson & Moss (Jerome B. 
Anderson and W. Ed Moss), general store; Dr. Elijah Bailey, capi- 
talist ; Wm. A. Bird, photographer ; James H. Blincoe, lumber ; Boul- 
ware & Sullivan (Aaron Boulware and Randolph V. Sullivan), dry 
goods ; Briggs & Shaw, vai-iety store ; Bristow & Lighter (Robt. 
Bristow and John T. Lighter), lawyers and real estate agents; 
W. T. Windsor, horses and mules; W. P. Bush, live stock; 
Mrs. Nina Byrd, milliner; Harrison Gary, groceries, etc.; 
Mrs. Hugh M. Clark, music teacher; Miss Annie Cobbs, 
milliner ; Dennis Crowley, blacksmith and wagon maker ; 
David G. Davenport, lawyer; David R. Davenport, insurance agent; 
Rev. Henry F. Davis (Christian); Benjamin M. Ely, blacksmith and 
wagon maker ; Norman W. Eakle, carpenter ; Durrant & Jackson, 
(W. R. P. Jackson, George W. Durrant), hardware ; William Turner, 
blacksmith ; Gem house, N. S. Topping, proprietor ; Gentry & 
Snider (Overton H. Gentry, Samuel R. Snider), grocers ; Alexander 
J. Gerard, railroad agent ; Samuel B. Gilliland, manufacturer 
Champion hay rake with sulky attachment; Heinrich C. Goetze, 
grocer; Adam Graves, constable; George Green, proprietor lime 
quarry; Rev. James S. Green (Baptist) ; Thomas J. Griffith, justice 
of peace; Thomas J. Griffith, live stock; Griffith & Strean (John 
R. Griffith, John Strean), barbers; Grimm & Losson (Andrew 
Grimm, Nicholas Losson), boots and shoes; Samuel H. Hallock, 
editor and proprietor Monroe City Neios ; Hanley House, John 
Hanley, proprietor ; Thomas Hendricks, lumber manufacturer at 
Hunnewell ; Hickman, Hawkins & Co. (Benjamin F. Hick- 
man, George A. Hawkins, Joseph E. Ogle), lumber; Rev. 
B. F. Hixson (Baptist) ; James Jackson (estate of), sand stone 



172 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

quarry four miles north-west; James S. Randol, grocer; James S. 
Jones, Eev. J. E. Latham (Presbyterian) ; Rev. J. T. Lighter (Metho- 
dist) ; Wm. W. Longmire, lawyer and insurance ; James L. Lyon, 
railroad agent; Patrick H. McLeod, justice of peace, three miles 
south-west; W. B. A. McNutt, physician; Megown & Kent (Sam. 
Megown, Horace Kent), proprietors Monroe Flouring Mills ; Monroe 
Institute, A. Wood Terrill and Rev. J. S. Dingle, proprietors ; 
Monroe City Bank (capital $50,000), Randolph V. Sullivan, 
president, Thomas Proctor, cashier ; Elanhan W. Meyers, nursery ; 
James J. Norton, physician ; Benjamin T. Ogle, carpenter ; C. W. 
Overman, carpenter; John C. Peirsol, attorney; J. W. Paul, 
capitalist; Cyrus H. Poage, machinist and apiarian; Mrs. Ragland, 
music teacher; Geo. T. Ridings, real estate; John J. Rogers, dry 
goods; John W. Rouse, dry goods; Geo. Rupp, harness maker; 
Acayan K. Rutledge, druggist; Rev. W. G. Suher (Christian); 
Shearer & Sullivan (Preston Shearer, Wm. J. Sullivan), grocers; 
James H. Simpson, jeweler; Rev. G. H. Ward (Episcopal); 
G. W. Tompkins & Co. (Geo. W. Tompkins, Geo. L. Turner), 
druggists ; Ben. H. H. Tucker, post master; C. E. Tucker & Bro. 
(Chas. E. and G. W. ), confectioners ; Dan. K. Yowell, harness maker ; 
Geo. L. Turner, physician ; A. Jaeger, hardware ; Chas. C. Wakefield, 
physician ; Eli Wayland, manufacturer Champion hay rakes ; Westhoff, 
Bros. (Adolphus and Francis), wagon makers; Frank Westhoff, 
blacksmith ; Francis M. Wilson, furniture ; Benj. O. Wood, druggist ; 
Felix Wunch, baker ; Noah A. Sidener, livery stable ; A. Noland, 
dentist; Willard Peirsol, physician; Leishman Bros., painters, 
W. S. Whitehead, restaurant; Spalding & Kennedy (Miss Kate 
Spalding, Miss Maggie Kennedy), millinery and dress making; Mrs. 
CM. Smith, milliner; Mrs. Searcy, milliner; David A. Ely, board- 
ing-house ; Sam. H. Ryan, meat market ; Monroe City Creamery Co. 
(capital stock, $6,500), J. M. Proctor, president, J. A. Peirsol, 
manag-er. 



CHAPTER yill. 

MARION AND UNION TOWNSHIPS. 

Mirion Township —Physical Features — Old Settlers — Madison — Secret Orders — 
HoUiday — Union Township — Old Settlers — Primitive Justice — Middle Grove — 
Secret Orders. 

MARION TOWNSHIP. 

Marion township contains about seventy square miles, and with 
Union township forms the western boundary of the county — border- 
ing upon Randolph. Its surface is veined by the Middle and Elk forks 
of Salt river, and by Mud creek. About one-sixth of the township is 
prairie. Much of the northern portion of the township is hilly and 
broken, but a large portion of the land is good for wheat, corn and 
tobacco, the latter crop being probably more largely cultivated in this 
township than in any other. 

The township was named in honor of Gen. Francis Marion. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

The old settlers in this township were William Farrell, Joel Far- 
rell, John Farrell, James Farrell, Solomon Hays, Samuel M. Quirey, 
James Swindell, Joel Swindell, Berry Overfelt, David Overfelt, William 
Gooch, William Smith, Nicholas Plummer, Henry Harris, John W. 
Dawson, Larken Bell, John Stephens, Marcus Embree, Jacob Satterlee, 
James Davis, — Todd, John Glenn, Evan Davis, William Davis, Thomas 
Davis, Joseph Bryan, Joseph Stephens, William Swindell, Aaron 
Yager, James Yager, Arphaxed Key, John Waller, Stephen Callaway. 

MADISON. 

The town of Madison was named by James R. Abernathy, Esq., 
who came to Monroe county, Mo., in 1817. 

Mr. Abernathy thought a great deal of James Madison, President 
of the United States, and called the new town Madison, in honor of 
him. He entered 40 acres of land where the town was located and 
laid out half of the tract in 1837, dividing it into about 90 lots, Avhich 
he disposed of in a short time, receiving therefor the sum of $1,100. 
The first house in the place was put up by Henry Harris, who came 
from Madison county, Ky., and used as a tavern in 1837. James 

(173) 



174 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Eubanks, from Tennessee, opened the first store in 1838. George 
Cunuinghiim was the pioneer blaclismitli. The first sign-board was 
put up by L. B. Wade. It read: " Private entertainment by L. B. 
Wade." NichoUis Ray was one of the first physicians of the town, 
and was a Kentuckian, as was also Dr. Venaugh; both came about 
the year 1838. The Christian denomination built the first house of 
worship about 1851. Mrs. Morris, a widow lady now residing in 
Madison, was the first person born in the town. 

Among the first settlers in this part of the township were Joel Ter- 
rill, Evan Davis, Joel Noel, James Owenby, William and Thomas 
Davis, all from Oldham county, Kentucky. Joseph Brown, Joseph 
Bryan, Joseph Stephens, James M. Yager, Martin Groves, Isaac Ba- 
ker, Ezra Fox, William Swindell and Reuben Burton were also early 
settlers, and from Kentucky. 

The town contains a public school, Christian and Methodist churches, 
one flour and a saw mill, telegraph (W. U.), express, United States 
mail daily, and has a population of about 500. It has also two general 
stores, one harness shop, three drug and grocery stores, one grocery 
store and meat market, one grocery store, one furniture store, one 
wagon shop, one blacksmith shop, one livery stable, two hotels, one 
barber shop, one photographer, two physicians. 

The town is situated on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas R. R., five 
miles from Hollidaj^ 13 from Paris, the county seat^^ and contains a pop- 
ulation of about ()00, and is in the midst of a very good agricultural coun- 
try, with good timber and coal lands in close proximity, which add greatly 
to its prominence as a business point ; and the coal mines inthis region 
are destined in the near future (when fully developed) to be a source 
of extraordinar}'^ benefit to the citizens of Madison and vicinity. This 
is one of the oldest towns in the county and its citizens are mostly 
natives of the county. They are an energetic and enterprising people 
and take great interest in the prosperity of the county in which they 
live. They give employment to all worthy mechanics that come 
among them, and assist by their aid and influence in every laudable 
enterprise. Such is the character of its l)usiness men, its citizens and 
the community in general. 

MADISON LODGE, NO. 91, A. F. AND A. M. 

This lodge now meets at HoUiday. It was organized in October, 
1847. The first officers of the lodge were Henderson Davis, W. M. ; 
Samuel McQuery, S. W. ; W. H. Nowell, J. W. Present officers are 
William Hord, W. M. ; G. Waller, S. W. ; W. Davis, J. W. ; T. W. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 17 5 

McCormick, secretary ; R. Wright, treasurer ; John Helen, S. D. ; T. 
Hayden, J. D. ; G. L. Harper, tyler. 

HOLLIDAY. 

This thriving viUageis situated in Marion township on the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas Raih'oad, eight miles from Paris, five miles from 
Madison, and was first laid out by W. H. Holliday & Bro. in 1876. 

These enterpri^^ing men were engaged for some time in selling dry 
goods and provisions, and did a prosperous business, so much so that 
others were attracted to the place and engaged in difiereut enterprises. 
House after house has been erected, and being located in a beautiful 
farming country and splendid timber in close proximity, it could not 
be otherwise than prominent as a business point. 

All the lots laid ofi" in the original plat have been disposed of, and 
to supply the wants for more room for buildings, Mr. Henry Glass- 
cock, who owns a valuable farm adjacent, laid ofi" a tract of land into 
town lots. 

The people of Holliday are noted for liberality, hospitality and gen- 
eral business enterprise. 

We are indebted to Mr. W. H. Holliday for information in regard 
to this place. His business tact and energy has been to him a financial 
success. ^He has now retired from active business pursuits, and trans- 
ferred them to younger men, who will see that "business" is the 
watchword, and that it loses none of its laurels. 

All well regulated communities, cities and towns should have good 
schools and churches. Holliday has both. One church, Cumberland 
Presbyterian (newly painted and papered), has a membership of 140. 
This church was built about 40 years ago, before there was any town 
at this point. Rev. James Sharp is the present minister. 

Holliday can also boast of a large and commodious depot, presided 
over by Mr. H. McCown. There was shipped from this point during 
the year 1881 the following car loads : — 

Mules, 11 ; hogs, 66 ; sheep, 15 ; cattle, 41 ; logs, 4 ; ties, 89 ; old 
iron, 38 ; oak lumber, 26 ; cord wood, 19 ; piling, 36 ; hoop poles, 6. 
Total carloads, 351. 

These shipments have slowly but constantly increased since that 
period, until now (1884) Holliday has become one of the roost im- 
portant shipping points in the country. 

The first house in the town was erected by W. H. Holliday, and 
was used by him and his brother, Thompson Holliday, as a general 
store. The first dwelling-house was also built by W. H. Holliday. 



176 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

The first school-house was built about thirty years ago. It was 
taken down about five years ago, and a larger and more substantial 
building put up, which will comfortably seat 125 pupils. 

Among the early settlers was William Singleton, from Macon 
county, Mo. ; he opened the first hotel in the town. Thomas Mappin 
built the first saw and grist-mill in the vicinity. Among others who 
located in this section of the township were Austin Moore, William 
Moore, Philip Moore, Samuel Harper, Samuel Belmer, Frank 
McCord, Eev. J.B. Mitchell, James Parish, Gustavus Parish, Andrew 
Thomas^ Kumsey Saling, Frank Weatherford, James Greening, 
Joseph HoHiday, Robert Gwynn and Harvey Arnold. Near the 
present town site, and in Henry Glascock's field, Thomas Terrill 
opened a race track. Rumsey Saling was a great hunter and was so • 
fond of this pastime that when game became scarce around his home 
he moved to Texas, where he could pursue with better results his 
favorite recreation. 

UNION TOAVNSHIP. 

This township lies in the south-eastern part of the county and 
borders upon Randolph. It has about 80 square miles. Its water- 
courses are Long branch, Elk fork of Salt river, Hardin's, Oldham, 
and Milligan creeks. One-half of the township is prairie, and taken 
as a whole the soil is well adapted to the growth of the cereals, and 
in fact, all kinds of crops raised by the farmers of this section are 
successfully grown in Union township. Some of the earliest settlers 
in the county located in this township, where they lived and died, and 
many of their descendants still linger around their old homes. 

Herndon Burton, who now resides in Union township on the Elk 
fork of Salt river, is said to be the first white child Born in Monroe 
county. The most noted hunter in this region of country is George 
H. Bassett, who followed hunting for 35 years. He came from Vir- 
ginia to Randolph county, Missouri, where he resided five years and 
then moved to Monroe county and located within one mile of Middle 
Grove, where he lived for a quarter of a century. He now lives in 
Middle Grove. The first mill in the township was built and operated 
by C. B. Dawson in 1851, in the town limits. It was, when first built, 
a saw-mill and carding machine, and afterwards machinery was added 
for a grist-mill. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

The old settlers to this township were Kentuckians and Virginians : 
John G. C. Milligan, Jacob Whittenburg, Daniel Whittenburg, John 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 177 

Gee, Ezra Fox, J. C. Fox, John Burton, Reuben Burton, Michael 
Khigh, James Martin, James Wells, Austin Swinney, Valentine Swin- 
ney, Ashley Snell, James Ownby, George H. Bassett, Joseph Swin- 
ney, Blufoi-d Davis, Van Davis, Willis Snell, Fountain Chandler, John 
Boulware, Hardin Yates, Vincent Yates, James Noel, Leroy Noel, 
Vincent Jackson, Thomas Embree, Henry Martin, Edward Tucker, 
Edward Tydings, John Wright, John Myers, Charles Allen, Col. Ed. 
Tydings, Richard Branham, William Smith, LarkinBell, C. Collins, 
Jack Stevens. 

PRIMITIVE JUSTICE. 

In 1827 or 1828, in what is now known as Union township, Monroe 
county, there lived John Burton, a justice of the peace. Reuben 
Burton, his brother, had lost a hog, and finding it in the possession 
of one, Rious, a free negro, brought suit before his brother John for 
the possession of it. The day of trial came. The plaintiff was pres- 
ent with his lawyer, J. C. Fox ; the defendent was also present but 
had no lawyer. The trial was about over, and the witnesses, as it 
was thought, had all been sworn and examined, when the justice, a 
large, tall man, rose from his seat and requested Pleasant Ford, who 
was a constable, to swear him. Ford administered the oath to the 
justice, as was requested by that official, when the justice gave his 
testimony. He said that he was in possession of some facts in refer- 
ence to the hog that were not presented to the court by the other wit- 
nesses, and after giving his testimony, he decided the case in favor of 
the free neo;ro. He had often hunted with the negro and knew the 
hog to be his, and hence decided in his favor, and against the claim 
of his own brother. The justice, however, was known to be a just 
and truthful man, and his evidence was so clear and convincing, that 
the decision was regarded by the bystanders as being right. 

MIDDLE GROVE. 

Middle Grove is a substantial and business little town of about 200 
inhabitants, and is situated in the south-west corner of the county, 
and 20 miles from the county seat, and four and a half miles from 
Evansville, the nearest railroad point. The town is built upon a long 
sloping hillside, at the foot of which runs Milligan creek, a small 
tributary of the Elk fork of Salt river, and is surrounded by one of 
the best farming communities in the State. The town site is a jjart of 
the old Ezra Fox settlement, which was made in 1820, and was the 
first permanent settlement in Monroe county, and the name was de- 
rived from its being a midway station between the Father of Waters 



178 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

and Bi^ Muddy, and also the most ceiitnil station on the first mail 
route established between New London and Fayette; and from being 
located in an arm or belt of timber reaching into the Grand Prairie, 
became the halting place of the earliest pioneers, and was called Mid- 
dle Grove. These facts, in connection with others, give this little town 
and neighborhood a history and a civilization reaching ffirther back 
than any other portion of the county, and almost to the beginning of 
the present century, when the first daring frontiersman crossed the 
Mississippi in search of new homes, or new fields of fortune and ad- 
venture ; and some of the fields adjacent to the town, which now an- 
nually yield their bountiful crops of golden grain, were the first lands 
ever located in the county. The first virgin soil disturbed by the 
ploughshare of civilization, still preserves many lingering marks of 
the husbandry and decayed habitations of the pioneer fathers — the 
Foxes, Whittenburgs, Burtons, Davis, Swinneys, Ownbys, Noels, 
Milligans, Fords, Stephens and others of the early settlers, who first 
sowed in the tracks of barbarism the seeds of civilization, of which 
four of the youngest only remain to witness the glory crowning the 
efforts of their parents and of their young manhood, and that four 
are Blufar Davis, Herndon Burton, Fountain Swinney and ex-Sheriff 
James Ownby. 

Thus originated Middle Grove, around which settlers gradually lo- 
cated, and in which John C. Milligan started the first store about the 
year 1830 or 1831; afterwards, in 1840, the town was properly laid 
off into lots, by John G. C. Milligan, and from that time rapidly grew 
into a thriving village, and one of the best trading points in North- 
east Missouri, and in its inhabitants could be found some of the best 
blood of Virginia and Kentucky, with its attendant qualities of patriot- 
ism, hospitality and neighborly kindness ; and many of these dis- 
tinguishing features yet remain to mark the character of its people, 
and nowhere are people more united and patriotically resolved for 
the common weal and welfare of the community and country, or the 
culture and advancement of the rising generation. 

The town is pleasantly and healthily located, and the mortality of 
the neighborhood will compare favorably with any in the State, and 
none can boast of longer lived and more aged citizens. The oldest 
citizen of the town is Dr. John McNutt, who settled in the Grove in 
1848, and practiced his profession until recent years, when he retired, 
and now survives the hardships and reverses of fortune that would 
have killed an}' ordinary man, at the good old age of 74 years. 

John G. C. Milligan, a Virginian by birth, built the first house that 



HISTOKY OF MONROE COUNTY. 179 

was put up in the Grove, tmd in fact, in this section of country in 
1825. He was also the first postmaster and the first hotel-keeper. 
The mail route was between New London in Ralls county, to Old 
Franklin in Howard county, on the Missouri river. John Myers 
was the first mail carrier on this route. John Hedger was one of the 
early blacksmiths of the town. Henry Lutz was the pioneer car- 
penter and wood workman. Edward T. Tucker was the first tailor. 
The first school-house was built in the township about the year 1830, 
and William Maupin taught the first school. He was from Howard 
county, Missouri. The first church was erected by the Christian 
denomination about 1825, on section 33, township 54, range 12, two 
miles north-east of Middle Grove. William Reid was the officiatino- 
minister. The first church in Middle Grove was erected about the 
year 1840, by the Christian denomination. A Presbyterian Church 
was built in 1852, first presided over by Rev. J. B. Mitchell ; this 
organization was discontinued in 1862 and the building was sold and 
moved away in 1872. 

Middle Grove claims the honor of being the point where the first 
store was opened in Monroe county.^ The house as already stated, 
was built by John G. C. Milligan and Glenn and Parsons sold the 
first goods in it. An old colored man — Jesse Burton — who now 
lives at Holliday, cleared away the brush for the town site. 

SECRET ORDERS. 

Lodge No. 326, I. O. O. F. — Was organized in August 1874 
with the following charter members : George D. Ownby, James 
Mitchell, John Mitchell, John T. Haley, Henry Bell, J. B. Swinney, 
John McAdams, Samuel Truby, Thomas Garrett, Edward C. Brooks, 
S. T. Hull, John McDonald, Thomas Hocker, Joel H. Noel. The 
present oflicers are S. T. Hull, N. G. ; J. F. Ownby, V. G. ; W. G. 
Webb, secretary and T. B. Stephens, treasurer. 



1 See Chapter V. 



^^^m 



CHAPTEK IX. 

SOUTH FORK TOWNSHIP. 

Its Physical Features — Farmers — Cemetery — Pioueers — Santa Fe — Its History — 
Secret Orders — Strotlier — Strother Institute — Its History — Extracts From 
Catalogue — Long Branch Post-office. 

SOUTH FORK TOWNSHIP. 

This township was organized in 1834 and occnpies about 72 square 
miles in the south-eastern portion of the county. It is watered by the 
South fork of Salt river, Long Branch and their tributaries. Much 
of the land is favorably located for farming purposes and, in fact, 
portions of the township are very productive, growing large crops of 
wheat and corn. There is an abundance of timber of the best quality, 
and the very best of building stone. Among the large farmers of 
this township are William Hanna, Jr., J. R. Smiley, James W. 
•Trimble, James B. Davis, John Davis, Charles Davis, John W. Hizer, 
W. C. Bates, Benjamin Coward, E. W. Smith, John Dashner and C. 
P. McCarty. The early settlers of the township were generally from 
Kentucky and Virginia and were an intelligent and thrifty class of 
people. 

The various religious denominations are well represented, each 
having neat and substantial houses of worship. Religions services 
and Sunday schools are regularly held in all the churches and are 
largely attended. The public schools of the township are numerous 
and are liberally patronized and generally well furnished with all the 
appliances necessary to successful teaching. Besides the public 
schools, additional facilities for instruction are furnished by the Prairie 
High School which is located at Strother, and of which we shall say 
more hereafter. 

Pleasant Hill cemetery, in this county, is the largest burying ground 
in Monroe county except the one at Paris. It takes its name — 
Pleasant Hill — from the church of that name, which was located 
there by the Old School Presbyterians at an early day, and which is 
now a large and influential religious body. 

The cemetery is well preserved and the great number of tomb- 
stones and monuments, though neither very costly nor magnificent, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 181 

testify to the respect entertained by the living for their loved ones, 
some of whom have been resting here for nearly half a century. 

" The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, 
The swallow twittering from the straw-built shed, 

The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn. 
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed. " 



PIONEERS. 

Among the pioneers who settled in South Fork township we record 
the names of the following: Lewis Crigler, Lovick Crigler, Capt. 
Frank Davis, Theodore Price, Dr. John Bybee, Lary Boggs, William 
Blaukenbaker, Powell Snyder, Henry Tanner, William Hanna, John 
Hanna, James Hanna, David Hanna, Joseph Hizer and Esom Hanna. 

SANTA FE. 

The original proprietor of the old town of Santa Fe was Dr. John 
S. Bybee, a Kentuckian, who entered and purchased several hundred 
acres of land in that vicinity. The town was laid out in 1837 and 
was named after Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

The first business house in the town, was opened by Henry Canote 
in 1837. This was what was at that time called a grocery, but would 
be classed to-day as a saloon, as whisky was the chief article of trade. 
Clemens and Hall started the first general store. Thomas Mosely, 
who is still living, was the first blacksmith in the town, beginning 
work soon after the place was laid out. Dr. D. L. Davis was the first 
physician. Alvin Cauthorn was the first tailor. The first church 
(now M. E. Church South) was built by the Methodists prior to 1840. 
The first mill in this vicinity was erected about the year 1838 by By- 
bee and Canote, on the South fork of Salt river, about three miles 
north of Santa Fe. 

The town having been started 47 years ago, now looks old and 
weatherbeaten. It is, however, a good business point, and is sur- 
rounded by a good farming country. The inhabitants are genial and 
hospitable, the majority of them being descendants of Virginians and 
Kentuckians. The town contains 2 churches, Methodist and Chris- 
tian, and a school-house ; 2 secret orders ; 2 general stores ; 2 drug 
stores ; 1 hardware store ; 1 shoemaker shop ; 2 blacksmith shops ; 
1 saw and grist mill ; 2 physicians and a justice of the peace. 

SECRET ORDERS. 

Santa Fe Lodge, No. 315, 1. O. O. F. —Was instituted March 25, 



182 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

1874, by A. M. Alexander, Grand Master, officiating. The charter 
members .were P. A. Cook, Philip Qiiisenbury, W. C. Bates, Dr. 
John S. Drake, T. J. Armstrong, D. Sheckles, H. P. Miller and J. R. 
Smiley. The present officers are Philip Quisenbury, N. G. ; C. W. 
Tanner, V. G. ; Lewis Fleming, R. S. ; George W. Kerr, treasurer ; 
Philip Quisenbury, L. D. 

8anta Fe Lodge, JSfo. 462, A. F. and A. M. — Was set to work 
under a dispensation from Samuel Owens, Grand Master, in April 
1873, by Col. Theo. Brace, Past Master. 

On the 16th day of October, 1873, the Grand Lodge issued a charter 
with Dr. J. S. Drake, W. M., Dr. W. R. Rodes, S. W. and Jas. B. 
Davis, J. W. The Hall was dedicated and the officers publicly in- 
stalled by Deputy District Master L. R. Downing, in November, 1873. 
The charter members were J. W. Bates, Jas. Bledsoe, Jas. Bridge- 
ford, J. S. Drake, Geo. W. Edmonston, W. S. Forsyth, Jas. Mc- 
Cutchan, A. H. Moore, Isaac Hanna, Irvin Powell, W. R. Rodes, 
Urid Rouse, J. M. Travis and G. A. Wilson. 

The present officers are Dr. John S. Drake, W. M. ; C. C. Davis, 
S. W. ; Geo. D. Massy, J. W. ; J. P. Brownlie, secretary; Jas. B. 
Davis, treasurer; G. W. Stuart, S. D. ; D. Mcllhany, J. D ; L. 
A. Creigh, tyler. The membership is 24 and the night of meeting is 
the Saturday before the full moon. The lodge is out of debt and own 
the hall and is in good working condition. 

STROTHER. 

This is the name of a recently established post-office in South 
Fork township, which takes its name from Prof. French Strother, 
who has resided there for seven years. There are three or four fami- 
lies and one general store in town, kept by Rev. Joseph Rowe. The 
country surrounding the place is a high and healthful prairie and 
is one of the most productive and beautiful farming regions in Monroe 
county. 

Strother is chiefly known as the seat of Strother Institute, which 
has for many years been a prominent institution of learning. It was 
formerly known as Prairie High school. At a very early day, Capt. 
John Forsyth, Jacob Cox, Joseph E. Sprowl, Wm. Vaughan, Hiram 
Powell, Willis Bledsoe and Wm. T. Bridge ford determined to estab- 
lish a school of higher grade than the ordinary district schools of the 
country. They accordingly employed John N. Lyle, a graduate of 
Marietta College, Ohio. After teaching acceptably for some time he 
returned to his Alma Mater to complete his education. He is now 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 183 

the distinguished Professor of Natural Science at Westminster College, 
which position he has held for years. The next teacher employed was 
Eobert N. Baker, a graduate of Westminster College. He is a promi- 
nent physician and lives at Millersburg, Callaway county. William 
C. Foreman, a graduate of Princeton, N. J., was the next teacher. 
He is now a prominent lawyer of San Antonio, Texas. The next 
incumbent was James G. Bailey, a graduate of Westminster, now 
deceased. The next was an Indiana gentleman, by the name of Hast- 
ings, who was afterwards a Captain in the Confederate army. He 
is now dead, having lost his health in the army. Dr. Thomas Gallaher, 
a distinguished writer and minister of the " Old School Presby- 
terian Church," was the next teacher. These gentlemen all taught 
before the war. During the war the school was small and the 
term short. Among those who had the charge of it might be named 
Miss Bennett, Miss Annfe Vaughan and some others whose names 
are forgotten. 

After the war, among the most prominent teachers who have had 
charge of the school may be mentioned Prof. Henry Vaughan, now of 
St. Louis University ; Prof. Jesse Lewis, of the Holliday public 
school, and the county school commissioner of Monroe county, and 
Prof. J. Iglehart, now of Columbia public schools. 

At a public gathering in the neighborhood in 1879, where many 
persons from a large section of the country had congregated, and at 
which some distinguished teachers and former pupils were present to 
enjoy a rich repast furnished by the friends of education. Prof. Lyle 
in complimenting some of the old citizens of the neighborhood, said 
he had known many strong supporters of education, but that Capt. 
John Forsyth was the best friend and supporter of education he had 
ever known. 

It is proper that a short sketch of the life of Capt. John Forsyth 
should be embodied in the historv of this school. 

He was connected with it from its establishment in 1854 till 1861, 
the beginning of the war. He was born in Mercer county, Kentucky, 
March 10, 1798, came to Missouri about the year 1837, was married 
November 24, 1842, to Miss Isabella A. Berry, who was a hearty co- 
worker and sympathizer with him in all his enterprises concerning 
schools and churches. The cause of education was one very dear to 
him. He devoted his time and means without stint in the employ- 
ment of first-class teachers and in the erection of suitable buildings 
for the accommodation of pupils. His house was the home of the 
teachers and many of the boarding pupils. 

7 



184 HISTORY or MONROE COUNTY. 

His interest and liberality were not confined to this school alone. 
He took a scholarship in Westminster College, and in this way assisted 
several yonng men to obtain an education. He was a constituent mem- 
ber of New Hope (Presbyterian) Church, and assisted with both his 
time and money in the erection of the church edifice. Of this church 
he was a ruling elder, and held that position until the time of his 
death, which occurred July 22, 1870. Capt. Forsyth was universally 
esteemed as an upright, kind-hearted neighbor, friend and Christian 
gentleman, and in his death the community, as well as his family, 
suffered an almost irreparable loss. 

In his catalogue for 1885, Prof. Strother says : — 

Our effort will be to conduct our school so that both mind and heart 
of pupils will be cultivated and developed for good; knowing, as we 
do, that knowledge is as great a power for evil as for good. 

The years are past when any ambition was felt to establish large 
and popular schools, and as our sun of life has reached its zenith 
amid prosperity and adversity, pleasure and pain, sunlight and 
shadow, bright anticipations and sad bereavements, our hearts' desire 
is to be more and more the means of doino- the Master's work, and 
leading the youth intrusted to us in right paths. Therefore, only a 
limited number of pupils will be received. 

Special attention will be given to spelling, reading, writing and 
other elementary branches. Without a well-laid foundation, pupils 
will find it difficult to maintain a good standing in advanced classes. 

As many pupils never complete branches higher than those included 
in grammar schools, and as these enter very largely into the practical 
business of every-day life, a careful drill will be given in each study. 
Young teachers who are not satisfied with their attainments and are 
ambitious to teach schools of hio;her o-rade will do well to attend this 
department. Pupils well trained in these studies will not find those 
of the Collegiate Department difficult. 

"The Collegiate Department embraces classes in physiology, botany, 
zoology, astronomy, geometry, algebra, conic sections, trigonometry, 
surveying, natural philosophy, moral philosophy, mental philosophy, 
chemistry, physical geography, book-keeping, Latin and Greek. 

The department of music is under the control of Mrs. Strother, an 
accomplished music teacher and composer, as arealso the composition 
and elocution classes. Many of her pupils can testify to her success, 
both in theory and practice. 

Teachers of Strother Institute : French Strother, principal ; French 
Wood, assistant; Mrs. S. A. Strother, principal of musical depart- 
ment ; Mrs. Bertha Baker, assistant. 

LONG BRANCH POSTOFFICE. 

This is a small point containing the post-office and a store kept by 
Browning Bros. 



CHAPTEE X. 

WASHINGTON, CLAY AND WOODLAWN TOWNSHIPS. 

Washington Township — Physical Features — Early Settlers — Clinton — Jonesburg — 
Churches — Farmers — Clay Township — Physical Features — Farmers — Old Set- 
tlers — Granville — Woodlawn Township — Physical Features — Early Settlers — 
Woodlawn — Duncan's Bridge. 

WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP. 

Washington township is the largest of the northern tier and contains 
about 74 square miles. Its water advantages are excellent and sup- 
ply almost every portion of the township. Among the principal 
streams are the North fork of the Salt river, Brush, Clear and 
Crooked creeks. About one-third of the township is prairie, and 
somewhat broken along the streams. For farming purposes it is 
about an average township. 

EARLY SETTLERS 

here were J. M. Dean, Caleb Wood, J. T. Martin, W. A. Saunders, Al- 
bert Saunders, William Henniger,W. T. Adams, Preston Adams, Foun- 
tain C. Sparks, James T. Hart, Ignatius Coombs, Clifton G. Maupin, 
David Henniger, T. P. Sharp, Robert Price, James Cox, Cornelius Ed- 
wards, Russell Moss, James Ragland, D. M. Dulaney, Willis Buford, 
Milton Crutcher, Charles Crutcher, Owen Gerry, Gabriel Penn, A. 
White, John Henniger, Hiram Dooley, Calvin Shearer, Francis Harri- 
son, Angel Gillespie, Gabriel Jones, Edward Shropshire, Barney Wor- 
land and Jesse White. Mr. White was in the Indian War, and while 
fighting was separated from his companions and cut off from a bridge. 
He ran up the banks of the stream 12 miles before he could cross, 
and then returned the same distance to where his comrades were. 
The Indians chased him, and when they would get near enough to 
him he would present his gun and they would hide behind trees, 
he doing the same thing when they would attempt to shoot at him. 
Mr. White ever afterwards seemed to be upon the alert, and would 
constantly look about him, especially when traveling. His neighbors 
say that so vigilant was he that no man could slip up on him in 
the woods. 

(185) 



186 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



CLINTON. 



The above town is known as Siimerset post-office. It was laid 
out by George Glenn, Samuel Bryant and S. S. Williams in 1836. 

These gentlemen built the first store and first mill that were opened 
and operated in the town. Jacob Kirkland was the pioneer black- 
smith. Greenlee Hays and Major William Howell were once merchants 
in the town. After the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was built 
through that section of the country and the towns of Shelbina and 
Hunnewell sprang into existence, the business of Clinton was with- 
drawn from that place and given to the newer and more enterprising 
railroad towns mentioned above. About all there is left of the ancient 
and once ambitious little village of Clinton are a blacksmith shop and 
two potteries. George Leach is the proprietor of one of these pot- 
teries, and James Turner is the proprietor of the other. There was 
at one time a flourishing Catholic church located at Clinton, but this, 
like the town, is now a thing of the past. 

JONESBURG. 

Jonesburg, the rival town of Clinton, was divided from the latter 
merely by an alley. It was laid out by Col. Gabriel Jones in 1836. 
Greenlee Hays opened the first store. James Coombs, Benedict Gough, 
Blakey and Lasley were early merchants. The town went down when 
Clinton did. 

North Fork post-office is located one mile north-west of Clinton, at 
the residence of Samuel McDowell, who is postmaster. The first 
church in the township was located at Clinton and was built by the 
M. E. Church South. 

Among the constituent members of this church were William Fow- 
ler, wife and two sons ; John Strayer and wife ; Adam Hickart and 
wife ; William Henniger and wife and Henry Ashcraft and wife. 

The Christian Church bought Greenlee Hay's house at an early day 
and made a church of it. Among the first members of this church 
were James M. Dean and wife ; John and Drury R igsdale and Robert 
Nesbit. These churches were discontinued years ago. The Metho- 
dists, however, built another church one mile east o^ Clinton which 
is still in existence, elohn Couch was one of the first school teachers 
in the township and taught at Deer Creek school-house. Among the 
large farmers in Washington township are C. A. Hamilton, George 
Gough, Jacob Crow, Thomas Hart, Fountain Sparks, W. T. Adams, 
James Hawkins and John Ha^er. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 187 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 

Clay township embraces an area of nearly 50 square miles, and is 
one of the north-western tier of townships bordering upon Shelby 
county. About two-thirds of the township is prairie. It is a fair, 
average township for farming purposes, the northern and southern 
portions being the best. It is watered by Crooked and Otter creeks, 
and also by the Middle fork of Salt river, which passes through sec- 
tions 26, 27 and 28 in the southern part of the township. It con- 
tains seven school-houses, located as follows: One in section 31, one 
in section 15, one in section 26, one in section 18, one in section 6, 
one in section 2, and one in section 14; and two churches — one in 
section 31, and one in section 12, the former a Baptist and the latter 
a Methodist church. Among the important farmers of this township 
are M. D. Blakey, W. A. Sparks, W. T. Fields, William Powell, M. 
D. Maddox and Henry S. Sparks. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

Charles S. Clay (after whom the township takes its name), Robin- 
son Hanger, Isaac and Samuel Stalcups, G. M. Buckner, Samuel 
Henniger, William Stalcups, Jacob Sidner, Taylor Barton, John C. 
Kipper, Anderson McBroom, James P. Shropshire, Larkin Packwood, 
Morgan Sherman, Ben C. Johnson, Lucy Wilcox, Elijah Sparks, 
Daniel Barton, Robert Gains, De Witt C. Caldwell, Francis Herron, 
Hezekiah King, Robert T. Garrison, Henry Gibson, Isaac E. Webdell, 
Richard Hubbard, William Arnold, Sr., Sarah Shotwell, Caleb Stone, 
John Cash, Thomas Cash, Jr., William Biggs, Emily Arnold and 
Simeon Sparks were early settlers here. 

GRANVILLE. 

The first house in Granville was built by John T. Parker, who also 
opened the first store. Samuel A. Rawlings was also an early mer- 
chant. The town now contains three general stores, two blacksmith 
shops, a Christian and a Methodist church. 

WOODLAWN TOWNSHIP 

constitutes an area of country a little larger than Monroe township, 
and is situated in the north-western portion of the country. The 
Middle fork of Salt river forms its southern boundary ; Otter creek 
with its tributaries penetrates the northern part of the township. 
About one-fourth of the township is timber. The soil is good. 



188 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



OLD SETTLERS. 

Thomas J. Wise, William Smiley, Johnson and Perry Whiles, 
Thomas Jennings, Nicholas Rea, Allen Phillips, William P. D. Clay- 
brook, Thomas Stephens, Gabriel G. Rice, Asbury Broadwell, 
Elizabeth Coolidge, Benjamin Byers, Peter J. Sowers, Elisha Hyatt, 
John A. Martin, Joshua Ginnings, Travis Million, Milton Robinson, 
Thomas J. Palmer, William S. Brown, Lucy A.. Dye, Esom Faris, 
John A. Johnson, Elijah Atteberry, Eglantine Hill, Isaac Atteberry, 
and James King were early settlers in this township. 

WOODLAWN, 

in I the north-western portion of Monroe county, 18 miles from 
Paris, in Woodlawn township, is situated the village of Woodlawn. 
This village is surrounded by as good a farming country as can be 
found in any other portion of the county, and taking population into 
consideration, has more energetic farmers than any other township 
in the county. Several farmers in the immediate vicinity of Wood- 
lawn are extensive stock dealers, and should this township ever have 
railroad facilities, it would, in a short time, be the banner township 
of the county. The village of Woodlawn has two stores, one dry 
goods and grocery, the other drug and grocery. 

Duncan's bridge. 

Duncan's Bridge, or " Leesburg " as it is familiarly called, is situ- 
ated in the western portion of Monroe county, in Woodlawn township, 
20 miles from Paris, 10 miles from Madison. The village is sur- 
rounded by a prosperous farming community, and the village itself 
can boast of superior business qualifications and enterprise as will be 
shown by the growth and prosperity of the place. Eight years ago 
there was only one business house and one saw-mill ; to-day there 
are three dry goods and grocery stores, one drug store, two saw and 
grist mills, one furniture store, two blacksmith shops, one wagon shop, 
one carding machine run by steam. All are in prosperous condition, 
and at no distant day Duncan's Bridge, though a thriving village now, 
will reach an epoch when it will be known as one of the important 
towns of Monroe county. 



CHAPTER XI. 

POLITICAL HISTORY AND OFFICIAL RECORD. 

"There is a mystery ia the soul of state, 
Which hath no operation more divine 
Thau breath or pea can give expression to." 

From 1831 to 1840 party politics wielded but a slight influence in 
the local government of the county. While it is true that many of 
the first settlers, from the earliest days, possessed well-defined polit- 
ical views and tenets, and were thoroughly partisan upon all ques- 
tions pertaining to national or State elections, an indefinite number of 
candidates were usually permitted to enter the race tor the county 
offices, and the one possessed of superior personal popularity gen- 
erally led the field and passed under the wire in advance of all 
opponents. In the olden time it was not at all unusual to meet 
the energetic candidate for the sheritf's office, the treasurer's office, 
or the candidate who aspired to represent the people in the State 
Legislature, astride his horse, going from settlement to settlement 
to meet with the voters at their own firesides, to sleep beneath their 
humble roofs and sup with them at their family boards, to compli- 
ment their thrifty housewives and to kiss the rising generation of 
little ones. 

The historian would not dare draw upon his imagination to supply 
the stock of rich, rare and racy anecdotes molded and circulated by 
these ingenious canvassers, or to describe the modes and methods by 
them adopted to increase their popularity with the people. There was 
then but a few newspapers to perpetuate daily events as they trans- 
pired. Many of the maneuvers and capers, successes and failures, 
with their pleasures and sorrows of more than 40 years ago, in Mon- 
roe county, are hidden from us by the shadows of time. Darkness 
intervenes between us and the sayings and doings of bygone days, and 
could we but penetrate that darkness and gather them in, they would 
shine out upon the pages of this history " like diamond settings in 
plates of lead." 

In vain have we tried by the lens of individual recollection or tra- 
dition to ferret them out. We could not do it. Our discouraged 
fancy dropped the pencil and said 'twas no use. We could not 

(189) 



190 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

paint the picture. A little consolation may be found in these lines : — 

" Things without all remedy 
' Should be without regard; what's done is done." 

In some of these early campaigns the various candidates for a single 
office, and sometimes those running for the different county offices, 
would travel together from settlement to settlement throughout the 
county. Every camp meeting, log-raising, shooting match, and even 
horse race occurring in the county during the season preceding elec- 
tion, was a favorite resort for the electioneerer, and every honorable 
device was adopted by each candidate to develop his full strength at 
the polls. For many years after the settlement of the county no polit- 
ical conventions were held, and the result was, a number of candi- 
dates entered the race for the same office. This has been the case 
during the past 10 years. A nominating convention, however, will 
be held this year, 1884. 

Until 1854, or until the organization of the Native American party, 
the Whigs generally controlled the elections in the county — their 
majorities ranging from 50 to 200 votes. ^ 

After the Native American party came into existence the Demo- 
cratic party gradually became the dominant political organization of 
the county. During the late Civil War, because of the " Ousting 
Ordinance, " the Drake Constitution and the test oath, which were 
enforced by the State government, at that time in the hands of the 
Radical party, the Democratic party was not in power. With this 
exception the county has been Democratic since the war — in fact, 
Monroe county rolls up a larger majority for the Democratic candi- 
dates than any other county in the State. At the presidential election 
in 1880 the majority of Gen. Winfield S. Hancock over James A. 
Garfield was 2,817, in a total vote af 4,159. Garfield's vote was 671 ; 
the Republican vote in the county now (1884) is about 700. 

ELECTION OF 1840. 

Although the county of Monroe was not scf densely populated as a 
few others in 1840, yet that election was one of remarkable political 
excitement between the Whigs, with Gen. W. H. Harrison as their 



1 Charles W. Flannigan was the first Democrat elected to the Legislature. He was 
a member of that body from 1844 to 1846. 

James F. Botts was a Democrat and elected in 1850. 

John N. Parsons and William Coulter were also Democrats, the former elected in 
1858 and the latter in 1864. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 191 

presidential candidate, and the Democrats who were wildly excited in 
behalf of Van Buren, who had beaten Harrison in 1836. At no time 
in the history of the United States were the people generally roused 
to such a pitch of political excitement as during this memorable cam- 
paio-n. A reference to the newspapers of that period will convey 
some idea of the frenzy which raged ; but the actual scenes witnessed 
beogar description. Men, women and children for some mouths 
before the election, which occurred in November, seemed to have 
little else to engage their attention. Every village had its log-cabin 
and tall Whig pole, representatives of the Whig party, whilst the 
hickory poles also loomed up emblematic of Gen. Jackson and the 
Democratic party. Mighty crowds were assembled in the log-cabins 
to hear inflammatory speeches and indulge in potations of hard cider, 
while the Democrats met in council at their headquarters, heard and 
made speeches, etc. 

All parties sang and drank during the campaign quite as much as 
was necessary and considerably more. It was the commonest event 
to meet hundreds of farmers' wagons loaded with from 15 to 20 of 
both sexes, singing and roaring as they wended their way to some 
point agreed upon, where they were to listen to the eloquence of some 
great party leader and exhibit their patriotism. 

"Tippecanoe and Tyler, too, " was the Whig watchword, accom- 
panied by promises of " $2 per day and roast beef, " to every work- 
ingman under Harrison's administration. 

ELECTION OF 1844. 

Another exciting political contest that occurred in Monroe county 
in the early days was the election of 1844, when Henry Clay and 
James K. Polk were the candidates of their respective parties for 
President of the United States. Lofty hickory poles were raised in 
Paris, and barbecues were given by the Whigs and Democrats at dif- 
ferent points in the county. A barbecue was given by the Whigs in 
Thomas Conyer's pasture near Paris. Thomas L. Anderson, of Pal- 
myra, was the orator of the occasion, and was considered the wheel- 
horse of the Whig party in this section of the country. An old set- 
tler who attended the barbecue and heard Anderson's speech, said 
that Anderson during the delivery of his speech would occasionally ask 
the question, " Who is James K. Polk?" Apropos to that period 
will be found the following, which we have taken from an old copy of 
the Paris Mercury of 1844 : — 



192 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Clay pole raising! " Old men for connsel. " "Young men for 
action!" 

The Whig young men of Monroe county will hold a county meeting 
in the town of Paris on Saturday, the 27th day of July instant, for 
the purpose of effecting a more thorough organization of the Whig 
3^oung men of the county, and for the purpose of raising a Clay pole. 
Every young man who feels an interest in the good old Whig cause, 
and who desires the success of the Whigs at the approaching contest, 
and the elevation of Henr}^ Clay to the Presidency, is requested and 
urged to attend. 

The opponents of Henry Clay are using every means in their power 
to defeat his election ; and they will leave no means untried to accom- 
plish their object. In order to thwart their purpose and gain a decisive 
victory over our opponents, it behooves the young, as well as the old 
Whio-s, to eno;ao:e heart and hand in the ofood work. Our fathers in 
the Whig cause are marching forward in a solid column and with a 
firm and steady step to rescue our Government from the grasp of the 
spoiler — and they have given us their counsel and call upon us to fol- 
low their noble example. Arouse, then, young Whigs, and come to 
the meeting ; let every young Whig in the county be present. Re- 
member, " Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. " 

All are requested to come in as early as possible. ©3='The old 
Whigs and the ladies of Monroe county are requested to tavor us with 
their attendance. 

Speeches will be made by young Whigs of Monroe county. 

George B. Gough, J. C. Parrish, Basil Bounds, James T. Martin, 
S. G. Styles, W. Styles, Drury Ragsdale, J. W. Ragsdale, James 
Cox, F. Williamson, W. Lasley, R. N. Martin, Samuel Bowlin, Rob- 
ert Bftwlin, Caleb Wood, Jr., J. W. Fowler, George Fowler, Richard 
Poage, R. H. Powers, James Worland, George Greenwell, J. M. Las- 
ley, W. M. Long, H. L. Frary, William Bowman, Richard B. Burton, 

A. P. Moore, Ambrose Burton, W. M. Broom, Thomas J. Palmer, 
AVilliam Buckner, John S. Covington, J. H. Fox, James T. Glenn, 

B. E. Harris, H. W. Rockwood, Milton Crutcher, Lewis M. Coppedge, 
Joseph H. James, John M. James, J. C. Foreman, John Curtright, 
Charles Carter, D. Curtright, George W. Threlkeld, W. B. Davis, P. 
H. Noonan, W. T. McGee, D. L. Boyd, James W. Wills, R. D. Wills, 
F. Helm, James Shoot, D. T. Bryan, John Coppedge, Samuel M. 
Sprowl, Hugh J. McGee, J. J. McGee, A. C. Goodrich, E. A. Good- 
rich, James Vaughn, John Vaughn, Thomas Noonan, John M. Moore, 
Joseph Hill, Edward Holloway, James Holloway, Richard E. F. 
Moore, Simeon Sparks, Irvin Poaije, S. W. Bryan, Thomas Moss, 
John H. Trimble, Wesley Wilson, John D. McCann. William T. Cop- 
pedge, William B. Withers, Andrew Caplinger, Edward J. HoUings- 
worth, Franklin A. Poage, Nicholas Davis, John W. Beatty, N. H. 
Marders, D. Ray, J. G. Grove, S. Mallory, T. Greening, J. Barker, 
B. E. Cowherd, George W. Stewart, James E. Poage, W. H. Violett, 
John D. Lyon, F. B. Powell, John H. Moyer, Josiah T. Dickson, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 193 

Thomas M. Reavis, Abraham Riggs, John Stewart, James A. Quarles, 
Alexander Kenson, John Daniel, W. C. Smith, Gustavus Banister, 
D. T. Cowherd, Samuel Leake, Burnard Lewellen, John Bryant, B. 
Quarles, J. Greening, Henry Davis, James S. Davis, John M. Ray, E. 
W. Boone, John M. Howell, James M. Bean, Robert D. McCann, D. 
H. Moss, F. Hollingsworth, W. A. Mason, Thomas C. Moore, James 
I. Sparks, A. E. Gore, William H. H. Crow, Joseph Miller, Rufus 
Poage, E. Thompson, William Arnold, Thomas Hurd, W. Lewellen, 
J. W. Harris, J. Alexander. 

Having given above a list of names, among which may be found a 
number of prominent Whig politicians, we will now mention the names 
of a few of the leading Democrats of Monroe county in 1844 : — 

William Armstrong, W. K. Van Arsdall, James Botts, Granville 
Snell, C. W. Flannagan, P. H. Higgins, John S. Buckman, Alexander 
Winsette, James A. Elder, Joseph Forest, William Streeter, Moses 
Parris, Clement Pierceall, Robert Lewellen, Robert Miles, William 
Lawrence, William H. Gough, I. L. Aud, James F. Riley, A. Gill- 
more, James Dale, James C. Parsons, William Sterman, Joseph 
Hagan, Philip Williams, William W. Williams, A. G. Williams, John 
Wright, Richard D. Austin, William M. Leake, William A. Buck- 
man, John Short, Thomas Forest, T. S. Ireland, Clement Parsons, 
Henry R. Parris, Henry Miller, Leonard Green, Francis E. Yeager, 
Vincent Yates, A. R. Morehead, David Yates, James M. Parris, 
William M. Priest, J. T. Gilmore, John D. Green, J. Pierceall, R. 
Yates, William W. Penn. 

OFFICIAL RECORD. 

8e7iators. — Joshua Gentry, Samuel Drake, James M. Bean, 
Theodore Brace. 

Representatives in the Legislature. — Joseph Stevens, 1832-36; 
William N. Penn, 1836-40; Jonathan Gore, 1836-40; Jonathan 
Gore, 1840-42 ; Joseph Stevens, 1840-42 ; William J. Howell, 1842-44 ; 
Charles W. Flannagan, 1844-46; Anderson W. Reid, 1844-46; 
William Vawter, 1846-48; Waltour Robinson, 1848-50; William A. 
Scott, 1850-52; James F. Botts, 1850-52; James M. Bean, 1852-54; 
Gabriel Alexander, 1852-54; James M. Bean, 1854-56; Samuel 
Drake, 1854-56 ; Samuel Rawlings, 1856-58 ; John N. Parsons, 1858- 
60; William R. Giddings, 1860-62; George W. Moss, 1862-64; 
William Coulter, 1864-66 ; James C. Fox, 1866-68 ; T. T. Rodes was 
elected in 1868 but was denied his seat in the Legislature on the 
ground of illegal registration in the county. The county was not 



194 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

represented again nntil 1870. M. C. Brown, 1870-74 ; P. H. Mc- 
Leod, 1874-76; M. D. Blakey, 1876-78; Thomas P. Bashaw, 
1878-84. 

Circuit Judges.— VnQ&t\y H. McBride, 1831 to 1833; David Todd, 
1833 to 1836; Priestly H. McBride, 1836 to 1844; A. Reese, 1844 
to 1855; John T. Redd, 1855 to 1862; Gilchrist Porter, 1862 to 
1866; John I. Campbell; William P. Harrison, 1866 to 1871; John 
T. Redd, 1871 to 1881 ; Theodore Brace, 1881 to 1887. 

Circuit and County Attorneys. — Ezra Hunt, John Hard, James 
R. Ahernathy, J. J. Lindley, Thomas V. Swearengen, John Ander- 
son, David H. Moss, William F. Hatch, Waller M. Boulware, J. H. 
HoUister, A. M. Alexander, Robert N. Bodine, J. H. Rodes. 

County Clerhs.—YhwQZQv W. McBride, 1831 to 1848 ; William N. 
Penn, 1848 to 1859; J. R. Abernathy, 1860 to 1866; William Bow- 
man, 1867 to 1871; William N. Penn, 1871 to 1873; Thomas 
Crutcher, 1873 to 1886. 

Circuit <7?erA;s.— Edward M. Holden, 1831 to 1833; Thomas S. 
Miller, 1833 to 1840; John G. Caldwell, 1840 to 1854; George 
Glenn, 1854 to 1859; Henry Davis, 1859 to 1867; Elisha G. B- 
McNutt, 1867 to 1871 ; J. M. Crutcher, 1871 to 1875 ; George C. 
Brown, 1875 to 1883 ; Charles A. Creigh, 1883 to 1887. 

Sheriffs.— WWWam Runkle, 1831 to^l832; Pleasant Ford, 1832 to 
1836; Thomas Pool, 1836 to 1840; Thomas Crutcher, 1840 to 1844; 
Joel Maupin, 1844 to 1848 ; Daniel M. Diilaney, 1848 to 1852 ; Marion 
Biggs, 1852 to 1856 ; Preston Swinney, 1856 to 1860 ; John C. Mc- 
Bride, 1860 to 1862 ; E. G. B. McNutt, 1862 to 1866 ; James Ownby, 
1866 to 1870; William H. Ownby, 1870 to 1872; F. L. Pitts, 
1872 to 1876; G. W.Waller, 1876 to 1878; R. F. West, 1878 to 
1880 ; James A. Jackson, 1880 to 1884. 

County Court Judges. — 1831 — Andrew Rogers, John Curry, William 
P. Stephenson, appointed in February. 1831 — Andrew Rogers, Rob- 
ert Simpson, Reese Davis ; Curry and Stephenson resigned, and 
Simpson and Davis were appointed in May. 1832 — Robert Simpson, 
Reese Davis, Edmund Damrell. 1833 — Reese Davis, Edmund Dam- 
rell, Samuel Curtright. 1834 — Edward Shropshire, Robert Margru- 
ter, Samuel Curtright. 1836 — Samuel Curtright, Jonathan Gore, 
Edward Shropshire. 1837 — Jonathan Gore, Samuel Curtright, John 
M. Clemens. 1838 — Robert P. Stout, John M. Glenn, Granville Snell. 
1841 — Granville Snell, Thomas J. Crawford, John M. Glenn. 1842 — 
Thomas J. Crawford, W. R. Stephens, Granville Snell. 1842 —Caleb 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 195 

Wood, William G. Moore, Richard D. Austin. 1845 — Richard D. Aus- 
tin, William G. Moore, Thomas Pool. 1847— William G. Moore, 
George Williamson, Samuel M. Quirey. 1849 — Samuel M. Quirey, 
George Williamson, David W. Campbell. 1850 — Samuel M. Quirey, 
David W. Campbell, John A. Quarles. 1853 — Samuel M. Quirey, 
David W. Campbell, James W. Herndon. 1855 — David W. Camp- 
bell, E. W. McBride, Joseph D. Moore. 1858 — David W. Campbell, 
Joseph D. Moore, Peyton Botts. 1859 — Joseph D. Moore, Peyton 
Botts, Joel Maupin. 1860 — Peyton Botts, Thomas Barker, Daniel M. 
Dulaney. 1862 — Thomas Barker, Alfred Warner, Samuel Pollard. 
1864 — Thomas Barker, James Speed, Jacob Kennedy. 1865 — 
James Speed, Jacob Kennedy, Mahlon Harley. 1866 — James Speed, 
William R. Newgent, S. M. Quirey. 1870— Samuel M. Quirey, 
William K. Newgent, Stephen M. Woodson. 1872 — Samuel M. 
Quirey, S. M. Woodson, H. P. Batsell. 1875 — Stephen M. Wood- 
son, William Lightner, Henry Dooley. 1877 — William Lightner, 
Henry Dooley, John D. Curtright. 1879 — James M. Pollard, 
Hem-y Dooley, John D. Curtright. 1881 — James M. Pollard, 
William K. Newgent, James D.Evans. 1883 — William K. New- 
gent, Henry Davis, James D. Evans. 

Surveyors.— John S. McGee, 1831 to 1836 ; John Burton, 1836 to 
1843 ; George Glenn, 1843 to 1847 ; Samuel Pollard, 1847 to 1851 ; 
George Glenn, 1851 to 1853 ; John McCann, 1853 to 1855 ; William 
L. Combs, 1855 to 1861 ; F. A. Whitescarver, 1861 to 1868; William 
L. Combs, 1868 to 1884. 

Collectors. — The sheriif was ex-officio collector until 1872, when 
the two offices were separated. George W. Waller served from 1872 
to 1876; F. L.Pitts, from 1876 to 1882; W. A. Miller, from 1882 
to 1884. 

Probate Judges. — The county court had jurisdiction of probate 
matters until 1872, when it was made an independent tribunal. The 
first person elected to that office was William N. Penn, in 1873 ; he 
died in August, 1873, and in September Thomas P. Bashaw was 
elected to fill his unexpired term. Bashaw held the office until 1878. 
Thomas Brace, elected in 1878, served till 1880 ; James M. Crutcher, 
elected in 1880 and served till 1884. 

Treasurers. — James R. Abernathy, C. H. Brown, John N. Parsons, 
Jesse H. McVeigh, John W. Mounce, George W. Moss, William F. 
Buckner, W. H. H. Crow, I. A. Bodine. 



196 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Assessors. — John S. McGee, John Burton, Milton Wilkerson, Levi 
Shortridge, Thomas J. Gillespie, Newton Adams, William Lightner, 
Dr. Fitts, William N. Penn, John B. Smith, Daniel East, Samuel H. 
Smith, Samuel Hardy, John D. Stephens, Robert P. Stout, William H. 
HoUiday, James M. West, J. D. Jackman, J. D. Poage, Robert H. 
Buchanan. 

Buchanan was elected in the fall of 1874, died in February, 1875, 
and William Bowman was appointed to fill the vacancy. 




CHAPTER XII. 

THE PRESS AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The press, the great himinary of liberty, is the handmaid of prog- 
ress. It heralds its doings and makes known its discoveries. It is its 
advance courier, whose coming is eagerly looked for and whose arrival 
is hailed with joy, as it brings tidings of its latest achievements. The 
press prepares the way and calls mankind to witness the approaching 
procession of the triumphal car of progress as it passes on down through 
the vale of the future. When the car of progress stops the press will 
cease and the intellectual and mental world will go down in darkness. 
The press is progress, and progress the press. So intimately are they 
related, and their interests interwoven, that one cannot exist without 
the other. Progress made no advancement against the strong tides 
of ignorance and vice in the barbaric past, until it called to its aid the 
press. In it is found its greatest discovery, its most valuable aid and 
the true philosopher's stone. 

The history of this great discovery dates back to the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Its discovery and subsequent utility resulted from the foUoAV- 
ing causes in the following manner : Laurentius Coster, a native of 
Haerlem, Holland, while rambling through the forest contiguous to his 
native city, carved some letters on the bark of a jjirch tree. Drowsy 
from the relaxation of a holiday, he wrapped his carvings in a piece of 
paper and lay down to sleep. While men sleep progress moves, and 
Coster awoke to discover a phenomenon, to him simple, strange and 
suggestive. Dampened by the atmospheric moisture, the paper 
wrapped about his handiwork had taken an impression from them, and 
the surprised burgher saw on the paper an inverted image of what he 
had engraved on the bark. The phenomenon was suggestive, because 
it led to experiments that resulted m establishing a printing office, 
the first of its kind in the old Dutch town. In this office John Guten- 
burg served a faithful and appreciative apprenticeship, and from it, at 
the death of his master, absconding during a Christmas festival, tak- 
ing w^ith him a considerable portion of the type and apparatus. Guten- 
burg settled in Mentz, where he won the friendship and partnership 
of John Faust, a man of sufficient means to place the enterprise on !i 
secure financial basis. Several years later the partnership was dis- 

(197) 



198 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

solved because of a misunderstanding. Gutenburg then formed a 
partnership with a younger brother who had set up an office at Stras- 
burg, but had not been successful, and becoming involved in hiwsuits, 
had fled from that city to join his brother at Meiitz. These brothers 
were the first to use metal types. Faust, after his dissolution with 
Gutenburg, took into partnership Peter Schoeffer, his servant, and a 
most ingenious printer. Schoefier privately cut matrices for the whole 
alphabet. Faust was so pleased that he gave Schoefier his only daughter 
in marriage. These are the great names in the early history of print- 
ing, and each is worthy of special honor. 

Coster's discovery of wood blocks or plates, on which the page to 
be printed was engraved, was made some time between 1440 and 
1450, and Schoefifer's improvement — casting the type by means of 
matrices — was made about 1456. For a long time printing was 
dependent upon most clumsy apparatus. The earliest press had a 
contrivance for running the forms under the point of pressure by 
means of a screw. When the pressure was applied the screw was 
loosened, the form withdrawn and the sheet removed. Improvements 
were made upon these crude beginnings from time to time until the 
hand-press now in use is a model of simplicity, durability and execu- 
tion. In 1844, steam was first applied to cylinder presses by Freder- 
ick Kong, a Saxon genius, and the subsequent progress of steam 
printing has been so remarkable as to almost Justify a belief in its 
absolute perfection. Indeed, to appreciate the improvement in presses 
alone, one ought to be privileged to stand awhile by the pressman 
who operated the clumsy machine of Gutenburg, and then he should 
step into one of the well-appointed modern printing offices of our larger 
cities where he could notice the roll of dampened paper entering the 
great power presses, a continuous sheet, and issuing therefrom as news- 
papers, ready for the carrier or express. The Romans, in the times 
of the emperors, had periodicals, notices of passing events, compiled 
and distributed. These daily events were the newspapers of that age. 
In 1536, the first newspaper of modern times was issued at Venice, 
but governmental bigotry compelled its circulation in manu- 
script form. 

In 1063, the Public Intelligencer was published in London, and is 
credited with being the first English paper to attempt the dissemina- 
tion of general information. The first American newspaper was the 
Boston News-Letter, whose first issue was made April 24, 1704. It 
was a half-sheet, twelve inches by eight, with two columns to the 
page. John Campbell, the postmaster, was the publisher. The 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 199 

Boston Gazette made its first appearance December 21, 1719, and 
the American Weekly, at Pliiladelphia, December 22, 1719. In 
1776, tlie number of newspapers published in the colonies was 37 ; 
in 1828 the number had increased to 852, and at the present time 
not less than 2,000 newspapers are supported bj our people. Jour- 
nalism, by which is meant the compiling of passing public events, for 
the purpose of making them more generally known and instructive, 
has become a powerful educator. Experience has been its only school 
for special training, its only text for study, its only test for theory. 
It is scarcely a profession, but is advancing rapidly toward that dig- 
nity. A distinct department of literature has been assigned to it. 
Great editors are writing autobiographies and formulating their 
methods and opinions ; historians are rescuing from oblivion the 
every-day life of deceased journalists ; reprints of interviews with 
famous journalists, touching the different phases of their profession, 
are deemed worthy of publication in book form. Leading universities 
have contemplated the inauguration of courses of study specially 
designed to fit men and women for the duties of the newspaper 
sanctum. These innovations are not untimely, since no other class 
of men are so powerful for good or ill as editors. More than any 
other class they form public opinion while expressing it, for most 
men but echo the sentiments of favorite journalists. Even statesmen, 
ministers and learned professors not unfrequently get their best 
thoughts and ideas from the papers they read. 

The first newspaper published in Monroe county was the Missouri 
Sentinel. It was established in 1840, by Lucien J. Eastin, who con- 
tinued its publication until 1843, when it was purchased by James M. 
Bean and John Adams, who changed the name of the paper to the 
Paris Mercury, the name it bears to-day. In 1844 the paper was 
owned and edited by John Adams and J. R. Abernathy. In 1845 J. 
R. Abernathy became the sole proprietor. In 1848 it passed into the 
hands of Abernathy & Davis, and in 1851 James M. Bean and A. G. 
Mason purchased it and ran it until 1874 as partners, when Mr. Bean 
died. On January 24, 1875, in order to release Mr. Bean's interest, 
the paper was sold, and William. L. Smiley purchased one-third inter- 
est, which was Bean's share. After twelve months, Thomas P. Bashaw 
bought out Smiley, and at the end of five years sold his interest to" 
Joseph Burnett. The paper is now owned, edited and controlled by 
A. G. Mason and Joseph Burnett. 

The Mercury, reaching back almost contemporaneously with the 
organization of the county, has been an important factor in the building 

8 



200 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

(ip of the materiul interests of the county — in making its location and 
advantao-es known — and by its advocacy of such measures and princi- 
ples as always tended to the best interest of the people.* 

The Monroe Api^eal was established in Monroe City by M. C. 
Brown and H. A. Buchanan, October 8, 1865, the date of its first 
issue. It afterwards passed into the hands of R. B. Bristow, and was 
burned, while in his possession, May 6, 1872. It was re-established 
by M. C. Brown and J. B. Reavis on the 26th of the same month. 
B. F. Blanton having secured a half interest, the paper was moved to 
Paris on the 22d of August, 1873. It was conducted by Blanton & 
Reavis for a short time. On the 17th day of October, 1873, E. M. 
Anderson purchased the interest of Mr. Reavis. 

The N'eios was established in Monroe City by Samuel H. Hallock, 
January 14, 1875. He ran it three years and sold to Peirsol and 
Chandler, who, after six months, sold to G. W. Johnson, who con- 
tinued the publication of the paper for two and a half years, when Mr. 
Hallock again purchased it. Mr. Hallock is now the sole editor and 
proprietor. The News is Democratic in politics. 

Monroe County Democrat was started by R. H. Womack, the first 
issue of the paper appearing August 16, 1882. Mr. Womack sold 
the paper to Prof. T. Wright & Bro. in April, 1883, and they sold to 
P. S. Jakobe July 24, 1884. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The schools of the county are sharing with the contents of the news- 
boy's bundle the title of the universities of the poor. The close 
observation 6f the working of the public schools shows that if the 
induction of facts be complete, it could be demonstrated that the pub- 
lic schools turn out more men and women better fitted for business 
and usefulness than most of our colleges. The freedom and liberty 
of the public schools afford less room for the growth of elfemiuacy and 
pedantry ; it educates the youth among the people, and not among a 
caste or class, and since the man or woman is called upon to do with a 
nation in which people are the only factors, the education which the 
public schools afi'ord, especially when they are of the superior stand- 
ard reached in this country, fit their recipients for a sphere of useful- 
ness nearer the public heart than can be obtained by private schools 
and academies. The crowning glory of American institutions is the 
public school system ; nothing else among American institutions is 
intensely American. They are the colleges of democracy, and if this 
oi-overnnient is to remain a republic, governed by statesmen, it must 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 201 

be from the public schools thej must be graduated. The amount of 
practical knowledge that the masses here receive is important beyond 
measure, and forms the chief factor in the problem of material pros- 
perity ; but it is not so much the practical knowledge, which it is the 
ostensible mission of the public schools to impart, that makes the sys- 
tem the sheet anchor of our hopes. It is rather the silent, social 
influence which the common schools incidentally exert. It is claimed 
for our country that it is a land of social equality, where all have an 
equal chance in the race for life ; and yet there are many things which 
give the lie to this boasted claim of aristocracy of manhood. Our 
churches are open to all, but it is clear that the best pews are occu- 
pied by the men of wealth and infl^uence. The sightless goddess 
extends the scales of justice to all, but it will usually appear that there 
is — money in the descending beam. It requires money to run for 
office, or at least it takes money to get office. The first appearance 
of the American citizen of to-day, however, is in the public schools. 
If it is a rich man's son, his class-mate is the son of poverty. The 
seat which the one occupies is no better than that occupied by the 
other, and when the two are called to the blackboard, the tine clothes 
of the rich man's son do not keep him from going down, provided he 
be a drone, neither do the patches on the clothes of the poor man's 
son keep him down, provided he has the genius and the application 
to make him rise. The pampered child of fortune may purchase a 
diploma at many of the select schools of the land, but at the public 
schools it is genius and application that win. That State or nation 
which reaches out this helping hand to the children of want, will not 
lack for defenders in the time of danger, and the hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars annually expended for the common education of chil- 
dren is but money loaned to the children, which they will pay back 
with compound interest Avhen grown to manhood. In a common 
unassuming way our schools inculcate lessons of common honesty. 
The boy hears his ftither make promises and sees him break them. 

Mr. Jones is promised $20 on Monday ; he calls on Monday and again 
on Tuesday, and finally gets the $20 on Saturday. The boy goes with his 
father to church, and frequently gets there after the first prayer. In 
vain does that father teach his boy lessons of common honesty, when 
the boy knows that the father disappointed Jones, and never reaches 
the church in time. The boy soon learns at the public school that 
punctuality and promptness are cardinal virtues ; that to be tardy is 
to get a little black mark, and to absent a day is to get a big black 
mark. 



202 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

A public school in which punctuality and promptness are impartially 
and fearlessly enforced, is a most potent conservator of public morals. 
It has been often said that the State of Missouri has not only been in- 
different to the subject of education, but that she has been hostile to 
the cause of common schools. To prove that these are gross misrep- 
resentations, and that her attitude towards an interest so vital and 
popular does not admit of any question, it is only necessary to say 
that the constitutions of 1820, 1805 and 1875 make this subject 
of primary importance and guard the public school funds with zealous 
care. The fact is, the constitution of no State contains more liberal 
and enlightened provisions relative to popular education, than the 
Constitution of Missouri, adopted in 1875. During the past sixty-two 
years of her existence not a solitary line can be found upon her stat- 
ute books, inimical to the cause of education. No political party in 
all her history has ever arrayed itself against free schools, and her 
Governors, each and all, from 1824 to the present time (1884), have 
been earnest advocates of a broad and liberal system of education. 
As early as 1839 th« State established a general school law and system. 
In 1853 one-fourth of her annual revenue was dedicated to the main- 
tenance of free schools. Her people have taxed themselves as freely 
for this cause as the people of any other State. With the single 
exception of Indiana, she surpasses every other State in the Union in 
the amount of her available and productive permanent school funds ; 
the productive school fund of Indiana being $9,065,254.73, while that 
of Missouri is $8,950,805.71, the State of North Carolina ranking 
third. The State of Indiana levies a tax for school purposes of six- 
teen cents on the $100 of taxable value, and does not permit a local 
tax exceeding twenty-five cents on that amount. The State of Mis- 
souri levies a tax of five cents and permits a local tax of forty cents 
without a vote of the people, or sixty-five cents in the county districts 
and $1 in cities and towns, by a majority vote of the tax-payers voting. 
For the year ending in April, 1880, only two counties in the State 
reported a less rate of local taxation than the maximum allowed in 
Indiana, only one the amount of that maximum, and the average rate 
of all the counties reported was about thirty-nine cents, or fourteen cents 
more than the possible rate of that State. It may not be known that 
Missouri has a greater number of school-houses than Massachusetts, yet 
such is the fact. The amount she expends annually for public education 
is nearly double the rate on the amount of her assessed valuation, that 
the amount expended by the latter State is on her valuation ; while 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 203 

the public school funds of Missouri exceed those of Massachusetts 
$5,405,128.09. 

The Missouri system of education is perhaps as good as that of any 
other State, and is becoming more effectively enforced each succeed- 
ing year. The only great fault or Uick in the laws iu reference to 
common schools is the want of executive agency within the county. 
The State department should have positive and unequivocal supervi- 
sion over the county superintendent, and the county superintendent 
should have control over the school interests of the county under the 
direction of the State superintendent. When this is done the people 
of the State will reap the full benefits that should accrue to them from 
the already admirable system of free schools which are now in 
successful operation throughout the State. 

The public schools of Monroe county were organized aoon after the 
close of the Civil War. At first a prejudice existed in the minds of the 
people, generally, against the public school system, but as time passed 
and the practical utility and great benefits arising therefrom were 
fairly demonstrated, this prejudice gradually subsided, and now the 
public schools are regarded with great favor by all. 

From a few straggling log-cabin school-houses, which were poorly 
supplied and equipped with conveniences for instruction, and illit)er- 
ally patronized, the number has increased to 108, many of which are 
first-class in appearance and appointments and all are neat and com- 
fortable and during the school year are filled with as bright and intelli- 
gent a class of pupils as can be found anywhere. 

One hundred and twenty-five teachers are employed to take charge 
of these schools. Fifty of these are males and sixty-five are females. 
The males receive a salary of $42 a month, and females $32. There 
are in the county,. according to the enumeration for 1884, 2,992 white 
male children, 1,323 colored male children, 2,728 white female children 
and 304 colored female children, making a total of 6,347. 

The county has a magnificent school fund which is exceeded in 
amount by only five counties in the State. The school fund now 
reaches the sum of $110,062.92. During the year 1883 there was 
paid to teachers the sum of $27,639.17; for repairs and rents, 
$1,326.35, and for erection of school-houses, $1,789.85. 

The schools are under the excellent management and superintend- 
ence of Prof. Lewis, who brings to the work many years of experi- 
ence and, being energetic and thoroughly qualified, the public schools 
through his instrumentality have attained a degree of excellence of 
which the people of the county may well feel proud. 



204 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



APPORTIONMENT OF MONEY TO EACH DISTRICT. 



District. 



Amount. 



No. 2 $42 08 

No. 3 26 05 

No. 1 29 95 

No. 2 197 05 

No. 3. . • . . . 107 29 

No. 4 19 95 

No. 5 79 82 

No. 1 244 42 

No. 2 102 79 

8 153 06 

4 230 72 

5 221 58 

6 149 29 

1 158 59 

2 123 08 



No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 8. . . 

No. 1. . . 

No. 2. . . 

Monroe Citv 



No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 2. . . . 

No. 3. . . . 

No. 4. . . . 

No. 5. . . . 

No. 6. . . . 

No. 1. . . . 

No. 2. . . . 

No. 3. . . . 

No. 4. . . . 

No. 5. (col'd) 

No. 1 133 03 

No. 2 Ill 22 

No. 3 130 85 

No. 4 93 79 

No. 5 126 48 

Paris 1053 88 

No. 2 122 90 

No. 3 189 96 

Total 



47 


35 


113 


62 


97 


07 


82 


84 


175 


17 


78 


10 


136 


21 


97 


92 


557 


06 


145 


78 


75 


15 


127 


57 


104 


80 


91 


74 


246 


69 


203 


31 


181 


63 


243 


67 


122 


96 


97 


93 


116 


14 


102 


47 


184 


44 


95 


61 


95 


01 


115 


14 


91 


26 


39 


10 



Amount to 
Each Child. 

$2 00 



District. 



Amount. 



00 

49 

49 

49 

49 

49 

28 

28 

28 

28 

28 

29 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

2.36 

2 13 

2 13 

2 13 

2 27 

2 27 



27 

27 

47 

71 

71 

71 

27 

27 

27 

27 

2 27 

2 27 

2 17 



No. 4 170 44 

No. 1 160 91 

No. 1. (col'd) . . 121 91 

No. 2 190 91 

No. 3 202 38 

No. 4 99 97 

No. 5 156 01 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



5. (col'd) 
1. . . . 



73 14 

. 131 17 

. Ill 08 

82 51 

60 66 

. Ill 01 

. 120 18 

99 50 

No. 2 185 39 

No. 3 218 41 

No. 4 96 49 

No. 5 109 21 

No. .304 72 

No. 1 250 08 

No. 2 112 68 

No. 3 105 78 



No. 4. . . . 

No. 5. . . . 

No. 6. . . . 

No. 7. (col'd) 

No. 8. (col'd) 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



77 09 
75 88 
85 10 
85 10 

41 38 

42 39 
47 37 

211 97 
177 06 
90 13 
141 27 
131 53 
77 84 
68 20 
87 68 



No. 4. . - . . 

No. 5 

No. 

No. 1 359 21 

No. 2 120 46 

No. 3 131 43 

No. 4 166 46 

No. 5 153 33 

No. 1 108 36 

No. 2 114 72 

No. 3 203 98 

No. 4 108 36 

No. 5 189 09 

No. <! 150 86 

No. 7 176 37 



Ammmt to 


Each Child. 


2 


15 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


31 


2 


31 


2 


42 


2 


42 


2 


42 


2 


42 


2 


42 


2 


54 


2 


54 


2 


54 


2 


54 


2 


54 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


30 


2 


49 


2 


49 


2 


49 


2 


49 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


43 


2 


49 


2 


13 


2 


18 


2 


18 


2 


18 


2 


19 


2 


12 


2 


12 


2 


12 


2 


12 


2 


12 


2 


12 


2 


12 



$14,618 11 



CHAPTER XIII. 

BENCH AND BAR— CRIMES AND ACCIDENTS. 

Introductory Remarks — Priestly H. McBride — David Todd — Austin A. King — Ezra 
Hunt — A. B. Chambers — Albert G. Harrison — John Anderson — James R. Aber- 
nathy — Present Members of the Bar — Crimes and Accidents — Miss Jennie Searcy 
Killed by a Train of Cars — W. T. Johnson — Jeptha Heathman — George Stayton — 
Robert Cummings — William Rouse — W. O. Creason. 

Horace Greeley once said that the only good use a lawyer could be 
put to was hanging, and a great many other people entertain the same 
opinion. There may he cause for condemning the course of certain 
practitioners of law, but the same may be said within the ranks of all 
other professions. Such men should not be criticised as lawyers, doc- 
tors, or the like, but rather as individuals vvho seek, throngh a pro- 
fession that is quite as etssential to the welfare of the body politic as 
the science of medicine is to that of the physical well being or theol- 
ogy to the protection of moral natnre, to carry out their nefarious and 
dishonest designs, which are usually for the rapid accnmulation of 
money, although at times for far more evil and sinister purposes, and 
which are the instincts of naturally depraved and vicious natures. 
None of the professions stand alone in being thus afflicted. All suffer 
alike. The most holy and sacred offices have been prostituted to base, 
uses. And it would be quite as unreasonable to hold the entire medi- 
cal fraternity in contempt for the malpractice and quackery of some 
of its unscrupulous members, or the church with its thousands of sin- 
cere and noble teachers and followers, in derision for the hypocrisy 
and deceit of the few, who simply use it as a cloak to conceal the in- 
tentions of a rotten heart and a corrupt nature, as to saddle upon a 
profession as great as either the shortcomings of some of its individ- 
ual members. 

By a wise ordination of Providence, law and order govern every- 
thing in the vast and complex system of the universe. Law is every- 
thing — lawyers nothing. Law would still exist though every one of 
its professors and teachers should perish from the face of the earth. 
And should such a thing occur, and a new race spring up, the first 
instinctive desire of its best men would be to bring order out of chao< 
bv the enactment and promulgation of wise and beneficial laws. Law 

(205) 



206 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ill the abstract is as much a component part of our phmet as are the 
elements, earth, air, fire and water. In a concrete sense, as applied 
to the government of races, nations and people, it plays almost an 
equally important part. Indeed, so grand is the science and so noble 
are the objects sought to be accomplished through it, that it has in- 
spired some of the best and greatest men of ancient and modern times 
to an investigation and study of its principles ; and in the long lifte of 
great names handed down to us from the dim and shadowy portals of 
the past, quite as many great men will be found enrolled as members 
of the legal profession as in any of the others and owe their greatness 
to a sound knowledge of the principles of law, and a strict and impar- 
tial application of them. Draco, among the first and greatest of 
Athenian law-givers, was hailed as the deliverer of those people 
because of his enacting laws and enforcing them for the prevention of 
vice and crime, and looking to the protection of the masses from 
oppression and lawlessness. It is true that many of the penalties he 
attached to the violation of the law were severe, and even barbarous, 
but this severity proceeded from an honorable nature, with an earnest 
desire to improve the condition of his fellow-men. Triptolemus, his 
contemporary, proclaimed as laws: " Honor your parents, worship 
the gods, hurt not animals." Solon, perhaps the wisest and greatest 
of them all, a man of remarkal)le purity of life and noble impulses, 
whose moral character was so great, and conviction as to the public 
good so strong, that he could and did refuse supreme and despotic 
power when thrust upon him, thus replied to the sneers of his 
friends : — 

Nor wisdom's plan, nor deep laid policy 
Can Solon boast. For when its noble blessings 
Heaven poured into his lap, he spurned them from him. 
Where were his sense and spirit, when enclosed 
9 He found the choicest prey, nor deigned to draw it? 

Who to command fair Athens but one day 
Would not himself, with all his race, have fallen 
Contented on the morrow? 

What is true of one nation or race in this particular is true of all, 
viz. : that the wisest and greatest of all law-makers and lawyers have 
always been pure and good men, perhaps the most notable exceptions 
being Justinian and Tribonianus. Their great learning and wisdom 
enabled them to rear as their everlasting monument the Pandects and 
Justinian Code, which, however, they sadly defaced by the immoral- 
ities and excesses of their private lives. Among the revered and 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 207 

modern nations will be fonnd, conspicuous for their great services to 
their fellows, innumerable lawyers. To the Frenchman the mention of 
the names of Tronchet, Le Brun, Portalis, Roederer, and Thibaudeau 
excites a thrill of pride, of greatness and ofgratitude for their goodness. 
What Englishman, or American either, but that takes just pride 
in the splendid reputation and character of the long line of England's 
loyal lawyer sons. The Bacons, fiither and son, who with Lord Bur- 
leigh, were selected by England's greatest queen to administer the 
affairs of state, and Sonimers and Hardwicke, Covvper aud Dunnino-, 
Elden, Blackstone, Coke, Stowell, and Curran, who with all the 
boldness of a giant and eloquence of Demosthenes, struck such vig- 
orous blows against kingly tyranny and oppression ; aud Erskine and 
Mansfield and a score of others. 

These are the men who form the criterion by which the profession 
should be judged. And in our own country have we not names 
among the dead as sacred and among the living as dear? In the 
bright pages of the history of a country, founded for the sole benefit 
of the people, and all kinds of people, who, more than our lawyers, 
are recorded as assisting in its formation, preservation, and workino- 
for its perpetuity. 

The American will ever turn with special pride to the great Web- 
ster, Rufus Choate, William Wirt, Taney, Marshall, and a hundred 
others, who reflected the greatest honor upon the profession in our 
own country. And among the truest and best sons of Missouri are 
her lawyers, and even in the good old county of Monroe some of 
her most highly esteemed and most responsible citizens are members 
of this noble profession. 

The following sketches include only some of the earliest attorneys, 
who either presided on the bench or practiced at the bar of the Mon- 
roe circuit. For many of the facts and incidents herein related we 
are indebted to Judge Bay's Bench and Bar. 

PRIESTLY H. m'bRIDE 

(The First Circuit Court Judge of Monroe County). 

This gentleman was a judge of the Supreme Court of Missouri dur- 
ing 1845 and 1846. He was a native of Kentucky, and born, raised 
and educated near Harrodsburg. He received a good education, 
studied law in Kentucky, came to Missouri when quite young and 
located in Columbia, Boone county. On December 11, 1830, he was 
commissioned as judge of the second judicial circuit. 

On January 1, 1836, the Legislature adopted and passed a consti- 



208 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

tutional amendment, which, among other things, vacated all the judicial 
offices. Judge McBride, however, refused to give up his office, stating 
as a reason that the amendment had not passed by the requisite 
majority, and alleging also their irregularities. An information in the 
nature of a writ of quo loarranto was taken against him, requiring him 
to show cause by what authority or commission he continued to exer- 
cise the duties of the office, etc. In answer to this the defendant 
pleaded his commission of December 11, 1830. To this plea a 
demurrer was filed and the question of the validity of the action of 
the general assembly was thus raised. The real point in the case was 
this : The amendment had been ratified by a vote of two-thirds of a 
quorum of the house, but not two-thirds of all the members, which 
the judge contended was necessary. 

The case went to the Supreme Court, where it was held that two- 
thirds of a quorum was sufficient. This, of course, ousted Judge 
McBride from the office. The reader will find the case reported in 
4th Missouri Reports, p. 303. 

The same legislature organized a new circuit composed of the 
counties of Marion, Lewis, Clark, Monroe, and probably Shelby, and 
Judge McBride was appointed to that circuit, where he remained until 
he was appointed judge of the Supreme Court in 1845. During part 
of his judicial service he resided in Paris, Monroe county. 

In politics he was an uncompromising Democrat, but took no active 
part in the political contests of the State while on the bench. In 
January, 1829, he was appointed by Gov. Miller secretary of State, 
and resigned in 1830, in order to accept the judgeship of the second 
judicial circuit. He was in no sense a brilliant man, though he made 
a fair judge. 

DAVID TODD. 

Few of the early judges of Missouri were better known than David 
Todd, who for many years presided over the most important circuit 
in the State. He was the oldest son of Gen. Levi Todd, of Ken- 
tucky. His mother was a Briggs, and niece to Gen. Benjamin Logan. 

David Todd received a liberal education, was well versed in Greek 
and Latin, and had some knowledge of French and Spanish. He was 
educated at Transylvania University in Lexington. He pursued his 
legal studies at the office of Judge Bibb, of Lexington, and was 
admitted to the bar of Kentucky in 1810. He served several terms in 
the Kentucky legislature with distinction, and when Missouri was 
admitted as a State, came over and located in Franklin, Howard 



HISTORY or MONROE COUNTY. 209 

county. He did not practice long before he was appointed judge of 
the Howard circuit. 

He presided at the first court held in Cole county on June 5, 1821. 
After a long and successful professional career he died in 1859 in 
Columbia, Boone county, which had been his place of residence for 
over 30 years. 

He was by no means a brilliant man, yet he possessed a vigorous, 
well balanced mind, and had a very clear comprehension of the princi- 
ples of the law. He was, moreover, a man of kind heart and tender 
feelings, as the following incident related by his son well illustrates : 
" One day, " said his son, *' I was traveling in Texas, and stopped for 
dinner at a large farm house. As I dismounted a venerable-looking 
gentleman came out to receive me. We soon fell into conversation, 
during which I casually mentioned my name, when with some emotion' 
he remarked that the best friend he had ever had was of the same 
name — Todd — ' Judo;e David Todd. ' I told him that that was the 
name of my father. He seemed greatly excited — got up and shook 
me cordially by the hand and remarked that he was tried before my 
father for murder, and was indebted to him for his life. He then pro- 
ceeded to relate the circumstances as follows: He said that some 
40 years before he was residing in Missouri ; that he attended a public 
gathering of the people in his neighborhood ; that he was challenged 
by several young men to wrestle, and on every occasion was success- 
ful ; that a general roAV took place, resulting in a murderous attack 
upon him ; that in repelling the assault, he struck one of them with 
a club, producing his death ; that he was arrested and indicted upon 
the charge of murder and tried before my father ; that the trial pro- 
duced intense excitement, his friends and enemies being present in 
full force. After the jury rendered a verdict of acquittal the court 
adjourned. All was tumult and excitement. In the midst of it the 
sheriff tapped him on the shoulder and whispered to him to slip away 
quietly from the crowd and go to the Judge's room in the hotel, as the 
Judge wanted to see him immediately. He obeyed the summons, and 
found the Judge in his room. That the Judge told him he had sent 
for him to let him know that his life Was in imminent danger; that a 
plot was on hand to kill him, and that daylight must not find him in 
the county. He told the Judge that he had a horse, but very little 
money, and was poorly jDrepared to start on a long journey. 
Said he, ' your father took out his pocket-book and handed me all 
the money in it. He also gave me a paper upon which was marked 
the route to Louisiana and a letter of introduction to his (the Judge's) 



210 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

brother in the parish of Saint Landry. ' Said he, 'I left that night, 

followed your father's instructions, and have never been in Missouri 

since. ' Here the old man's utterance failed, and still holdins: me 
with a firm grasp he wept like a child. " 

AUSTIN A. KING. 

Missouri has been fortunate in the selection of her chief magistrates ; 
for, with few exceptions, they were men of learning, ability and in- 
tegrity. Such was Austin A. King, who was born in Sullivan county, 
Tennessee, on September 21, 1801. 

He received an ordinary English education, but after determining 
to follow the law as a profession, took private lessons in Latin and 
Greek and became a fair scholar. His father was a farmer and Aus- 
tin rendered him efficient aid in the cultivation of his farm, and by so 
doing acquired habits of industry and labor which proved very service- 
able to hyn in after life. After reaching his majority he commenced 
the study of the law, which he pursued for several years with great 
diligence. Then he removed to Columbia, Boone county, Missouri, 
and commenced the practice. 

He had not long been a resident of Boone before he was elected to 
represent that county in the Legislature. 

In 1837, he removed to Ray county ; was soon after appointed 
judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit, which office he held until the 
people of the State, in 1848, elected him to the office of Governor. 
It was during his administration that the railroad system of the State, 
which has contributed so largely to our population and wealth, was 
inaugurated. At the expiration of his term of office he ^^eturned to 
the practice in Ray county. 

In 1860 he was selected to represent his district in the National 
Democratic Convention. When the dark cloud of Civil War rolled 
over the country he raised his voice in behalf of his government and 
was very bitter in his denunciation of secession. 

In 1862, he was selected by the Union party to represent his dis- 
trict in Congress, and voted for a vigorous prosecution of the war. 
This closed his public life, and he died while on a visit to St. Louis, 
in April, 1870, in his sixty-ninth year. Gov. King was a man of vig- 
orous intellect, and rendered a faithful discharge of duty in every 
position to which he was called. 

EZRA HUNT. 

There is no position more difficult to fill, and which furnishes so 
large a field for dissatisfaction and complaint, as that of a nisi prius 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 211 

judge ; and it is gratifying to be able to name one whose judicial ad- 
ministration was the subject of universal praise. 

Judge Ezra Hunt for many years presided over the circuit compris- 
ing the counties of Pike, Lincoln, St. Charles, Warren, Ralls and 
Montgomery. He was born in Milford, Massachusetts, on April 7, 
1790, and entered the freshman class at Harvard in 1812; became 
greatly distinguished in mathematics, which subject was assigned him 
at commencement when he graduated. Upon leaving college he was 
appointed precepter "of Leicester Academy, a position which he held 
until the latter part of 1814, when he returned to Cambridge, with 
the intention of studying divinity, but was soon after persuaded to 
take charge of the academy in Pulaski, Tennessee. His health failing 
him there, he determined to cross the Mississippi, and reached St. 
Louis.in 1819 or 1820, entered the law office of Judge William C. 
Carr, and while pursuing his studies became tutor to the judge's chil 
dren ; was in due time admitted to the practice of the law, and soon 
after settled in Louisiana, then the county seat of Pike county, where 
he remained about three years, when be removed to St. Charles. In 
1831, he returned to Pike, and in 1836 was appointed judge of that 
circuit, the duties of which he discharged many years ; ,then returned 
to the practice, and finally died in Troy, Lincoln county, in 1860, at 
the ripe age of 70 years. 

As a jurist, he was learned, just and true. 

He was not a man who would attempt to impress an audience with 
a sense of his own importance, for he was very unassuming, and cared 
nothing for office, except so far as it enabled him to accomplish some- 
thing for the public good. In 1845 he was in the convention called 
to revise the State constitution. 

Judge Hunt was noted for his illegible writing. A man named 
Gregory called upon him for his opinion in a land suit and the judge 
promised to write it out and send it to him ; the opinion was sent, but 
neither Gregory nor any other person could read it. Gregory some- 
time afterwards asked the judge to read it to him, and after an exami- 
nation of it the judge said, " Some d d fool has been trying to write, 

but failed." 

Gregory said, "Judge did you ever write to me about that case of 
mine?" The judge took the hint, got the cue and read it oflf easily, 
saying, " Anybody but a d d fool could read that." 

A. B. CHAMBERS. 

Adam Black Chambers was born in Mercer, Mercer county, Pa., 
January 9, 1808, and received an academic education in that State. 



212 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Ill 1830 he came to St. Louis, and after reraainiiig there a few weeks 
moved to Bowling Green, in Pike county, where he completed his 
legal studies and was admitted to the bar. It was not long before he 
was appointed circuit attorney for the Pike circuit, and in that capacity 
exhibited talents of a high order. The fact that Mr. Chambers dis- 
charged the duties of the office with signal ability is the best evidence 
of his legal attainments. He was a fluent and logical speaker, never 
indulging in flowery declamation, and his good, practical sense paved 
the way to professional success. In July, 1837, he purchased an 
interest in the Missouri Republican and at once became its editor, 
which position he retained for 18 years. The marked ability with 
which that paper was edited during Mr. Chambers' life is too well 
known to need any comment. Under the editorial management 
of Mr. Hyde and the proprietorship of the Messrs. Knapp, the .paper 
still maintains its supremacy as a Western journal. His fine business 
qualifications were frequently called into requisition and he became, 
at different times, connected with important corporations, in some of 
which he acted as president. He died in St. Louis, May 22, 1854, in 
the forty-seventh year of his age. He left a widow and three chil- 
dren — son and two daughters — also, two step-sons. His remains 
were placed in Bellefontaine Cemetery, a cemetery in which he had 
taken deep interest, and to the adornment of which he had largely 
contributed. 

ALBERT G. HARRISON 

was born in Mount Sterling, Kentucky, on June 26, 1800. At the 
age of 18 he entered the junior class of the academical department 
of Transylvania University, and in 1820 took the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. He made himself familiar with the French and Spanish lan- 
guages, which proved very advantageous to him in the prosecution of 
his profession. After completing his course in college he entered the 
law department of the same university, and in 1821, obtained the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws, and entered upon the practice of the 
law in Mount Sterling. 

In 1827 he removed to Callaway county, Missouri, and settled in 
Fulton. In 1828 President Jackson appointed him one of the visitors 
to attend the annual examination at West Point. In 1829 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners to adjust the land titles growing 
out of Spanish grants; and, after holding the office a few years, re- 
signed and became a candidate for Congress, and was elected for two 
successive terms, but died in 1838, before the expiration of his last 
term. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 213 

With his fine education, popular manners, and decided ability, he 
bid fair to become one of the most prominent men of the West ; but 
death, which too often seeks a shining mark, cut him off in the prime 
of life. 

As a member of Congress he was devoted to the interests of his 
constituents. Mr. Harrison was well read in his profession, but em- 
barked too early in political life to distinguish himself as a lawyer, 
though it is said by his contemporaries that he evinced much skill in 
the trial of a cause, and by Iijs pleasant, insinuating manner, won the 
confidence and goodwill of a jury. He was a man of fine personal 
appearance, very attractive in his manner, and possessed rare conver- 
sational powers, which made him popular with the people and gave 
him a passport to public favor. In his social relations he was affable 
and generous to a fault, and when thrown among strangers made 
friends rapidly. 

JOHN ANDERSON. 

This gentleman was one of the earliest lawyers at the Palmyra bar. 
He was a Kentuckian l)y birth and received a good academic educa- 
tion. He emigrated to Missouri about 1830 and settled at Palmyra, 
and died about five years afterwards. Though his professional career 
was short, he acquired considerable reputation as an orator, which 
soon brought him a good practice. He was well read in law, having 
acquired his legal education in the Transylvania Law School, at Lex- 
ington. There are a few persons still living in North-east Missouri 
who recollect him as a man of fine personal appearance, with winning 
and agreeable manners. He was very successful as an advocate, and 
was generally employed in cases where the battle was to be fought 
before a jury. We have not learned that he ever held any oflicial 
position. It is to be regretted that so little is known of one who 
bid fair to obtain professional distinction. 

JAMES R. ABERNATHY. 

Mr. Abernathy was born in Lunenberg county, Va., February 25, 
1795. He was the son of Blackstone and Elizabeth Abernathy. He 
came to Missouri in 1817 and settled in Monroe county in 1831. He 
has had somewhat of a chequered life, about 53 years of which have 
been spent in Paris. He was one of the earliest attorneys to practice 
law in Monroe county, and during the early years of his residence in 
Paris he was prosecuting attorney for this judicial district, his field 
of labor extending over twelve counties. He has also filled the posi- 



214 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

tions of justice of the peace, county and circuit clerk, besides many 
other places of trust in Monroe county. He was editor of the Paris 
Mercury from 1844 to 1848. He was present at the organization of 
the Christian Church, which occurred in 1833. He and six others 
were the constituent members, and he alone is now the only living 
survivor of that little band of worshipers. 

The following story is related of Mr. Abernathy : He was a school 
teacher, and while he was conducting his school, never dreaming of 
the dull principles inculcated by Coke an^l Blackstone, some one of his 
patrons — perhaps the host with whom he boarded — had a bee-gum 
taken from him rather unceremoniously. He was in trouble, and in 
his extremity applied to "Abbey," as he was familiarly called. He 
took the statutes and turned to the index and looked first for " bee- 
gums." Seeing nothing, he turned to " bees," and being still unsuc- 
cessful he next looked for "honey," but his search was a vain one; 
and thus mocked by everj'thing, but being a man of resolution, he 
began to turn leaf by leaf and page after page. He had not pro- 
ceeded far until he came to " forcible entry and detainer." "Ah !" 
said he, "I have it," and he instituted an action for forcible entry 
and detainer for the bee-gum. This was his first case in court, from 
which he afterwards branched out, and he was so well pleased with 
his success that he read law and applied for a license. His case was 
referred for examination to Judge Jack Gordon. It is said Mr. Gor- 
don, who was himself a fine lawyer, though a little eccentric, only 
asked him if he could sing and dance, and these questions being satis- 
factorily answered, he was ready to report. He presented himself at 
the bar and the judge asked him if he were ready to report. His 
answer was that Mr. Abernathy did not know much of the common 
law, but was h — 11 on the statute, and he recommended that the court 
grant him a license. 

Mr. Abernathy possesses a kind, genial disposition and is fond of a 
good joke or story, and relishes them with the same hearty zest that 
he did 60 years ago. Notwithstanding his great age, having nearly 
reached his ninetieth mile-stone in the journey of life, he has a re- 
markably tenacious memory, and can recite early incidents and facts 
with all the apparent ease, as though they had occurred but yesterday. 
He can also give the names of the earliest pioneers of the county with 
great accuracy, not forgetting even Christian names. He is still 
physically strong for one of his age. He has been one of the fixtures 
of Paris and Monroe county for more than half a century, and is 
doubtless more widely known in this region of country than any of 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 216 

the pioneers. The old man, whose sands of life have nearly run, who 
has been so long seen upon the streets of Paris, as he walks along with 
a quick and short step, will long be remembered by the boys of the 
town, with whom he has so often traded knives, and by the men, whom 
he so often entertained with his store of anecdotes and incidents of 
early times. 

PRESENT MEMBERS OF THE BAR. 

Theo. Brace, circuit judge ; Thomas P. Bashaw, K. N. Bodine, T. 
B. Robinson, A. M. Alexander, member of Congress; J. H. Rodes, 
county attorney ; T. T. Rodes, Hugh E. McGee, R. A. Bodine, Ellis 
D. Gore, Theo. S. Shaw, Joseph T. Sanford, public administrator ; 
D. R. Davenport, D. G. Davenport, J. C. Peirsol, W. W. Longmire, 
J. T. Lighter. 

CRIMES AND ACCIDENTS. 

There has been but one legal execution in Monroe county. As a 
community the people are as law abiding as the people of any other 
county in the State. Yet there have been crimes committed within 
her borders, a full and complete history of which would occupy too 
much space in our book for record. We have, therefore, recorded only 
a few of the most prominent of these, believing that a perusal of the 
same will be of interest to the reader. Thomas Blue, colored, alias 
Dick Dooley, was tried at the May term of the circuit court, 1867, 
and found guilty of murder in the first degree for killing William 
Vandeventer, a white man, and was hanged June 21, 18(i7, just north 
of Paris. The following men composed the jury : William Dunna- 
way, George F. Palmer, Moses Noel, J. M. Brooks, Henry Evans, 
George Ridings, William Foster, George J. Pinnell, T. T. Rodes, Na- 
thaniel W. Duncan, Joseph L. Hill, William Bohon, George F. Pal- 
mer, foreman. 

MISS JENNIE SEARCY KILLED BY A TRAIN OF CARS. 

On Monday, December 6, 1875, Miss Jennie Searcy was run over 
and killed by the cars. We copy from the Appeal: — 

Stoutsville was the scene of a most distressing and heart-rending 
accident on last Monday morning. Miss Jennie Searcy, a young lady 
of 16, and a boy by the name of Elliott were going from Elliottsville 
to Stoutsville, and were walking upon the railroad track about a mile 
and a half from Stoutsville, when engine No. 35 came along and over- 
took them ; the engineer, Mr. Donald, invited them to get on and 
ride to the station,' which they did. He stopped for them to get off 
and they alighted and started to cross the railroad track immediately 
behind the engine, thinking it was going to move on. At the same 
instant, the engineer reversed the engine and started back, knocking 

9 



216 HISTORY OF MONROK COUNTY. 

down the young lady, who uttered one scream, and the wheels of the 
engine passed over her body leaving it a mangled, mutilated, lifeless 
corpse. The engine also struck the boy but he managed to escape un- 
hurt. The girl was a daughter of Mrs. Searcy, a widow who resides 
in Elliottsville, and was much esteemed by all who knew her. No 
blame was attached to the engineer, as they (the girl and boy) were 
so near the engine when attempting to cross that he could not see 
them. 

W. T. JOHNSON. 

A committee of citizens near Middle Grove was preparing to hold 
a picnic on September 18, 1876, and a difficulty originated over the 
letting of a booth or stand for selling refreshments. Another com- 
mittee of arrangements met at the druoj store of Nave & Johnson. 
Mr. Thomas H. Hocker came into the room and after conversing upon 
some other subject relating to the picnic, said he wished to put in a 
bid on the booth. Mr. W. T. Johnson, being one of the committee, 
rather objected to Mr. Hocker putting in a bid on the booth, and 
remarked he expected to occupy the booth himself, and was willing 
to leave the price of the booth to the committee. Some angry words 
passed between the parties, which resulted in Johnson's ordering 
Hocker out of the store, and shortly after caught hold of Hocker to 
enforce his order, and led or pushed him out on the platform in front 
of the store. As soon as Johnson released Hocker, the latter rushed 
upon Johnson and stabbed him near the left of the left lung, it is sup- 
posed with a small pocket knife, severing the sub-clavian artery. 
Friends interfered, and Mr. Johnson went back into his store and in 
a few moments expired. Mr, Hocker was promptly arrested. Shortly 
after his arrest he expressed a desire to see his mother. He was ac- 
companied to his residence by a guard, and it was thought he passed 
on immediately through the house and out the l)ack door and made his 
escape, leaving the guard in front of the house. 

Mr. Hocker was raised in this county. Mr. Johnson was from Boone 
county. Hocker was tried and acquitted, and now resides in Texas. 

JEPTHA HEATHMAN. 

Dan Hendricks shot and killed Jeptha Heathman on the 11th day 
of December, 1877. On the morning of the 11th, Mr. Hendricks 
drove over to Mr. Heathman's in a two-horse wagon, taking with him 
two hands. The hands and the wagon were left standing in the road. 
Mr. Hendricks got over into Mr. Heathman's corn field and went to 
where Mr. Heathman and two little boys were gathering corn. After 
the wagon was loaded the two boys went with it to the house, leaving 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 217 

the two men alone. What occnrred after that no one knows but Mr. 
Hendricks, for when the boys returned to the field they found their 
father in the agonies of death — too far gone to speak to or recognize 
them. Mr. Hendricks says after the boys left he and Mr. Heathman 
attempted to have a settlement, when Heathman disputed the account 
and in an angry and threatening manner began to roll up his sleeves. 
Hot words passed between the parties and Mr. Hendricks says Mr. 
Heathman assaulted him with his pocket knife. Then he drew his 
revolver — a small five shooter, and shot Mr. Heathman, the ball 
enterino; Heathman's left breast, about two inches above and to the 
right of the heart. The two men then grappled and during the 
scuflie Mr. Hendricks again discharged his revolver, the shot this 
time missiuo;. Durinij the scuffle Mr. Heathman received two cuts on 
the back of the head, which appeared to have been made with the 
hammer of a revolver. It appears after the affray Mr. Heathman 
attempted to go to his own home, but fell and expired about eighty 
yards from where the difficulty occurred. Hendricks surrendered 
himself to the constable. 

Hendricks was finally acquitted.^ 

GEORGE STAYTON KILLED BY HIS BROTHER. 

At half-past one o'clock on the morning of the 24th of December, 
1882, at the dwelling place of widow Stayton, two miles south-east of 
Clapper Station, a fratricidal homicide occurred, seldom equaled — 
either by brutality or fiendishness, in the annals of crime. The family 
in question consisted of the widow, her daughter Miss Mary, and two 
sons — James and George W. — the latter recently married to Mar- 
garet M. 7iee McLeod. The night of the tragedy they sat up until a 
late hour, engaged in social converse, nothing occurring either by word 
or action to irritate the mind or create unpleasant feelings. At the 
hour above mentioned, when all were wrapped in sleep (except the 
murderer), George's wife was startled irom her clumber by a loud 
report, which she could not under the circumstances well define, 
whether it was the report of a pistol, the slamming of a door or a 
crash of falling timbers. She immediately attempted to arouse her 
husband to ascertain the cause of the noise, but all her efforts to effect 
this object failed — he neither by word, sign or motion made any 
response. She then screamed for help to the balance of the family 
who slept up stairs. In the meantime she looked across the room and 



1 Paris Appeal. 



218 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

by the feeble light she saw James Stayton standing on the floor, in his 
night clothes. She asked him what he was doing and he answered 
'• nothing." She asked him if he had shot George, and he 
answered — "I have not; what is the matter with George; 
had I not better go and get a doctor." '* Yes, go 
immediately, " she said. He then proceeded to light a 
lamp, went up stairs, dressed himself and then went to the stable — 
got a horse and fled to parts unknown. All this occupied but a few 
moments. The female portion of the family were in the meantime 
applying remedies to restore vitality to a dead man, thinking he was 
attacked by a congestive chill in consequence of his previous sickness 
of ten days. Some time had elapsed in their vain efforts in this 
direction ere the fatal wound was discovered. It was produced by a 
32 caliber ball which entered about an inch back of the right ear, 
ranged upvvards and lodged in the brain. Only a few drops of blood 
exuded from the wound, on the pillow, which were covered by the 
position of the head. This settled the matter of the cause of death. 
The nearest neighbor was immediately apprised of the horrid deed. 
The news spread rapidly and a force collected who made arrangements 
to pursue and arrest the murderer. A warrant was issued by 'Squire 
Fields and placed in the hands of the leader, Robert F. Parsons, who, 
with a few determined men, struck his trail. All these arrangements, 
however, required time, which gave the off'ender some four or five 
hours the start. The pursuing party arriving at Stoutsville, tele- 
graphed to the Paris authorities that if James Stayton put in an 
appearance there to take charge of him. Shortly after the receipt of 
the telegram Officer Thalus Hocker of that place arrested Stayton 
near the Glenn House. Stayton had a pistol cocked in his pocket, but 
did not resist and was lodged in jail. It appears that his object was 
to catch a train and make his escape. When within a few miles of 
Paris he turned his horse loose and walked into the town. 

In justice it must be said that the unfortunate offender had for 
some years manifested at times strong evidences of insanity, resulting 
from an injury sustained by being thrown from his horse, which was 
subsequently intensified by a sun-stroke. He was declared to be in- 
sane and sent to the insane asylum, where he now is. 

ROBERT CUMMINGS. 

May 31, 1883, Robert Cummings was killed in Madison, Monroe 
county, by Clifton Wade. Several parties were at Madison on the 
day of the occurrence, drinking freely, among them Robert Cummings, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 219 

but Cumrnings had not created any particular disturbance. Clifton 
Wade had also beeu drinking. Prior to this — two or three months 
previously — Cumrnings and Wade had a fight, the latter getting the 
better of his antagonist. Last Saturday they both appeared to be 
prepared for war, and got into a difficulty. Wade struck Cumrnings 
on the back of the head with a weight, and as Cumrnings turned 
round, Wade shot him in the forehead. He lived until about one 
o'clock Sunday morning. No inquest was held on Cumraing's body, 
and no special effort made to arrest Wade, by the people of Madison. 
Slieriff Jackson sent his deputies on Sunday, but when they arrived, 
Wade could not be found. Four hundred dollars were offered for 
Wade's arrest, but he has never been found. ^ 

WILLIAM ROUSE KILLED BY AN UNKNOWN PARTY. 

[From the Mouroe City News of March 1, 1883.] 

There was considerable excitement aroused in our city last Sund*ay, 
a little after one o'clock, when Al. Adams came riding in from the 
south, with the intelligence that he had found a man lying dead in 
the road, near a vacant house on John O. Wood's farm, about a mile 
and three-quarters south-east of town. A number of men and boys 
at once procured horses and started for the place, accompanied by 
'Squire T. J. Griffith. When they arrived at the spot where the dead 
man laid, an investigation disclosed the fiict that the dead man was 
J. W. Rouse, better known as " Billy," or " Little Will Rouse," a 
nephew of John W. Rouse, the merchant. 'Squire Griffith, acting as 
coroner, at once impaneled a jury consisting of W. P. Bush, J. A. 
Peirsol, J. T. Umstadt, Frank Elliott, S. S. Hampton and Mr. Gibber- 
son, who viewed the body and decided that death resulted from a gun- 
shot wound. The body was then brought to town and laid out in 
Wilson's undertaking establishment, while the inquest was adjourned 
until Monday. A report having been brought in that a man had been 
seen with a gun near the place where the murder was committed, a 
number of our citizens armed themselves and went out after him. 
They hunted until dark, but found nothing and abandoned the search. 

Tracks had been found leading in the direction of the house where 
the body Avas found, and a colored boy named Frank Smith was ar- 
rested on suspicion, and held until sometime Monday when he was 
discharged, there being no evidence to show that he made the tracks. 
It was further proved he had been in town all the forenoon. The 
murdered man had been working for J. H. Sullivan, who lives a mile 
north of town, and had been since' last October. He attended Sunday- 
school at the Methodist Church Sunday morning, and after it closed 
(which was a few minutes before 11 o'clock) he went to his grand- 



1 From the Appeal. 



220 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

father's in the south-west purt of the town, where he remained about 
five minutes, leaving there about half past 11 o'clock, to visit his 
brother, Robert L., who lives three or four miles south-east of this 
place. He was riding a pony belonging to Mr. Sullivan. 

At Sunday-school in the morning, he took out his pocket-book and 
save something when the contribution was collected. Some of those 
m the class with him say he had $2 or $3 in his purse. When the 
body w^as found, both purse and money were gone, showing that 
the murderer's object must have been robbery. When the body was 
found, it was lying in a fence corner, face downward, the hat, which 
was riddled with shot, a few feet away, and the pony standinff in the 
road about fifty yards from the body. J. F. Elder, of Ralls county, 
was the first man who saw the body. He was coming to town after a 
doctor, when he saw it lying there, but supposing the man to be 
drunk, and being in a hurry, did not stop. Soon afterwards, G. W. 
Gallaway and Al. Adams passed along the same road, going east, and 
noticed the body. Their first impression was, the man was drunk, 
and Mr. Adams called to him several times. Receiving no answer, 
Mr. Adams got ofi' his horse and bent over the body, when he noticed 
blood on the back of the head. He took hold of the shoulder and 
found the man was dead. Adams then brought the news back to 
town while Mr. Gallaway rode on to Robert Cranston's and noti- 
fied him and his brother William. The murdered man was a widower 
and leaves two children, who have been living with some of their rela- 
tives, since their mother died. He was of a quiet, retiring disposition 
and is not known to have had an enemy in the world. From the fact 
that he was robbed, it is believed that he was mistaken for some other 
person. This is oidy speculation, however, and the truth may never 
be known. One thing is certain, a cowardly murder has been com- 
mitted and all hope that the perpetrator may be identified and awarded 
the full penalty of the law. The murdered man's remains were buried 
Tuesday at the Moss Chapel. 

Below, we give the main points of Dr, McNutt's testimony : — 

I found four shot-holes penetrating the brain, one entering the head, 
just under the left ear and ranging in the direction of the nose ; eleven 
holes in his body and one through his right arm. From the course 
of the holes he was shot from the left side and from behind ; one or 
two shot had struck his head and not entered his skull ; several shot 
had discolored the skin of his body, but had not entered. I cut one 
shot from the back of his neck and it was pronounced by several par- 
ties as double 00 in size ; some of the holes seemed to have been made 
with larger size shot, I think buckshot ; I think any one of the five 
shot entering his brain would have killed him. 

As above stated, Frank Smith was arrested, tried and acquitted. 
No arrests have since been made, and the foul murder remains a mys- 
tery to this day. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 221 



W. O. CREASON KILLED. 



The Appeal of July 24th says : — 

It l)ecomes our painful duty this week to chronicle the lamentable 
circumstances connected with the shooting of W. TT: Creason, one 
©f the most deplorable and shocking affairs that has ever startled our 
community. Mr. Creason resided ou Long Branch, some fifteen miles 
south-west of this place. He hired a couple of young men last spring 
to work for him, during the wcu'king season. When the harvest ap- 
proached, they informed Creason that they desired to leave as they 
could o-et better wages bv the day in the harvest field than they were 
o-ettin^ by the month. Creason protested against their leavmg him 
before'' their time was up; but they left, he owing one ot them — 
Joseph Kribs — a part of a month's wages, which he refused to pay 
unless Krilis would work his time out. There were some words be- 
tween them when Kribs left. On last xMond:iy evening, having armed 
himself with a revolver, Kribs returned to Creason's, called him out 
to the fence and told him he wanted liim to settle, when Creason 
answered, he had not complied with his contract and that he had no 
settlement to make with him, whereupon Kribs flew into a passion, 
and commenced cursing Creason, who ordered him off his premises. 
Creason got over the fence as he ordered Kribs to leave, who was sit- 
tmcr upon his horse outside of the yard. Kril)s fired upon him as he 
^Tot^upon the ground, the ball entering the right side, just under the 
arm and penetratino- His breast, killing him instantly. After the 
shooting Kribs left in a gallop. Wes. Johnson and Henry Johnson, 
two of the neighbors, came down and informed the sheriff of the ter- 
rible afRiir. Sheriff Pitts procured a writ immediately from Esq. 
Armstrong, of this place, and in company with James Curtright and 
Thalus Hocker, repaired to the scene of the tragedy, and thence to 
the home of the young man in Audrain county where, having pro- 
cured the assistance of several others, he surrounded the house and 
captured him about daylight on Tuesday morning. The Sherifi re- 
turned with the prisoner to Paris, and lodged him in jail. Kribs is a 
vouno- man about twentv-two years, well made and muscular. 
' William O. Creason was one of the most promising and highly 
esteemed young men in the countv. He was about 32 years of age. 
He was a soldier in the First Missouri Confederate Brigade, had tougiit 
upon manv hard contested battle fields, and lost an arm at Corinth 
on the 4th day of October, 1863, while charging the breastworks 
Coming back from the armv without a dollar, he settled with his aged 
father and mother in this "^county, where he has been raising stock, 
and at the time of his death, was prominent among the large stock- 
men, beins a member of the firm of McCann & Creason. Kril)s was 
tried and sent to the penitentiary for 20 years, but after he had 
about half his time was pardoned by Gov. Crittenden. 



serveil 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Mexican War — Call for Volunteers — Monroe County Men — California Emigrants — 
The Scenes in '49 and '50 — Emigrants From Monroe County — Incident — Death 
of Emigrants —The Civil War of 1861 — Number of Men Entering Southern Array 
from the County — The Battle at Monroe City — Capture of Paris — Grant's Expe- 
dition V. Harris — Mercury Suspended — Skirmish Near Elliott's Mills — Florida 
Fight — Bott's Bluff Fight — Lieutenaut Killed by One of His Men. 

MEXICAN WAR. 

We have stated elsewhere in this work that the Mexican War began 
in Maj^ 1846, and during the middle of that month Gov. Edwards, 
of Missouri, called for volunteers to join the " Army of the West" 
in an expedition to Santa Fe. The full complement of companies 
was made up from the following counties, which composed the first 
regiment: Jackson, Co. A, 114 men, Capt. Waldo; Lafayette, 
Co. B, 112 men, Capt. Walton; Clay, Co. C, 113 men, Capt. 
Moss; Saline, Co. D, 94 men, Capt. Reid ; Franklin, Co. E, 117 
men, Capt. Stephenson ; Cole, Co. F, 100 men, Capt. Parsons ; 
Howard, Co. G, 100 men, Capt. Jackson ; Callaway, Co. H, 104 men, 
Capt. Rogers. 

" Our heroes of the former days 
Deserved and gained their never fading bays." 

Monroe county has never been wanting in patriotism, but upon the 
contrary, her citizens have alwaj^s been among the first to respond to 
the call of their country when its honor or its liberty were imperilled. 
Whether they were called to meet the savage Indian at home, or the 
scarcely less civilized Mexican under the burnins; suns of a foreisfn 
clime, they have responded with the same alacrity, and gone forth to 
do battle with an enthusiasm and courage that have ever characterized 
the true soldier. 

The men who buckled on their armor for the distant fields of 
Mexico, numbered about 44, a few of whom had seen service in the 
Black Hawk and Florida wars. These men were mustered in at Fort 
Leavenworth, in July, 1846, and mustered out at the same place in 
September, 1847. They were in the battles of Taos and Morotown, 
and sustained a loss of one man killed, Robert Bower. The following 
(222) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 223 

are the names of the men who went from Monroe county ; the list is 
not quite complete : — 

N. B. Giddings, captain ; Samuel Sproule, first lieutenant, Elijah 
Burton, second lieutenant, T. C. McKamey, third lieutenant; Benja- 
min Owings, C.Nelson, T. B. Giddings, T. Branham, R. Brown, S. 
P. Scaneker, Washington Scaneker, D. Helm, T. Helm, W. McGee, 
Hugh J. Glenn, R. Farrell, — Sharp, R. M. Scott, G. A. Maddox, Rob- 
ert Bower, E. W. Bovver, Richard Poage, R. Burton, A. Burton, T. 
Archer, F. Buckner, W. F. Buckner, Dr. Caskey, 01. Smith, John 
Blanton, C. C. Palmer, Shad Whittington, E. H. Boon, William 
Lightner, — Lightner, Green Berry Featherton, — Featherton, 
Frank Gilbert, N. B. Todd, Frank Helm, Berry Shoot, J. W. Pace, 
Robert M. Scott, William Painter, Rufus Ferrell. 

[From the Paris Mercury of September, 1847.] 

A meeting was held in Paris to make suitable arrangements for the 
reception of the returning volunteers from Mexico. The barbecue 
and reception took place September 29, 1847. 

On motion, the meeting appointed the following gentlemen a com- 
mittee of arrangements: Col. Thomas Nelson, William Orr, J. Twy- 
man, John Wright, Thomas Crutcher, John N. Parsons, Massa 
Tanner, Joel Ma\ipin and J. C. W. McKinny. 

The following were made a committee to select speakers : William 
G. Moore, Dr.^Moss and E. W. McBride. 

On motion, the following gentlemen of the several townships were 
appointed a committee to solicit subscriptions and provisions for the 
festival : — 

Jackson — Bsivid W. Campbell, Joseph H. Fox, William M. Sharp, 

ThoniDSon Holliday, Thomas Pool, J. C. W. McKinny, J. Twyman, 
John S. Convers. Jeferson — Thomns Poage, Dr. Williams, Alex- 
ander Hickman, Dr. McNutt, Joseph Goss. Indian Creek — Joseph 
Hiio-an, Joshua Gentry, Moses Parris, Brooks Bell. South Fork — 
Joliu Cissel, James F. Botts, Samuel Drake, Theodore G. Price. 
Otter Creek — Marion Biggs, William Lamb, Samuel Hill, Bird S. 
Webb. J/«nou — James B. Swindell, N. H. Marders, Henderson 
Davis, Robert Gwynn, Dr. N. Ray, Charles Capp, F. Chandler. 
f7,„on — Charles Allen, J. M. S. Berry, P. Swinney, A. R. Oldham, 
William B. Giddings, William R. Stephens, William Vawter. Wash- 
ington —T>iXY\<\ Thomas, William A. Saunders, Benedict Gough, 
William Goe, Robert T. Smith, John W. Martin, Allen Thompson. 

On motion, the ^iieeting appointed the following gentlemen as a 
committee of invitation and correspondence: Hon. P. H. McBride, 
Maj. William J. Howell and Gen. R. D. Austin. 

It is ordered that the proceedings of this meeting be published. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Samuel E. Darnes, Sec'y. 



224 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



THE BARBECUE. 

A meeting of the committee of arrangements (for the barbecue to be 
given in honor of the Monroe volunteers) was held on Saturday hist, 
and made the following appointments: Marshal of the day — Col. 
Richard D. Austin. Assistant Marshals — Gen. Anderson W. Reid, 
Gen. William M. Sharp and Maj. Thomas Crutcher. Committee to 
superintend the cooking department — J. Twyman, William Orr, 
William Bridgford and Avory Grimes. 

CALIFORNIA EMIGRANTS. 

No doubt the desire for gold has been the mainspring of all pro- 
gress and enterprise in the county from the beginning till the present 
time, and Avill so continue to remote ages. Generally, however, this 
desire has been manifested in the usual avenues of thrift and industry. 
On one occasion it passed the bounds of reason and assumed the 
character of a mania. The gold fever first broke out in the fVdl of 
1848 when stories began to spread about of the wonderful richness 
of the placer mines in California. The excitement grew daily, feed- 
ing on the marvelous reports that came from the Pacific slope, and 
nothing was talked of but the achievements of gold diggers. The 
papers were replete with the most extravagant stories, and yet the 
excitement was so orreat that the 2;ravest and most incredulous men 
were smitten with the contagion and hurriedly left their homes and 
all that was dear to them on earth to try the dangers, difficulties and 
uncertainties of hunting gold. Day after day and month after month 
were the papers filled with glowing accounts of California. 

Instead of dying out, the fever rose higher and higher. It was too 
late in the fall of 1848 to cross the plains, but thousands of people in 
Missouri began their preparations for starting in the following spring. 
The one great sul)ject of discussion around the firesides that winter 
(1848) was the gold of California. It is said at one time the majority 
of the able-bodied men of the county were unsettled in mind, and were 
contemplating the trip to California. Even the most thoughtful and 
sober-minded found it most difficult to resist the infection. 

Wonderful sights were seen when the emigrants passed through — 
sights that may never be seen again in Monroe cou;ity. Some of the 
emigrant wagons were drawn by cows ; other gold hunters went on 
foot and hauled their worldly goods in hand-carts. Early in the 
spring the rush began. It must have been a scene to liego-ar descrip- 
tion. There was one continuous line of wagons from the Orient to 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 223 

the Occident, as far as the eye could reach, moving steadih' westward 
and, like a cyclone, drawing in its course on the right and left many 
of those along its path. The gold hunters of Monroe crowded eagerly 
into the gaps in the wagon trains, bidding farewell to their nearest 
and dearest friends, many of them never to be seen again on earth. 
Sadder farewells were never spoken. Many who went, left quiet and 
peaceful homes only to find in the " Far West " utter disappointment 
and death. 

Just how many persons went to California in 1849-50 from Monroe 
county cannot at this date be ascertained. It is supposed that the 
parties named below composed the majority of the emigrants from this 
county : — 

John Sears, Alexander Mackey, Hugh Glenn, Frank Buckner, 
William Buckner, Daniel Boon, Jefferson Wilcoxon, D. A. 
McKamey, James Bridgford, Jefferson Bridgford, George Waller, 
James Waller, Thomas McKamey, Dr. G. M. Bower, Waller 
Withers, William Withers, William Withers, James Glenn, James 
Hill, Wesley Hill, Stephen Hill, James H. Smith, Boon Helm, David 
Helm, Fleming Helm, Samuel Sproule, Samuel Gaines, George 
Kipper, Joseph Donaldson, Alexander Thompson, Joseph Thompson, 
John Thompson, John Poage, William Poage, Thomas Cleaver, 
Thompson Holliday, William Hollida}^ Marion Biggs, Thomas 
Farley, Green Featherstone, Charles Featherstone, William Arm- 
strong, Thomas Reavis, David Reavis, William Williams, Curren 
Foreman, Edline Chapman, David Heninger, Joseph Heninger, 
Thomas Dry, Benjamin Davis, Hiram Collins, John M. Bates, Saul 
Threlkeld, Jesse Allen, Harrison Williamson, Will Sparks, John Goe, 
George Goe, Isaac Stalcup, George Bondurant, Vincent Worland, 
James Worland, Zimmerman Zigler, Malk Ashcraft, Adam Heckart, 
James Gough, James Lasley, William Gibson, David Craig, David 
Major, William Gilbert, Frank Williamson, Gose McBroom, Thomas 
Maupin, Taylor Barton, William Fitzpatrick, William Greenwell, Dr. 
M. Gough. 

INCIDENT. 

While the emigrants were passing through the county the following 
incident occurred : A large, burly looking fellow was driving an 
ox team through the principal street in Paris. He was attempting to 
read all the names of the business men as he passed along, but, being 
an uneducated man, he had to spell each name out slowlv and then 
pronounce it. He came to the name of Heitz — Dr. Heitz — and 



226 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

began to spell it — H-e-i-t-z, but before he pronounced the name he 
exclaimed, "Dutchman, by G — d!" Dr. Heitz happened to be 
standing in his office door at the time, and it is said enjoyed the matter 

exceedingly. 

[From Paris Mercury.] 

We are indebted to Mr. David A. McKamey, who has just returned 
from California, for the following list of persons who have emigrated 
from Monroe and died in that country. We truly S3'mpathize with 
those who have received the sad intelligence of the death of their 
friends and relatives who have died in the distant region : — 

Emigration of 1849. — Thomas Blane, Isaac Martin, Albert Arm- 
strong, Thomas Tyson, Tate Packwood, John W. Graves, F. Helm, 
Thomas Glasscock, Milton Vincent, James Ferguson, Thomtis Green- 
ing, Dr. Williams, Hickman, William T. Marr and Vincent 

Worldling. 

Emigration of 1850. — JohnF. Bryant, Thomas Ridgway, Thomas 

Poague, John Saling, Deavers, John Sidner, Franklin Moore, 

Andrew Kippers, George Sheppard, Broaddus, Joseph Smith, 

— Neal, Alvin Musset, Shelt, colored boy ; colored boy, name Shrop- 
shire. 

The above was published soon after 1850. 

THE CIVIL yVAB, OF 1861. 

When the first gun was fired upon Fort Sumpter (April 12, 1861), 
little did the citizens of the remote county of Monroe dream that the 
war which was then inaugurated would eventually, like the simultan- 
eous disemboguement of a hundred volcanoes, shake this great nation 
from its center to its circumference. 

Little did they then dream that the smoke of the bursting shells, 
which hurtled and hissed as they sped with lurid glare from rebel bat- 
teries upon that fatal morning, foreboded ravaged plains — 

"Aad burning towns and ruined homes, 
And mangled limbs and dying groans, 
And widows' tears and orphans' moans, 
And all that misery's hand bestows 
To fill the catalogue of human woes." 

Little did they dream that the war cloud which had risen above the 
waters of Charleston harbor would increase in size and gloom until 
its black banners had been unfurled throughout the length and breadth 
of the land. 

Little did they imagine that war, with all its horrors, would invade 
their quiet homes, and with ruthless hand tear away from their fireside 
altars their dearest and most cherished idols. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 227 

Could the North and the South have foreseen the results of that in- 
ternecine strife, there would be to-day hundreds of thousands of hap- 
pier homes in the land, hundreds of thousands less hillocks in our 
cemeteries, hundreds of thousands less widows, hundreds of thousands 
less orphans, no unpleasant memories, and no legacies of hatred and 
bitterness left to rankle in the breasts of the living, who espoused the 
fortunes of the opposing forces. 

All that transpired during that memorable struggle would fill a large 
volume. Monroe county, as did the State of Missouri generally, suff- 
ered much. Her territory was nearly all the time occupied by either 
one or the other antagonistic elements, and her citizens were called 
upon to contribute to the support of first one side and then the other. 
However much we might desire to enter into the details of the war, 
we could not do so, as the material for such a history is not at hand. 
Indeed, were it even possible to present the facts as they occurred, 
we doubt the propriety of doing so, as we would thereby reopen the 
wounds which have partially been healed by the flight of time and the 
hope of the future. It were better, perhaps, to let the passions and the 
deep asperities which were then engendered, and all that serves to re- 
mind us of that unhappy period, be forgotten. We have tried in vain 
to obtain the number and names of the men who entered the Confed- 
erate, army from Monroe county. No record of them has ever been 
preserved", either by the officers who commanded the men or by the 
Confederate government. 

It is supposed about 600 men went into the Southern army. Hon. 
Theodore Brace raised the first company at Paris for State guards, 
numbering about 70 men. These men went into camp on Elk fork of 
Salt rivert six miles south of Paris. After being in the service six 
months they were discharged, when some of them entered the Southern 
army at the battle of Lexington. 

THE BATTLE AT MONROE CITY. 

The only engagement that took place in Monroe county du ring the 
Civil War of 1861 where cannons were used was the fight at Monroe 
City. The following is a full and true account of the same as given 
by eye-witnesses, and those who participated in the engagement : — 

"The war clouds hovering over North-east Missouri grew blacker and 
blacker, and the rumblings of the battle thundered louder and louder, 
and at last the storm broke. 

Hon. Thomas A. Harris, the representative of this county in the 
Legislature, had been appointed brigadier-general in the Missouri 



228 HISTORY OF MONllOE COUNTY. 

Stiite Guard by Gov. Jackson under the military bill, and had estab- 
lished his headquarters first at Paris, and nex. at Florida, Monroe 
county, whither all the companies of the State Guard in this district 
or division (the 2d) were ordered to repair. About the 16th of June 
Capt. R. E. Dunn's company, near Philadelphia, of this county, took 
up the line of march for this rendezvous. 

Capt. Dunn's men were well organized, disciplined and drilled. 
They were uniformed and armed with muskets purchased the previous 
fall from the Palmyra military company, and presented a fine, soldierly 
appearance. Arriving at Paris, the men from Marion were mistaken 
for Federal troops, and it is said quite a panic and fright ensued 
among Harris and his men. 

The State Guard companies flocked to Gen. Harris in such num- 
bers that by the 5th of July he had probably 500 men in his camp 
near Florida. By their scouts and spies the Federal military com- 
manders were informed of his doings, and Col. Chester Harding at 
St. Louis, under authority from Gen. Lyon, ordered Col. Smith, of 
the Sixteenth Illinois, to march upon him and his fellow secessionist* 
and break up their camp. Smith had himself reinforced at Palmyra 
by four companies of the Third Iowa, one company of the Hannibal 
Home Guards, a piece of artillery, a six-pounder and got ready for 
the work. 

On Monday evening, July 8, Col. Smith marched from Palmyra 
against Tom Harris. His force consisted of Companies A, F, H andK, 
ofthe Third Iowa Infantry ; Companies F and H, of the Sixteenth Illi- 
nois ; Capt. Loomis' company of the Hannibal Home Guards ; the six- 
pounder cannon — in all about 500 men, or not more than 600. The 
expedition Avent per rail to Monroe City, where it arrived in an hour 
and disembarked. It was intended to make a night march on Florida, 
about 12 miles a little west of south of Monroe, and attack Harris' 
camp at daylight, but a severe storm coming up prevented this plan — 
as perhaps it should not have done. 

Tuesday morning (after his men had informed half the people of 
their destination) Col. Smith, with his entire command, not leaving 
even a guard at Monroe City to protect the town, the train and his 
stores of provision and ammunition, set out towards Florida to encoun- 
ter Gen. Harris. As Monroe City is situated in the midst of an ex- 
tensive prairie which stretches miles away in all directions, and as the 
troops were all infantry and marched slowly, their progress could be 
noted for hours, and ample preparation made on the part of the seces- 
r^ionists to receive them, especially as 10 hours' notice had been given 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 229 

of their approach. Passing out of the prairie through the " Swinkey 
Hills " the Federal troops reached the farm of Robert Hagar,^ three or 
four miles north of Florida. Here in the thick timber and brush, 
and on the top of an eminence known as Hager's Hill, they encount- 
ered perhaps 50 secessionists under Capt. Clay Price, who had been 
sent out by Gen. Harris to reconnoiter. These at once, and without 
warning, opened fire from their ambush at close range, severely 
wounding Capt. McAllister and two privates (one named Prentiss) of 
the Sixteenth Illinois, slightly wounding a private of the Third Iowa, 
and killing the horse under Adjt. Woodall, of the Sixteenth. 

The fire was returned and the Missourians retreated, leavins: one 
man mortally wounded, aijd perhaps half a dozen horses. This affair 
took place about four o'clock in the afternoon. Not caring to go on, 
and not daring to retreat through certain bodies of timber in the night 
on his way back to Monroe, Col. Smith went into camp on Hagar's 
farm, near the scene of the fight. 

During the afternoon and night of the 9th, Col. Smith learned that 
he had stirred up a hornet's nest, and that the secessionists were 
swarming all about him, — that they had gotten in his rear and were 
playing havoc at Monroe City, and their numbers were constantly 
increasing. Early on Wednesday morning, the 10th, he began his re- 
treat to Monroe City. On the " Swinkey Hills" his advance guard 
was attacked, but no serious damage done. Emers^ino; from the tim- 
ber north of " Swinkey" or Elizabethtown, and coming in sight of 
Monroe, the Federals discovered the station-house, out-buildings, six 
passenger coaches, and ten or a dozen freight cars in flames. The 
Missourians, Capt. Owen's company, could be seen a mile away to the 
left, or west, w^atching the fire and the Federals. Col. Smith opened 
on them with his cannon and fired half a dozen or more round shots 
at them, one of which, it is said, killed a horse. 

The station-house and train had been fired by 100 mounted seces- 
sionists, under command of Capt. John L. Owen, of Warren town- 
ship, Marion county. The value of the cars destroyed was placed by 
the railroad company at $22,000; the station-house and contents, 
aside from the government stores, $18,000. The value of government 
property taken and destroyed was considerable. The same morning 
the train from Hannibal was fired on a few miles east of Monroe, it is 
said, by some of Capt. Owen's men and by his orders. The engineer 
was slightly wounded by a rifle ball in the arm. 



1 Killed at the battle of Kirksville while serving as captain under Col. Jo. Porter. 



230 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Reaching the town, and finding himself surrounded, Col. Smith 
marched his men into a fine large two-stor}^ brick academy building in 
the place known as the ".Seminary, " took full possession of it and 
the grounds adjoining, around which he began throwing up breast- 
works, having dispatched a messenger to the nearest telegraph office 
to ask for reinforcements. 

Meantime the greatest excitement had arisen in the surrounding 
c6untry, the news that 500 or 600 Yankees were " holed up " or 
"treed up" at Monroe spread like wild-fire. Hundreds of persons 
living within TO or 12 miles of the scene, roused by the messen- 
gers that went galloping over the country, by order of Gen. Harris, 
mounted horses and rode to the "battle," some actuated by mere 
curiosity, others determined to participate in the fight. 

By noon Gen. Harris had collected around him probably 1,000 eflfec- 
tive men, who were reasonably well armed and were eager to take a 
pop at the cooped-up Federals. His skirmishers crawled up as close 
to the academy building as they dared, and fired away at the windows 
and breastworks very briskly, with but little effect, however. The 
Union troops returned the fire at every good opportunity. The main 
portion of Harris' forces were at a safe distance, watching their ene- 
mies and taking pains that they should not escape. 

The night of the 10th, Gen. Harris sent off for a cannon, the nine 
pounder which had been cast by Clever & Mitchell, of Hannibal, for 
Drescher's artillery company, and which was then hidden under a hay- 
stack on the farm of Blair Todd, a few miles north of Palmyra. The 
messengers dispatched for it were George W. Brashears and George 
Milton, of Owen's company, who had assisted in hiding the piece, as 
well as another six-pounder and a lot of balls. The six-pounder and 
the balls were under a pile of cord wood a mile west of Palmyra. The 
six-pounder was not mounted. The nine-pounder was serviceable, 
and with this Gen. Harris hoped to compel the Federals to surrender, 
or else batter down the buildino; and tumble the walls about their ears. 
That night a close watch was kept on the besieged that they did not 
make either a bold sortie or a stealthy attempt to escape. 

Thursday, the 14th, the cannon came to the great delight of the 
Secessionists, and the bombardment beo;an about 1 o'clock. A'stran- 
ger from Ohio was chief gunner. There were only a few nine-pound 
balls and these were soon shot away. Nothing was then left for use 
but the smaller balls, and artillery practice with six-pound balls from 
a nine-pound gun was not certain to be accurate. Some amusino- in- 
cidents were narrated of the cannonading by Capt. Kneisley's o-un. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 231 

It was said that the only safe pUice within its range when discharged 
was only immediately in front of it. One shot, it is stated, struck 
ill the road 30 feet from the muzzle of the gun, and ricocheted over to 
the left a quarter of a mile, struck a blacksmith shop and dispersed a 
crowd of Secessionists, who fled in dismay, declaring they could not 
stand to be fired on by their own men and the Yankees too ! The 
academy was struck but a few times and no serious damage done. 
One shot struck the casing of a window in the upper story, damaging 
the wall and window and passing on through two brick partitions, 
knocking holes 10 inches in diameter and finally fiilling on the floor. 

Another passed through a door and a partition wall in the lower 
story ; a third struck the stone foundation ; one shot passed through 
the breastwork, but did no injury. In the meanwhile the number of 
Missourians gathered around had increased to 1200 or 1500, many of 
whom were not warriors pro tern, but mere spectators who had come to 
see " the fun." Even ladies and children had ridden up in carriages and 
wagons, and seated in their conveyances under the shade of parasols 
and umbrellas, watched the battle, the first perhaps ever graced by 
the presence of the fair sex, out of deference to whose sensibilities it 
is to be presumed the occasion was made as bloodless as possible. 

It was a sort of picnic or holiday and while it lasted nothing 
occurred to mar the enjoyment of the occasion. Not a man was 
killed or badly wounded on either side by an enemy's ball. Gen. 
Harris was a great speech-maker. Where two or three were gath- 
ered together and he in the midst, he would, it is declared, mount the 
nearest elevation and proceed to orate. He could not let this occa- 
sion pass without making one of his noblest efl'orts. At noon on 
Thursday he assembled some of his troops and addressed them. His 
cannon had not yet arrived he told them and without it he could not 
take the academy unless at the sacrifice of many noble lives. He fur- 
ther said a large reinforcement for Col. Smith was hourly looked for 
and he thought the best thing that could be done under the circumstan- 
ces was to retreat. He then directed his troops to disperse, repair to 
their encampments and await orders. This, however, they refused to 
do. Then the cannon came up amid great cheering and the fight was 
resumed, without a leader really on the part of the Secessionists, 
every man fighting " on his own hook." 

Meanwhile Col. Robert Smith was not a little disturbed at the situ- 
ation. He had unwisely allowed the greater part of his ammunition to 
be captured or destroyed and he had but a few cannon balls or shells 
or other artillery ammunition, and so his six-pounder was not of much 

10 



232 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

service. He saved his ammunition in expectation of an assault, by fir- 
ing bolt pins gathered from the ashes of the burnt railroad cars. True, 
his enemies were doinsr him no damage. Out of 25 or more of their 
cannon shots, only three had hit the building', and the shot-guns and 
squirrel rifles could avail but little against strong breastworks and 
brick walls. Yet he feared that another and a more efficient piece of 
artillery might be brought up, and that Gen. Harris' already large 
force would be made larger, before his own reinforcements could be 
brought up. Gen. Harris failed to tear up the railroad track east and 
west of the town, as thoroughly as he could have done, and as he had 
no force in either direction, there was nothing to prevent the arrival 
of reinforcements for Col. Smith from either Quincy, Hannibal or 
Hudson, at all of which points it was known that Federal troops were 
stationed. True, Salt river bridge, to the west 10 miles, had been 
burned, but a transfer could easily be made and the distance soon 
compassed. 

At last they came. 

At about half past 4 o'clock, a train was seen slowly approaching 
from the east, and as it came well in view, it was discovered to be 
crowded with Federal soldiers and upon a flat car a brass cannon 
gleamed ominously in the slanting rays of the declining sun. The be- 
leaguered Federals sent up a loud cheer ; the cannon on the car opened 
with grape and Gen. Harris and his troops, to use an expression com- 
mon in the Civil War, skedaddled inshort order, or rather in no order 
at all. Eye-witnesses describe the scene as highly ludicrous. Many 
of the would-be soldiers hid their guns and sought safety in the car- 
riages with the women and the children. Others galloped wildly 
away. The prairie was covered with buggies, carriages, wagons, 
horsemen and footmen — all fleeing for dear life, and becoming more 
te 'or-stricken every rod they traversed. The majority of the State 
guards, however, retreated in good order to the westward and north- 
ward, carrying off their cannon, which was hidden that night and for 
some days in the timber a few miles north of the town and west of 
Santy Calverts. Capt. Owen took off" his company without much con- 
fusion and disorder. The Federal reinforcement proved to be Cos. 
A, B and D of the Sixteenth Illinois, under Maj. Hays of that regi- 
ment, accompanied by a nine-pound field piece manned by volunteer 
artillerists. The whole force numbered about 275 men and had come 
from Palmyra and Hannibal to relieve their comrades and commander 
from their predicament. While these events were progressing, the 
most painful and exaggerated reports and rumors were flying through 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 233 

the country, reaching not only Palmyra and Hannibal, but Quincy, 
Springfield, Chicago, and even New York and Washington. One re- 
port was, that a desperate battle was taking place at Monroe City, 
and that Col. Smith's regiment had been surrounded and was being cut 
to pieces. The Fourteenth Illinois, Col. John M. Palmer (afterwards 
Major-General and subsequently Governor of the State), and the 21st 
Illinois, Col. U. S. Grant (afterwards Lieutenant-General, etc.), and 
other Illinois troops, in camp at Springfield and Quincy, were ordered 
to the rescue. Palmer reached Monroe City on the morning of the 12th 
and remained two days, returning to Quincy. Grant came up a day 
later and went to Mexico. By Friday morning 2,000 Union troops, 
infantry, cavalry, and artillery, had reached Palmyra on their way to 
the scene of war. 

One body of reinforcements for Col. Smith, under ex-Governor 
Wood, of Illinois, came from Quincy down the river and landed at 
Marion City, and thence marched to Palmyra and on to Monroe. The 
old warehouse at Marion City had been burned a few days before. 
About 1,200 troops started from St. Joseph on the 11th and were 
joined at Hudson (or Macon City) by 700 more. These were 
detained, however, by the burning of Salt river bridge, which locality 
they reached on the 12th. The evening of the 11th the greater por- 
tion of Smith's command, including some of those who had been in 
the seminary, returned to Palmyra. Federal troops soon scattered. 
Grant and Palmer went down on the North Missouri. The Iowa 
troops from St. Joseph returned and Col. Smith remained in this 
quarter. 

Gen. Thomas Harris with a portion of his command went southward 
in the direction of Jefferson City. Near Fulton, Callaway county, he 
was dispersed by a regiment of Home Guards, under Col. John 
McNeil, in an affair that was known as " the Fulton races." In a* "^ew 
days quiet was restored ; trains were running regularly over the road 
by the 18th, transferring at Salt river for a few days until the bridge 
was built. A day or two after the affair at Monroe the Federals 
burned the residence of Capt. John L. Owen and seized a number of 
horses and mules and a laro:e lot of bacon belonofins: to him. This 
was done, as was claimed, in retaliation for his destruction of the 
railroad property at Monroe. 

During the fight at Monroe two or three of Smith's men were 
slightly wounded. Of the secessionists, one man was killed by the 
accidental discharge of his own gun, and another had three fingers shot 
ofl'. Another had a valuable horse killed, and one poor watch-dog, a 



\ 



234 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

non-combutaiit, lost his life by a stray shot. After Gen. Harris had 
ordered the Missoiirians to disperse, the daughter of a prominent citi- 
zen of Marion county, living near Marion City, approached within 100 
yards of the Federal breastworks, cheered for Jeif Davis, and urged 
the secessionists to charge the academy and drive " the Hessians " 
out. Her father and two brothers were in^ the State Guard at the 
time. 

Capt. McAllister and the other men wounded at the " Hagar Hill" 
fight were taken to Palmyra, and Capt. McAllister was given quarters 
at George Lane's hotel — the Overton House. 

Following is Col. Smith's official report to Gen. Lyon : — 

''Headquarters 16th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, 
Monroe Station, Mo., July 14, 1861. 

Sir : In accordance with your order, on the 8th of this month I 
left my headquarters at Palmyra, Mo., with Cos. F and H of 
the Sixteenth Illinois regiment, and Cos. A, F, Hand K of the Third 
Iowa regiment, and Co. A of Hannibal Home Guards, and one 
six-pounder and proceeded to this place. A heavy rain storm coming 
on retarded our further progress. Early on the morning of the 9th I 
started out in search of the rebel force under Harris. At 4 o'clock 
p. m. when about 12 miles south of Monroe, our advance guard was 
fired into by the enemy, concealed in a clump of timber and brush, 
the first volley severely wounding Capt. McAllister of Co. G, 
Fifteenth Illinois regiment, also Private Prentiss of Co. A, same 
regiment, and slightly wounding a private of an Oliio regiment. I 
immediately ordered a charge and drove the enemy from their cover. 
As they were all mounted it was impossible to follow them further 
with advantage. We found one of their men mortally wounded and 
have reason to believe several more were shot who were carried off by 
their friends, and captured several horses, saddles and bridles. 

We made camp near this place for the night. On the morning of 
the 10th, having heard rumors of trouble at Monroe station, moved 
my command back. On coming in sight of Monroe found the station, 
out-houses, 17 passenger and freight cars and other railroad property 
in flames and found the enemy collected to the number of 300 to 400 
on our left. On nearing them they began to move off, when I brought 
forward the field piece and sent a few round shots into their ranks, 
Scattering them in all directions. The only damage done here that I 
know of was one horse killed. After coming into Monroe I took 
possession of a brick building known as the Seminary and enclosed 
grounds adjoining, its position answering my purpose for defense if 
necessary and the apartments good quarters for the men who were 
without tents. During the day we made several advances on the 
enemy without being able to get near enough to do much damage. 

On the morning of the 11th the enemy began to collect from all 
quarters, and by noon we were surrounded by from 1,500 to 2,000 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 235 

« 

men. At 1 o'clock p. m., they opened fire upon us from one nine and 
one six-pounder,^ at a distance" of about a mile. Their firing was very 
inaccurate, only three shots out of the first 27 strikinir the building, 
and they did very little damage, my men being well covered by a 
breastwork they had thrown up. After throwing their first six shots, 
they moved their cannon some 400 yards nearer and opened fire. 1 
immediately answered with the six-pounder, dismounting their smaller 
o-un, (?) which made a general scattering, and caused them to carry 
their nine-pounder to a safer distance. Their firing from this time had 
little or no etfect 

Much credit is due Capt. Fritz, of Co. F, Sixteenth regiment, for 
the able manner with which he led his men throughout our little expe- 
dition. Also to gunner Fishbourn, who planted his shot among them 
every time, but who had to deal sparingly, as he was almost out of 
shot^ when we were relieved. I was much pleased with the officers 
and men generally, for their coolness and obedience to orders 
throughout. 

At 4 :30 o'clock p. m., of the Uth, a train was seen coming from the 
east with reinforcements. It proved to be Maj. Hays, of my regi- 
ment, with Cos. D,B, and A, of the Sixteenth Illinois, and one nine- 
pounder field piece. The enemy now began to move ofi* and by dark 
had left the field entirely, since which time they have been skulking 
about the country in squads, burning wood-piles, small bridges and 
culverts, when opportunity oflers of doing so without danger. On 
the morning of the 12th, we were again reinforced by Col. Palmer's 
Fourteentirregiment, which returned to Quincy to-day, leaving us in a 
worse position than ever, with the exception that we have more 
ammunition. Col. Palmer brought two brass field pieces with him 
which he took away. Something of the kind would be very accepta- 
ble here just now, as there is a sUght probability of their being use- 
ful. 

I have the honor to be your obedient servant. - 

Robert F. Smith. 

To Brig. -Gen. Lyon. 

CAPTURE OF PARIS. 

Wednesday, July 30, 1862, a few days after the battle of Morris 
Mill in Callaway county, Col. Joseph Porter, coming north into Marion, 
Lewis and other counties, sent Joseph Thompson with a force of men 
who captured Paris. The county officials and a few Union citizens 
were arrested and paroled. Porter came up that night with 400 men, 
and after remaining a few hours left town, going north. 

1 The Confederates had no six-pounders. 

•^ History Marion County, from page 381 to page 389, inclusive. 



236 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



GRANT S EXPEDITION VS. COL. TOM HARRIS. 

The first service in the field (Civil War) performed by Gen. U. S. 
Grant was from Hunnewell to Florida against Col. Harris. (For 
particulars, see history of Shelby county.) 

During the time of Porter's raid, and while the Federals occupied 
Paris, the Mercury suspended — the Union soldiers took possession of 
the office and published (one issue) a red-hot radical paper. 

SKIRMISH NEAR ELLIOTT's MILLS. 

In the early spring of 1862, a band of men under Marion Marma- 
duke were routed near Elliott's Mills, on Salt river above Stoutsville, 
by a company of the Eleventh Missouri State Militia, commanded by 
John F. Benjamin, of Shelby county. The lieutenant and four men 
were captured. Marmaduke leaped his horse over a high bank, swam 
Salt river and escaped. Lieut. Rowland Harvey was taken to Shelby- 
ville and in a few days shot in retaliation for some Unionists killed by 
bushwhackers. (See history of Shelby county.) 

FLORIDA FIGHT. 

July 22, 1862, 400 Confederates under Col. Joseph Porter met 
50 men of the Third Iowa Cavalry, under Col. H. C. Caldwell (now U. 
S. Judge, Eastern District of Arkansas), at Florida. The Confeder- 
ates were returning South from Knox county and met the Federal 
soldiers unexpectedly. A fight ensued. The Federals lost six men, 
killed and wounded — the Confederates, one killed and three wounded. 
The Federals retreated to Paris and the Confederates went south. 

BOTTS' BLUFF FIGHT. 

A few days after the Florida engagement. Col. Porter and the Third 
Iowa Cavalry met again on the farm of Mr. Botts, near Santa Fe, when 
another fight ensued, with a loss to the Federals of one killed and three 
wounded and to the Confederates of one killed and three wounded. 

About May 6, 1862, Lieut. Theodore Brooks, Co. F, Ninth Cavalry, 
Missouri State Militia (Guitar's Regiment), had a scouting party in the 
southern part of Monroe, near Santa Fe. The party was staying at a 
house all night. Confederates heard of them, resolved to take them 
in — capture horses, etc. Made attack ; alarm given ; soldiers ran out at 
stable lot. Lieut. Brooks was shot by one of his own men (Sergt. W. 
W. Conger, of Centralia, who was killed in boiler explosion a few 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 237 

weeks ago ) , and died soon after. It was dark and Conger thought that 
Brooks was a Confederate. Brooks was from Columbia, a gallant and 
talented fellow. 

THE FIGHT AT PARIS. 

On the afternoon of October 15, 1864, at about the hour of three 
o'clock, the Confederate soldiers numbering about 500 men, under 
the command of Col. McDonald, entered the town of Paris from the 
west, in hot haste, with whoofDS and yells. Col. McDonald's object 
was to capture a company of militia, numbering 60 or 70 men, in 
charge of Capt. William E. Fowkes. Capt. Fowkes and his com- 
pany were, at the time, quartered at the Glenn House. The Confed- 
erates at once attacked the building containing the militia, their fire 
being returned in a spirited manner. After firing at each other at 
intervals from three p. m. to six p. m., Capt. Fowkes with his com- 
pany surrendered. The Confederates had kindled a fire under a frame 
building, which stood where the Masonic Hall building now stands, 
and this being connected by other frame buildings with the Glenn 
House, they thus expected to set fire to the latter. This fact being 
made known to Capt. Fowkes, and at the same time a flag of truce 
from Col. McDonald, being borne by Mrs. Fowkes, the Captain's 
wife, who was ushered into his presence, induced him to surrender. 
His men were all ^aaroled, only one person in either command was 
hurt, — a man by the name of Mills, in Capt. Fowkes' company, 
receiving a slight wound. 

MAJ. A. V. E. JOHNSON. 

It was from Paris that Maj. A. V. E. Johnson started (September 
26, 1864,) with detachments of Cos. A, G and H, Thirty-ninth Mis- 
souri, in pursuit of Bill Anderson, George Todd, John Thrailkill, et al. 
The next day, September 27th, the fight occurred near Centralia, 
where Johnson and 122 of his men were killed. 

CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS. 

Capt. Preston Adams, Thomas H. Adams, S. W. Adams, E. M. 
Anderson, Evan Anderson, J. W. Atterberry, Charles I. Allen, Wal- 
ter Ashby, J. W. Arnold, William Brown, John Bryant, George 
Bounds, Crockett Bovver, killed ; Col. Theodore Brace, R. T. Bridge- 
ford, G. M. Bower, James Bower, dead; A. J. Bower, killed ; Henry 
Bell, Edwin Bassett, William Bassett, dead ; Green Bodkins, B. B. Bod- 
kins, Jeremiah Baker, J.K. P. Bozarth, Isaac Beauchamp, John Bridge- 
ford, William Bridgeford, James T. Ball, Henry Bryant, Richard Bry- 



238 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ant, J. O. Coats, G. W. Cro\v, Capt. James P. Crow, Robert Carver, 
Samuel Crutcher, J. Q. Carry, G. M. Curry, R. E. Caldwell, J. R. 
Chauiiing, John C. Combs, John S. Combs, James T. Combs, Man- 
less Curry, Preston Combs, killed ; Isaac Coppage, O. F. Chancey, S. 
Coppage, John Cleaver, Edward Callaway, Jacob Clayton, dead ; James 

A. Dye, John T. Dry, Thomas P. Dawson, B. F. Dowell, 
V. P. Davis, William Davis, John S. Drake, Henry Daniel, 

B. M. Eli, Singleton Evans, A. K. Edwards, James Edwards, J. M." 
Edwards, H. M. Eaton, S. B. Fitzpatrick, Joel A. Foster, Duck 
Fletcher, L. M. Farrell, William M. Farrell, Joseph M. Farrell, Rich- 
ard Farrell, N. B. Farrell, W. S. Forsyth, John Fox, Charles B. 
Grant, W. B. Giddings, Joshua Goodnight, P. H. Goodnight, J. R. 
Grove, A. H. Gvvyn, J, W. Gillespie, dead ; George T. Goe, dead ; 
William Goe, dead ; E. Grigsby, Chilton Gosney, B. F. Hickman, 
James Hulen, Henry Howard, Joseph Howard, chaplain ; Benjamin 
Houtchens, dead; J. H. Harp, J. R. Hanger, C. W. Hanger, John T. 
Hickey, Benjamin N. Harvin, Joseph Hersman, C. E. Holtzclaw, Frank 
Holtzclaw, Capt. W. H. Holliday, Capt. W. G. Hastings, David Hol- 
lingsworth, Al. Hamilton, Gus, Holtzclaw, dead; E. C. Hedden, 
Henry C. Horn, W. C. Horn, E. E. Hickok, Sylvester Hagan, Dud. 
Hagan, J. E. Horn, Samuel Jarber, Nathan King, Joseph Klumph, 
J. D. Kerlin, William Keugh, James E. Lanhan, Thad. Leake, J. M. 
Moore, R. T. Moore, Thomas Moore, killed ; Thomas McBride, John 
McDowell, dead; Rice Maupin, J. R. Moredock, J. B. Morris, Tip. 
Mordens, killed ; Capt. E. D. Major, W. H. Major, James I. Major, 
H. H. Maupin, J. H. Maupin, James E. McLeod, J. D. Mitch- 
ell, John Meadows, E. McGee, James A. McGee, S. H. Mor- 
rison, dead; Thomas Meals, William Noel, S. H. Nave, F. L. 
Pitts, Col. L. A. Piudall, B. F. Power, Hugh Pollard, killed; James 
L. Pollard, B. D. Pollard, Peter Powell, Robert F. Parsons, James 
Pogue, Robert Pogue, W. L. Penn, Silas M. Rodgers, John P. Ruda- 
cill, Philip H. Rudacill, John Rigsby, W. W. Roberson, James Rouse, 
dead; James Raney, Thomas Reavis, E. W. Smith, Robert Swinney, 
William Sparks, killed; Thomas Siduer, killed ; Hugh Stewart, T. B. 
Sprowl, R. H. Smithey, S. W. Smithey, J. E. Smiser, W. E. Smiser, 
Thomas Smiser, T. J. C. Smith, Thomas Sparks, E. P. Snell, Joseph 
Stephens, Albert Shortridgo, William Smith, Walker Stewart, Stephen 
Scobee, Thomas Terrill, Capt. Joseph Thompson, Richard Trussell, J. 
N. Turner, Singleton Thompson, John Tread way, dead ; Neal Turner, 
Richard Thompson, William Utterback, Owen Utterback, John 
Vaughn, dead; Frank Vaughn, Clayton Vivian, Al. Vandeventer, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 239 

Charles Willis, Daniel Waltz, Daniel Woodward, B. T. Welch, killed ; 
S. G. Woodson, John Williams, N. Williams, Capt. B. F. White, 
W. H. Wigginton, G. W. Waller, John M. Wood, Capt. T. V. Wil- 
son, Samuel Wooldridge, W. Wright, Henry White, Thomas White, 
John White, Thomas Woods, Nat Wood, Joseph White. 

UNION SOLDIERS. 

Up to December 31, 1863, Monroe county had furnished 41 men 
for the regular United States service ; in the Missouri State Militia, 38. 

Under calls previous to December 19, 1864, Monroe county furn- 
ished 474, being 7 more than her quota. Under call of December 19, 
1864, the county furnished 134. There was no deficiency under the 
draft. 




CHAPTER XV. 

RAILROADS. 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas and the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroads. 

Man is so constituted that in order to make any appreciable progress 
in prosperity and intelligence he must live in a state of civil society. 
One's wants are so diverse and innumerable, and the physical con- 
ditions of the country in which he lives so varied, that he can not 
possibly supply his needs, either by his individual exertions or from 
the products of any one district of country. Hence, trade and com- 
merce become necessities. One, with given talents and aptitudes, in 
certain territorial conditions, produces to the best advantage a partic- 
ular class of commodities in excess of what he needs, whilst he is able 
to produce only at great disadvantage, or not at all, other commodities 
quite as needful to him as the first ; another produces these needed 
commodities in excess of what he personally requires, but none of 
those which the industry of his neighbor yields. Thus springs up 
trade between the two, and to the advantage of both. As with indi- 
viduals, so with communities and peoples. Nations can not live and 
prosper independent of each other any more than families can live 
independent of their neighbors and prosper. So that, as prosperity 
constitutes the foundation of human progress and civilization, and 
■ince this can not be attained except by means of trade and commerce, 
these become the indispensable conditions to advancement in material 
affairs and in intellig-ence. 

But neither trade nor commerce can flourish without practicable, 
efficient means of transportation. Products must be carried to the 
place of demand at a cost that will leave the producer just compensa- 
tion for his toil after they are delivered and sold and the cost of 
carriage paid. Hence, an adequate means of transportation — meaus 
sufficiently cheap and expeditious — becomes a matter of the first 
importance. Without some such system communities can not be built 
up or be made to flourish. So we see that in earlier times, and even 
yet, where regions of country were and are not thus favored, they 
have been and still are either uninhabited or peopled by semi- 
civilized or barbarous populations. Take the map of the Old World 
(240) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 241 



and scan it; it more than justifies what is here said. In the past 
most, and, indeed, all of the more advanced nations inhabited regions 
of country washed by the seas, or drained by navigable rivers or other 
inland waters. Navigation afforded and still affords to such countries, 
to a measurable degree, at least, the means of transportation required 
for their prosperity and advancement. But the interior, or regions 
far removed from navigation, remained either unpeopled, or in a savage 
or tribal state. So such regions, not penetrated by railways, remain 
to-day, as, for instance, the non-navigable districts of India and Russia 
and other countries. 

The problem of meeting this desideratum of transportation into 
non-navigable regions, which constitute a large portion of the best 
lands of^'the globe, came to be looked upon in early times as, and 
continued up to our own time, one of the greatest with which man- 
kind had to deal. In every country were vast regions with every 
other advantage for supporting prosperous and enlightened commu- 
nities which, on account of their want of transportation facilities, were 
valueless, or worse than valueless — the homes of wild and warlike 
tribes. As more enlightened and progressive peoples sought to ex- 
tend themselves into those regions, the effort was made to supply 
their want of transportation facilities by means of canals, which were 
constructed on quite an extensive scale in some, and, indeed, in most 
of the leading countries of Europe. But the districts of country 
through which canals could be constructed were, of course, compara- 
tively small, and the great problem of interior transportation so far 
as non-navigable regions were concerned, continued open and to 
attract the thought and experiment of the best minds of all countries 
and of every age. At last Stephens' experiment, in 1825, solved the 

great problem. 

It is beyond question that no invention of the present century, and 
perhaps of all time, has proved so beneficial to, and mighty in its 
influence upon the material affiirs of mankind, if not for the general 
proo-ress of the human race, as that of land transportation by steam, 
as I'epresented in our present railway system. An eminent French 
writer has said that "the railway trebled the area of the mhabitab e 
clobe " It has not only brought and is bringing vast regions hith- 
erto valueless under the dominion of civilized man, but has quickened 
and is quickening every movement of humanity in the onward march 
of civilization. Wonderful as have been its results in the develop- 
ment and civilization of our own continent, results at which the world 
stands struck with astonishment and admiration ; wonderful as have 



242 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

been its results elsewhere, and wherever it has penetrated, its achieve- 
ments in the past,, compared to what it is destined to accomplish in 
the future, are as the dust that floats in the air to the suns that people 
the infinity of space. 

The railway has been chiefly instrumental in transforming the wilds 
of this country into great and prosperous States, and in placing the 
American Union in the front rank of the great nations of the earth. 
Speaking of this, in an article in the February number (1884) of the 
Nineteentli Century, in which he strongly urges the establishment of 
an extensive railway system in India, as the surest means of develop- 
ing the natural resources of that magnificent country, Hon. William 
Fowler, Member of Parliament for Cambridge, says : " But if encour- 
agement be needed, it is well to consider what has been done on the 
other side of the Atlantic. Before the railway came to Illinois, it was 
little more than a prairie. In a very few years its produce doubled, 
and now it stands as one of the first producing States of the Union, 
and can point to Chicago as an evidence of its progress. It is diflicult 
to imagine what would have been its present condition had not the rail- 
way come to its aid. Missouri had much facility of water carriage, 
but its progress was very slow until railways traversed it. Nebraska, 
now a most flourishing young State, has been created hy the railway. 
Its vast agricultural wealth must have been locked up indefinitely but 
for the locomotive. The same remark applies to Kansas, now ad- 
vancing with rapid strides. 

«♦ Shareholders may grumble at competition in America, and bond- 
holders may tremble, but the producer flourishes in low rates of 
carriage, and no economical facts are so wonderful as those pre- 
sented by the progress of the United States since the development 
of the railway system. The experience of Canada is hardly less 
remarkable, for I am informed by Mr. Macpherson, of Ottawa, 
that during last year 25,000,000 acres of land were allotted by the 
Dominion Government to settlers or companies. The great temp- 
tation of those who settle in that severe climate is the excellence 
of the wheat land, but it is obvious that without cheap carriage 
no such settlement would be possible, for the produce would be 
unsalable." Thus, the railway is rapidly peopling and developing 
this continent. What it is doing here, it can do elsewhere — in 
India, Australia, Interior Russia, South America, and everywhere, 
where the physical conditions of territory and climate render possible 
the abode of man. It is the great civilizer of modern times, and 
wherever the headlight of its locomotive gleams out, or the shrill echo 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 243 

of its whistle is heard, burbarisni falls back as the darkness of ignor- 
ance before the lis^ht of knowledg-e. 

By the railway communities and States, separated from each other 
by thousands of miles, are made neighbors and the populations of 
whole continents are not only enabled to intermingle and thus benefit 
by association and interchange of ideas, but trade and commerce 
between them, the life-blood of all prosperity and advancement, are 
reduced to a perfect system and to the minimum of expense. Under 
its influence the nations of Europe have been brought more nearly 
under the government of common interests and ideas — in fact, are 
nearer one people, — than the shires and manors of England were 
under the feudal system. And its influence in this direction, as in all 
others for the betterment of the condition of mankind, will go on and 
oi), as the ages roll away, until ultimately the dream of the noblest 
philosophers who have conned the aff'airs of men shall have been real- 
ized — the universal brotherhood of man. 

By the railway space is already practically obliterated. To illus- 
trate this, a fact or two will suffice: The present rate on a bushel of 
wheat from Hnntsville, Missouri, to St. Louis is about 8V2 cents ; the 
rate on to New York is IOV2 ; and from New York to Liverpool, or Glas- 
gow, 4 cents — thus making the rate from Huntsville to Great Britain 
al)Out 22 cents per bushel, or about $7.25 per ton. This is but little 
more than it cost, before the era of railroads, to haul the same amount 
of wheat from Randolph county to Glasgow, Missouri ; so that, prac- 
tically, the market at Glasgow, Scotland, and, indeed, the markets of 
the whole world have been brought nearly as close to the farmers of 
this county as the market at Glasgow, on the Missouri river, only 
twenty or thirty miles away, was in former times. What is true of 
wheat is true, in a greater or less measure, of other products and of 
merchandise, and of everything that ministers to the comfort and 
happiness of man. 

But without this system of railway transportation the present vast 
products of agriculture in the interior would have been impossible, 
and population would still have been compelled to hug closely to the 
coasts of seas and to the shores of inland navigable waters. " Had 
one been asked ten years ago," says Mr. E. Atkinson, of Boston, in 
his paper, in 1880, on *' The Railroads of the United States and their 
ertects on Farming Production," " ' Can 150,000,000 bushels of grain 
be removed from the prairies of the West 5,000 miles in a single sea- 
son, to feed the suffering millions of Europe, and prevent almost a 
famine amongst the nations? ' he who answered ' Yes, it is only neces- 



244 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTIT. 

sary to apply the inventions already made to accomplish that,' would 
have been deemed visionary. It has been accomplished." And, illus- 
trating the same point, a writer, under the caption "The Railroad 
and the Farmer," in the American Agricultural Review for August, 
1882, speaking for Oregon, says: " Our export of wheat to Europe 
had hardly begun ten years ago for lack of cheap transportation to 
the ship. * * * Before the advent of railroads the nominal price 
of farm land was from $5 to $10 per acre, yet its average productive- 
ness was from 25 to 30 bushels of wheat per acre. * ♦ * When 
railroads were built, or since 1873, improved farm land sells readily 
at from $15 to $100 per acre. Wheat has become the principal prod- 
uct. The export of wheat and flour, mostly to Europe, has risen from 
zero to about 5,000,000 bushels per annum, with regular yearly in- 
crease." 

It is this means of getting the products of the interior to market 
that renders the land of non-navigable regions valuable, and indeed 
inhabitable, by civilized man. Ten years ago Oregon exported no 
wheat, for want of railway facilities of transportation. In 1880 she 
exported $5,000,000 worth, and her exports will continue to increase 
until her vast wheat lands, hardly touched yet with the plow, are 
covered with rich harvests, and all her territory is filled with a pros- 
perous and enlightened population. Who can be found, then, bold 
enough to say that the great Commonwealth will not owe its greatness 
more directly to the railway than to any other and all other physical 
causes combined? What is true of Oregon is true of all the States of 
the West, and, in only a less measure, of the other States of the 
Union. Missouri, though essentially a river State, has been built up 
almost alone by the railway since the war. Her vast area of grain 
and stock lands and her other resources have been opened up by the 
railway to industrial development, for by it the markets of the world 
have been brought to her very door. So of Kansas and Nebraska, 
and of Arkansas and Texas. Texas, although with a vast extent of 
sea-coast, has been developed by railway transportation, and there is 
hardly a parallel, even in the history of the Great West, to the won- 
derful progress that State has made in material development, and in 
population, and in wealth and in intelligence. 

No people under the sun have shown the enterprise, even by com- 
parison, shown by the people of this country in railroad building, and 
no people have increased in population and in every measure of ad- 
vancement in a ratio even approaching the progress made by the 
United States. But for railroads this could not, of course, have been 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



245 



done, for the regions accessible by navigable waters would long since 
have been taken up and overcrowded. This country, or rather, the 
people of the country, saw at a glance the importance of railway trans- 
portation to their material prosperity and general interests. Every 
community, wherever settled, turned its attention to railroad building 
in order to open up the territory tributary to it. The result was that 
railroads were pushed in all directions, and are still being extended, 
so that the whole land is rapidly being warped and woofed with a per- 
fect labyrinth of railway tracks. Speaking of this, a recent English 
writer says : " The American, confident of the future, pushes forward 
the railway into the wilderness, certain that the unoccupied land will 
be settled, and that he will get his reward in the increased value 
of this land, as well as in the traffic on his railway." At first, in order 
to make his road self-sustaining, on account of the sparseness of popu- 
lation (indeed, there is often no population at all in large regions 
through which his road passes), and the consequent lightness of busi- 
ness, he is compelled to charge high rates of traffic and of travel, and 
often these rates do not save him, for it is the experience of most roads 
through new States and Territories that in their early years they 
pass into the hands of a receiver. But soon the country tributary to 
them settles up and the volume of business increases, so that they be- 
come prosperous enterprises. 

And it is a remarkable fact that, although railroads in this country 
have had more to contend against and more to discourage them than 
those in any other, they have shown a degree of public spirit and a 
regard for the interests of the communities through which they pass 
unequaled by any other roads on the globe. To those who get their 
information from the average politician, anxious for an office or solici- 
tous to retain one, and who has been refused a pass, this statement 
may sound strange. To begin with, the rates of traffic on railroads 
were higher here than those on the roads of any country in Europe, 
as it would seem they ought to be, for wages and everything else are 
higher, and in most of this country traffic is much lighter than it is in 
Europe. But to-day railway freight rates in the United States are 
lower than the rates in any other country. 

And it is this fact that has proved the salvation of the American 
farmer, and, therefore, of the prosperity of the whole country. But 
for the high railway rates in India and Eussia and in Australia, Ameri- 
can wheat would long since have been driven from the markets of 
Europe. "It costs considerably more," says a recent writer, "to 
carry a ton of wheat 600 miles over the Great Indian Peninsula Rail- 



246 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



way than it does to carry the same quantity 1,000 miles over an 
American line. " There labor is incomparably cheaper than it is in 
this country, the lands are quite as fertile and cheap, and the ship' 
rates to Europe are nearly or quite as favorable as ours. But here 
wheat can be carried from Iowa to New York by rail so cheap that the 
Indian grower, with his present railway rates, can not compete to 
advantage with the American farmer in European markets. In the 
United States rates have been reduced to less than one-fourth of what 
they were in 1865. This reduction is still going on, and with the 
improvements constantl}^ being made in the railway system, it will 
doubtless continue to go on until rates are far below what they are 
to-day. The following table, in which are given the average pas- 
senger and freight rates of six leading Western roads since 1865, 
shows the steady reduction in tariffs : — 

TABLE OF RATES. 



Year. 




Passenger 
Hates Per 
Mile, 
Cents. 


FreightRate 
Per Ton 
Per Mile, 
Cents. 


1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 


























4.81 
4.58 
4.32 
4.17 
3.91 
3.80 
3.58 
3.46 
3.38 
3.15 
3.09 
3.01 
2.94 
2.89 
2.63 
2.59 
2.49 
2.41 
2.38 
2.35 


4.11 
3.76 
3.94 
3.49 
3.10 
2.82 
2.54 
2.39 
2.30 
2.18 
1.97 
1.89 
1.63 
1.61 
1.47 
1.32 
1.20 
1.07 
.97 
.89 



These are the general averages of rates of Western roads, the dif- 
ferent classes and the relative amounts of each class considered,. and 
both through and local rates computed. Similar estimates for East- 
ern roads would of course show much lower rates, as would estimates 
of through rates from the West to the East, as, for instance, grain 
was being shipped in April, 1884, from St. Louis to New York at 
17| cents per 100 pounds, and from Chicago to New York at 15 cents. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 247 

These are the present pool rates, which show a ton-rate per mile of 
about .33 of a cent, instead of .89, as given above Surely, when a 
ton of grain can be hauled three miles for a cent, rates ought to be 
satisfactory to the producer. It is not, therefore, surprising that 
American farmers are the most prosperous class of agriculturists 
on the globe. If, on account of the cheapness, fertility and abun- 
dance of land they can raise produce at a comparatively nominal cost, 
and, by the cheapness of transportation rates, they are placed almost 
as near the markets of Europe as the farmer of France, Enghind or 
Germany, why should they not prosper? The saving to the producer 
and consumer in this country in- a single year from the reductions of 
freight rates made between 1865 and 1879, according to Mr. Poor, an 
American statistician recognized as authority in both America and 
Europe, amounted to over $35,000,000. During the same period the 
rates from Chicago to New York were reduced over $13.50 on the on. 

Nor does it follow that because these reductions have been made, 
freights could have been carried at lower rates than were previously 
charged. As has been said, the increase of population and traffic and 
the improvements made in the railway system have made these 
reductions possible. Freights can now be carried at little more than, 
if indeed not half the rates charged ten years ago. Explaining this, a 
prominent Eastern railroad official recently said : "The economies 
that are being introduced in the management of the railroads of this 
country are very poorly appreciated by the public. With the in- 
troduction of steel rails, with which all the leading lines are now 
equipped, the improved condition of rolling stock, the enormous 
increase in the strength and power of the locomotives and the solidity 
of road-beds, that can only be attained after many years' use, 
together with a multitude of economies that can not be learned without 
many years' practical experience, where so many men are employed 
as are required to handle one of our trunk lines, the actual cost of 
transportation has been reduced far below the point at which a few 
years ago the most sanguine advocate of railroad transportation, as 
the economical successor of all other means of moving freight, did 
not dream. " 

The people of the country are rapidly coming to understand and 
appreciate the importance the railway is to their highest and best 
interests. The old prejudice against railroads is rapidly dying out. 
States and communities, — counties, towns and townships, — and the 
National Government showed commendable public spirit in assisting 
in the construction of railroads in the infancy of the development of 

11 



248 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

our railway system, and because the roads, when constructed, were 
compelled for a time to charge what seemed high rates of traffic, much 
wrath was visited upon the railway, or rather upon railway manage- 
ment. But whether these rates were necessary is shown by the result. 
More men of means have been bankrupted by railway investments, — 
not from mismanagement of the roads, only in exceptional cases, but 
because, by the best management they could not be made to pay at 
the rates charged, — than by any other class of investments. More 
roads have gone into the hands of receivers than any other enterprises 
have in the country, numbers and importance considered, and fewer 
fortunes have been made by railway hi vestments. True, a few great 
fortunes have been accumulated, for the interests involved were of the 
greatest magnitude, so that, if one fails, he fails as Villard did, but it 
he succeeds, he succeeds as Gould has. 

But, however much railways have cost the public generally, who is 
there to question that they have been of greater public benefit than 
their cost, a thousandfold? Missouri's railways cost her in State and 
municipal bonds (county, city, etc.), about $29,000,000. In one 
vear alone, 1883, her taxable wealth increased $63,349,625, not 
including the increase in the value of railway property; and the 
increase of the present year will probably carry the aggregate up to 
$800,000,000. No one will claim that this would have been possible 
without the railway, for Missouri is an agricultural State and to her, 
efficient practicable transportation is everything. So far as the rail- 
roads are concerned, they are of far greater benefit and profit to the 
public at large, and especially to the farmer and business man, than to 
their owners. A fact or two will illustrate this : The net earnings of 
Missouri railroads in 1882, after deducting operating expenses, were 
in round numbers $11,000,000, which was about $2,444 a mile, or less 
than four per cent, on the capital they represent. This is a fair average 
of the profits of the roads generally throughout the country. Where 
is the farmer or business man whose profits are no more than these 
who would not feel outraged if his customers were to denounce him 
for extortion or overcharges? The more one looks for the reasons of 
the late outcry against railroads, the more unreasonable he finds it to 
have been. 

Whilst, in common with all human enterprises and institutions, it 
can not be claimed that railways have always been an unmixed blessing, 
it may be safely said of them that they have been productive of less 
harm to humanity and have resulted in less injury in proportion to the 
good that they have done than any other influence in material affairs. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 249 

They have done more to develop the wealth and resources, to stimulate 
the industry, to reward the labor, and to promote the general com- 
fort and prosperity of the country than any other, and perhaps all 
other, mere physical causes combined. They scatter the productions 
of the press and literature broadcast through the country with amazing 
rapidity. There is scarcely a want, wish or aspiration they do not iu 
some measure help to gratify. They promote the pleasures of social 
life and of friendship ; they bring the skilled physician swiftly from a 
distance to attend the sick, and enable a friend to be at the bedside of 
the dying. They have more than realized the fabulous conception of 
the Eastern imagination, which pictured the genii as transporting in- 
habited palaces through the air. They take whole trains of inhabited 
palaces from the Atlantic coast, and with marvelous swiftness deposit 
them on the shores that are washed by the Pacific seas. In war they 
transport armies and supplies of Government with the utmost celerity, 
and carry forward on the wings of the wind, as it were, relief and 
comfort to those who are stretched bleeding and wounded on the field 
of battle. 

As a means of inland transportation the locomotive has exceeded 
the expectations of even those most sanguine of its usefulness. Since 
its introduction canals have been practically abandoned and river 
transportation has become a matter of comparative unimportance. 
Missouri has a river outlet to the sea, but only an insignificant per- 
centage of her products transported to the Atlantic is carried down 
the river. While a few large shippers of heavy freights in the cities, here 
and there, and the politicians are agitating interior water transportation, 
the vast body of the people are shipping by the railroad. In this age 
" time is money," and the time occupied by freight shipped by river 
is generally of more consecpience to those interested, than the small 
difference of rates between river and railway charges ; and in most 
instances this alleged difference is more imaginary than real. The 
railroads from St. Louis make the same rates on freights for New 
Orleans that are charged by the steamers, and the difference of rates 
from St. Louis to the latter city, and from the former to New York, 
are merely nominal. 

By the railway the shipper, informed what the prices are at the 
wholesale markets to-day, may have his products delivered at 
those markets in 12, 24, or 36 hours, and thus feel reasonably 
safe in the estimates of the prices he expects to get. And 
by abolishing space and uniting the communities of a whole continent 
in one confederacy of trade and interests, regularity and stability are 



250 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

given to prices, for the supply of one section, if that of another fails, 
tends to regulate the general demand. This fall the farmer may sow 
his wheat and this winter fatten his stock with an intelligent and safe 
estimate of the approximate returns he is to receive the succeeding 
year. Nor does a rich harvest in one State glut the markets and 
depreciate the prices to ruinous figures, for the markets of the whole 
world are almost equally accessible, so far as the cost of carriage is 
concerned. The farmer of Missouri is practically as near to London, 
England, to-day as was the farmer in the vicinity of Cambridge less 
than half a century ago, and all Christendom is reduced to narrower 
limits, so far as time of transit is concerned, than the limits of this 
country prior to the era of railroads. Galveston, Texas, is nearer to 
New York by railroad travel to-day than Kansas City was to Hunts- 
ville a few years ago. In making Texas a neighbor to New York 
State and Missouri to Massachusetts, in penetrating the great West, 
the railways have opened up this hiighty region to the flood-tides of 
immio-ration from the East and all the world which have poured into 
and are still pouring in, establishing here the greatest and most pros- 
perous commonwealths in the Union. 

Foremost among the railway systems of the West, and, indeed, the 
greatest combination of railway systems on the globe, is that of 
Gould's Western System, which includes the Missouri Pacific, or South- 
western system, the Wabash, and the Union Pacific systems, aggre-" 
o-ating, in all, over 15,000 miles of main track. The lines of these 
systems penetrate every State of the West and nearly every Territory, 
and aggregate more miles of track than are laid in any country in 
Europe except Germany, France and Great Britain, each of which 
they closely approach in mileage. These three systems are run in 
harmony with each other, and the last two, the South-Western and 
the Wabash, are practically under one management, or, in other 
words, constitute virtually one system of railways. Together they 
aofo-reo-ate over 10,000 miles of road, and include lines of travel in 
12 of the great States of the Union and in the Indian Territory. 
The South-Western and Wabash systems constitute one of the most 
valuable and prosperous combinations of railroads in the United 
States. They were built up of many independent lines in the different 
States, and the Missouri Pacific proper and the old Wabash were taken 
for the basis of the systems. The original roads, of which these sys- 
tems were finally formed, were in many instances in financial and 
business embarrassment, and some of them were in the hands of re- 
ceivers. Largely by the genius of one man, through the assistance 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. - 251 

of the able men he drew around him, the}'' were gathered np, one by 
one, and were united and made to prosper, so that we have seen built 
up in a few years the greatest combination of railroads of the age, a 
work that has been accomplished with such success that one can not 
but view it with mingled admiration and surprise. We can not go 
into the details of the historj'^ of these roads at this time, but must 
confine ourselves to an outline of the South- Western System. 

THE SOUTH-WESTERN RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

This system includes and operates 5,983 miles of railroad, which 
lie in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, 
Louisiana and Texas, and is composed 'of the old Missouri Pacific 
proper, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
and Southern, the International and Great Northern, the Central 
Branch of the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific. The follow- 
ing table shows the miles of each division in operation : — 

mileage: 



Missouri Pacific Division .... 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Division . 
International and Great Northern Division . 
St. Louis and Iron Mountain Division . 
Central Branch of the Union Pacific Division 
Texas and Pacific Division .... 



990 
1,386 
826 
906 
388 
1,487 



Total 



5,983 



As has been said, the Missouri Pacific forms the basis of this sys- 
tem. The charter for this road, or, rather, of its predecessor, the 
Pacific Railroad Company, was granted by the Missouri Legislature by 
act approved March 12, 1849. The Pacific Company was authorized 
to build two lines of road from St. Louis, one, the main line, to Jef- 
ferson and on to the western boundary of the State, and the other, a 
branch, to the south-western part of the State. The capital stock of 
the company was fixed at $10,000,000, and the road received aid from 
the State to the amount of $7,000,000. To aid in the construction 
of the Southwest Branch, as the branch was called, Congress also 
made a grant to the company of 3,840 acres of land to the mile, 
which amounted in all to 1,161,204 acres. Construction of the main 
line was commenced July 4, 1851, but its progress was slow. It 
reached Jefierson City in 1856 and Sedalia in 1861, but was not com- 
pleted to Kansas City until the fall of 1865. The construction of the 
Southwest Branch was even slower, but was finally completed to the 



J52 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

State line by Avay of Springfield. In 1866, however, the Southwest 
Branch was taken possession of by the State for non-payment of in- 
terest on the State subsidy and, with its lands, was sold to the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Kailroad Company, which company, in 1872, leased the 
lines of the old company, or Kansas City trunk road. The two roads 
were then operated under one management until 1876, when the 
Pacific was sold under foreclosure and conveyed by the purchasers to 
the present Missouri Pacific Company. This company, with a capital of 
$3,000,000, was incorporated October 21, 1876. In the meantime, 
in 1868, $5,000,000 of the State subsidy had been back-paid to the 
State. The amount of indebtedness the new Missouri Pacific assumed 
when it bought the road was $13,700,000. 

Since the completion of the road to Kansas City, it has successfully 
competed with all its rivals for the traffic of the Great West and, 
besides its numerous tributary lines, its connections with other roads 
are such that cars run to and from St. Louis to every point in the 
West and South-west without break of freight-bulk. Its career since 
it became the property of its present owners has been one of unpar- 
alled success, and it has grown from a single line across Missouri to 
one of the most important trunk lines in the Union, with its thou- 
sands of miles of feeders extending in every direction west of St. 
Louis and in the South-west. In 1880 the St. Louis and Lexington, 
the Kansas City and Eastern, the Lexington and Southern, the St. 
Louis, Kansas City and Arizona, the Missouri River and the Leaven- 
worth and North- Western were consolidated with it. This was on the 
11th of August, and tlie authorized share-capital of the consolidated 
company was fixed at $30,000,000. The amount issued to carry out 
the consolidation was $12,419,800. The debt of the company after 
this consolidation was $19,259,000. 

MISSOURI, KANSAS AND TEXAS. 

On the 1st of December, 1880, the Missouri Pacific leased the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway for a period of 99 years, the 
consideration paid being the net earnings of the road. The Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas was organized April 7, 1870, by consolidation of 
the Southern branch of the Union Pacific, the Tebo and Neosho, 
the Labette and Sedalia, and the Neosho Valley and Holden. The 
St. Louis and Sante Fe Railroad from Holden, Missouri, to Paola, 
Kansas, was purchased by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas in 1872, 
and the Hannibal and Central Missouri, from Hannibal to Moberly, 
was purchased in 1874. This is the division of the road which passes 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 253 

through Randolph county and is about 20 mileb in length. It was 
chartered February 13, 1865. The line of the Missouri, Kansas 
and Texas was opened from Junction City to the southern boundary 
of Kansas in 1870, and from Sedalia to Parsons in 1871. From the 
southern boundary of Kansas to Denison it was opened January 1, 
1873, and from Hannibal to Sedalia, in September of the same year, 
thus completing a continuous line from Hannibal, Missouri, to Deni- 
son, Texas. 

The Missouri, Kansas and Texas^ received laro;e OTants of land under 
act of Congress, both in Kansas and in the Indian Territory, and also 
important grants from the State of Kansas. The lands in the Indian 
Territory, however, are subject to the extinguishment of the Indian 
title, and have not therefore become available to the company. This 
road has been mainly instrumental in settling up and developing 
South-west Missouri and Southern Kansas. By it, also, Texas was 
given an outlet to the North, and over its line a perfect stream of 
trade and commerce and of travel, flowed to and from that great 
State. Probably no road on the continent has been of so much value 
and importance to a State or section of country, as the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas has been and still is to Texas. Over it population 
has pushed into the State and settled up all of its northern counties, 
a section of country nearly as large as the entire State of Missouri. 
Hundreds of thousands of people have been added to its population, 
and millions of property have augmented its wealth. The Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas has been to Texas what the Missouri river was in 
pre-railroad days to Central Missouri — the main artery of its popu- 
lation and wealth, and of its general advancement and prosperity. 

In 1882 the Missouri, Kansas and Texas acquired the International 
and Great Northern by the exchange of two shares of its own stock 
for one share of the latter. This exchange increased the share-capital 
of the company by $16,470,000. By the International and Great 
Northern, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas also acquired a land grant 
in Texas of about 5,000,000 acres. With the acquisition of the 
International and Great Northern and other tributary lines, a con- 
tinuous route was given from Hannibal and St. Louis to Galveston, 
Texas, and to Laredo, on the Rio Grande. At Laredo connection 
is made with the Mexican National, which Will lead into the city of 
Mexico, when the present gap in its line shall have been filled up. 



1 The Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad was completed through Monroe conufy 
in 1871. This road passes through the entire length of the county. 



254 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



However by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas a through rail route is 
already opened to Mexico, by connection with the Texas Pacific and 
the Mexican Central, which latter is completed to the capital city of 
the Montezumas. 

Official record of the result of the railroad election held in Monroe 
county on the 18th day of April, 1868, and upon which is based the 
subscription of $250,000 stock by said county in the Hannibal and 
Central Missouri Railroad. For county taking stock in railroad : — 



Toionship. 


res. 


No. 


Union 


90 


116 


Marion 


286 


4 


Woodlawn 


50 


34 


Clay 


60 


75 


Washington 


12 


14 


Monroe 


101 


6 


Indian Creel? 


70 


18 


Soutli Fork 


103 


21 


Jefferson 


129 


85 


Jackson ........... 


584 


14 


Total 


1,485 


887 



For Hannibal and Moberly Railroad 

For Tebo and Neosho Railroad .... 

Resistered votes for taking stock In railroad . 

Registered votes against taking stock 

Registered votes for Hannibal and Moberly Railroad 

Rescistei'ed votes for Tebo and Neosho Railroad 



1,201 
448 
141 

45 
128 

12 



Official vote of the county on the question of transferring the 
stock : — 



Township. 



Jackson 

Monroe 

Marion 

Clay 

South Fork 

Union 

WoodlavFn . 

Jefferson (Florida) 

Stoutsville 

Indian Creek 

Washington 

Total 



Yes. 



1,609 



No. 



781 


80 


142 


24 


295 


55 


31 


94 


37 


121 


59 


128 


2 


142 


77 


58 


86 


5 


67 


44 


32 


118 



870 



Majority for transfer, 739. 

The vote was taken May 9, 1873. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 255 

Oil the 19th of May, 1873, at a meeting of the county court (a 
special term), at which the propositions made by the Missouri, Kan- 
sas and Texas Raih'oad Company was considered, the court appointed 
Abram B. Baylis agent for and in behalf of Monroe county to assign 
and transfer the stock of said county in the Hannibal and Central 
Missouri Railroad Company to the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Rail- 
road Company. 

Hon. A. W. Lamb, of Hannibal, Mo., was appointed by the court 
agent and proxy for Monroe county to vote the stock of said county 
on any proposition which mis^ht be brought before the meeting of the 
stockholders of the Hannibal and Central Missouri Railroad Company, 
having for its object the consolidation of said railroad with the Mis- 
souri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. 

The following are the general officers of the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way : — 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Jay Gould, President, New York City. 
R. S. Hayes, First Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 
A. L. Hopkins, Second Vice-President, New York City. 
H. M. Hoxie, Third Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 
D. S. H. Smith, Fourth Vice-President, Assistant Secretary and 
Local Treasurer, St. Louis, Mo. 

A. H. Calef, Secretary and Treasurei", New York City. 
John C. Brown, General Solicitor, St. Louis, Mo. 

C. G. Warner, General Auditor, St. Louis, Mo. 

George Olds, General Traffic Manager, St. Louis, Mo. 

W. H. Newman, Traffic Manager Lines South of Texarkana and 
Denison, Galveston, Texas. 

G. W. Lilley, General Freight Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

H. C. Townsend, General Passenger and Ticket Agent Lines North 
of Texarkana and Denison, St. Louis, Mo. 

H. A. Fisher, Assistant General Passenger and Ticket Agent, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

B. W. McCullough, General Passenger and Ticket Agent, Lines 
South of Texarkana and Denison, Galveston, Texas. 

LOCAL AGENTS. 

G. Meslier, Special Passenger and Land Agent, 102 North Fourth 
Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

W. H. Morton, Land and Passenger Agent, Union Depot, St. 
Louis, Mo. 



256 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

S. W. Elliott, Ticket Agent, 102 North Fourth Street, St. Louis, Ma. 
H. Lihou, Ticket Agent, Union Depot, St. Louis, Mo. 
M. Griffin, City Passenger Agent, 102 North Fourth Street, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

J. C. Nicholas, General Baggage Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

MR. JAY GOULD, 

the well known president of the South-Western System, is 
certainly one of the most remarkable men of this or any other age» 
A New York farmer's son, self-educated, and starting out in life for 
himself without a dollar, by dint of his own exertions and character 
he has risen to the position of the first railroad manager on the globe. 
A great deal has been said for and against Mr. Gould. A great deal 
has been said for and against every man who has made a distinguished 
success in life. It is one of the conditions of success to be criticised 
and slandered as well as honored and esteemed. But if men are to be 
judged according to the general results of their lives, Mr. Gould has 
nothing to fear for his reputation in history. He has given to the 
country the finest systems of railway and telegraph the world ever 
saw, and if the people do not seem to appreciate 

"What raanuer of man is passing by their doors, " 

the time will come when his services and character will receive the 
homase which is their due. Mr. Gould became the President of the 
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific on the organization of the company in 
1879. Personally, however, he does not direct the affairs of the 
road, but is directly represented in its management, as he is in the 
management of all his other Western roads, by Capt. R. S. Hayes. 

HANNIBAL AND ST. JOSEPH RAILROAD. 

The Hannibal and Joseph Railroad^ was completed to Monroe City 
from Hannibal in 1858, and to St. Joseph in 1859. Along this rail- 
road, for 12 miles on each side of the road, the company was granted 
alternate sections of land by the United States Government in 1852. 

As early as August 11, 1851, we find the following proceedings 
had by the county court in reference to the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad Company : — 

Now, at this day, came R. Stewart, president, and makes a mo- 
tion for the board of directors of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Rail- 



1 Only about four miles of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad passes through 
Monroe county. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 257 

road that Macon county take us much as 100 shares of stock in said 
road by authorizing the judges of said court to subscribe the same. 

Whereupon, it is ordered by the court that the county of Macon 
take 100 shares of stock in said road, and that the president of said 
stock subscribe the same, provided said road runs through the county, 
and not prejudicial to the county seat of said Macon county. 

In our history of Buchanan county, we gave some facts in reference 
to the early history and completion of the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad to St. Joseph, and as they will not be out of place here we 
will reproduce them. 

The people of St. Joseph early awoke to a sense of the importance 
and necessity of railroad communication with the East. About the 
first reference to this matter we find in the Gazette of Friday, Novem- 
ber 6, 1846 : — 

"Our country is destined to suffer much, and is now suffering, 
from the difficulty of navigation and the extremely high rates the 
boats now charge. Our farmers may calculate that they will get 
much less for produce and will be compelled to pay much more for 
their goods than heretofore, and this will certainly always be the case 
when the Missouri river shall be as low as it now is. The chances 
are fearfully against having any considerable work bestowed in im- 
proving the river, and until it is improved by artificial means, the 
navigation of it to this point must always be dangerous and very 
uncertain. 

" The prospects for this fall and winter are well calculated to make 
the people look about to see if there is no way to remedy this incon- 
venience, if there can be any plan suggested whereby our people can 
be placed more nearly upon terms of equality with the good citizens 
of other parts of our land. 

*' We suggest the propriety of a railroad from St. Joseph to some 
point on the Mississippi — either St. Louis, Hannibal or Quincy.. For 
ourselves, we like the idea of a railroad to onp of the latter places 
suggested, for this course would place us nearer to the eastern cities 
and make our road thither a direct one; we like this road, too, be- 
cause it would so much relieve the intermediate country which is now 
suffering and must always suffer so much for transporting facilities in 
the absence of such an enterprise. 

" If this be the favorite route, we must expect opposition from the 
southern portion of the State, a« well as all the river counties below 
this. For the present, we mean merely to throw out the suggestion 
with the view of awaking public opinion and eliciting a discussion of 
the subject. In some future number we propose presenting more ad- 



258 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

vantages of such a road, and will likewise propose and enforce by 
argument the ways and means of accomplishing the object." 

The suggestions thus offered of the necessity of a railroad seemed 
to have been universally popular, and through the vigorous action of 
the friends of the enterprise, we find, thus early, a charter granted by 
the Legislature, as follows : — 

AN ACT TO INCORPORATE THE HANNIBAL AND ST. JOSEPH RAILROAD 

COMPANY. 

Be it enacted hy the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, as 

foUoivs : — 

Section 1. That Joseph Robidoux, John Corby and Robert J. Boyd, 
of St. Joseph, in Buchanan county ; Samuel J. Harrison, Zachariah 
G. Draper and Erasmus M. MofFett, of the City of Hannil)al ; Alex- 
ander McMurtry, of Shelby county ; George A. Shortridge and Thomas 
Sharp, of Macon county ; Wesley Halliburton, of Linn county ; John 
Graves, of Livingston count}'^ ; Robert Wilson, of Davies count}', 
and George W. Smith, of Caldwell county, and all such persons as 
may hereafter become stockholders in the said company, shall be 
and they are hereby created a body corporate and politic in fact and 
in name, by the name and style of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Rail- 
road Company, and the same title, the stockholders shall be in per- 
petual succession, and be able to sue and l)e sued, implead and be 
impleaded in all courts of record and elsewhere, and to purchase, 
receive, have, hold and enjoy to them and their successors lands, tene- 
ments and hereditaments, goods, chattels and all estates, real, personal 
and mixed of what kind or qualit}' soever, and the same from time to 
time to sell, mortgage, grant, alien and convey, and to make divi- 
dends of such portion of the profits as they may deem proper, and, also, 
to make and have a common seal, and the same to alter or renew at 
pleasure, and also to ordain, establish and put in execution such by- 
laws, ordinances and regulations as shall appear necessary and con- 
venient for the government of such corporation, and not being 
contrary or repugnant to the Constitution and laws of the United 
States or of the State of Missouri, and generally to do all and singular 
the matters and things which to them it shall lawfully appertain to 
do for the well being of the said corporation and the due management 
and ordering of the affairs of the same : Provided, alwags, that it 
shall not be lawful for the said corporation to deal, or use or employ 
any part of the stock, funds or money, in buying or selling any wares 
or merchandise in the way of traffic, or in banking or broking opera- 
tions. 

Sec 2. That the capital stock of said corporation shall be $2,000,- 
000, divided into 20,000 shares of $100 each, and it shall be lawful for 
said corporation, when and so soon as in the opinion of the individuals 
named in the foregoing section a sufficient amount of stock shall have 
been taken for that purpose, to commence and carry on their said 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 251) 

proper business and railroad operations under the privileges and con- 
ditions herein granted. 

Sec. 3. That the said company is hereby authorized and empow- 
ered to cause books for the subscription stock to be opened at such 
times and places as they may deem most conducive to the attainment 
of the stock required. 

Sec. 4. The said company [shall] have power to view, hiy out and 
construct a railroad from St. Joseph, in Buchanan county, to Palmyra, 
in Marion county, and thence to Hannibal, in said county of Marion, 
and shall, in all things, be subject to the same restrictions and entitled 
to all the privileges, rights and immunities which were granted to the 
Louisiana and Columbia Kailroad Company by an act entitled " An 
act to incorporate the Louisiana and Columbia Railroad Company," 
passed at the session of the General Assembly in 1836 and 1837, and 
approved January 27, 1837, so far as the same are applicable to the 
company hereby created, as fully and completely as if the same were 
herein enacted. 

Sec. 5. Nothing in this act, nor in that to which it refers, shall be 
construed so as to allow said company to hold or j^urchase any more 
real estate than may be necessary and proper for the use of the road 
and the business transacted thereon. 

This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage. 

Approved February 16, 1847. 

The following were the 

proceedings of the railroad convention, 

held at Chillicothe, Mo., June 2, 1847. 

Delegates from the various couiities of North Missouri assembled at 
Chillicothe, Mo., on June 2, 1847, according to previous notice. The 
convention was organized in the court-house at 11 o'clock, by calling 
Judge A. A. King, of Ray county, to the chair, and electing Dr. John 
Craven, of Davies county, and Alexander McMurtry, of Shelby county, 
vice-presidents, and H. D. La Cossitt, of Marion county, and Charles 
J. Hughes, of Caldwell county, secretaries. 

It was moved that the delegates in attendance report themselves to 
the secretaries, whereupon the following gentlemen gave in their 
names and took their seats : — 

B. F. Loan and Lawrence Archer, from Buchanan county; Absalom 
Karnes, from DeKalb ; Robert Wilson, John B. Connor, Volney E. 
Bragg, William Peniston, James Turley, Thomas T. Frame, Jacob 
S. Rogers, M. F. Greene, John Mann, Woody Manson and John 
Craven, from Davies county ; George Smith, Patrick Smith, Jesse 
Baxter, A. B. Davis and C. J. Hughes, from Caldwell county; A. A. 



260 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Kiug,^ from Ray county; John Craven, Thomas B. Bryan, Elisha 
Manford, John Harper, F. Preston, F. L, Willard, John L. Johnson, 
S. Munser, John Bryan, B. F. Tarr, Thomas Jennings, William 
Hudgens, William Hickliu, William L. Black, James H. Darlington, 
Eobert Mitchell, John Austin, James Austin and F. Preston, from Liv- 
ino-ston county; Dr. Livingston, from Grundy county ; W. B. Wood- 
ruff, James C Moore, James Lintell, John J.Flora, Jeremiah Phillips 
and W. Halliburton, Linn county; George Shortridge, A.L. Gilstrap 
and Benjamin Sharp, from Macon county ; Alexander McMurtry, from 
Shelby county; Z. G. Draper, James Waugh, Henry Collins, H. D. 
La Cossitt and William P. Samuel, from Marion county. 

On motion of Col. Peniston, it was resolved that a committee con- 
sisting of one member from each county represented in the conven- 
tion be appointed for the purpose of reporting upon what subjects 
this convention shall act. The president appointed Robert Wilson, 
L. Archer, A. Karnes, G. Smith, F. L. Willard, Dr. Livingston, W. 
B. Woodruff, George Shortridge and Z. G. Draper. 

On motion, it was resolved that a committee, consisting of one 
member from each county here represented, be appointed to report a 
basis upon which to vote in this convention. The president appointed 
A. L. Gilstrap, B. F. Loan, William P. Peniston, Thomas Butts, 
Thomas R. Bryan, Dr. Livingston, W. Halliburton and James 
Waugh. 

Georo-e Smith, of Caldwell, presented the following propositions 
for the consideration of the convention, and moved to lay the same 
upon the table, which was done: — 

Whereas, The people of Northern Missouri are in favor of the 
project of a railroad from Hannibal to St. Joseph ; therefore. 

Resolved, By the delegates (their representatives) that we recom- 
mend the following as the best method to procure the means for the 
construction of the same : — - 

First. A liberal subscription by the citizens of the State to the 
capital stock of said company. 

Second. That Congress be petitioned for a grant of alternate sec- 
tions and parts of sections of all vacant lands 10 miles on each side 
of said road, when located. 

Third. That the company procure a subscription to the stock by 
Eastern capitalists, and, should the foregoing means prove inadequate, 
we then recommend that the Legislature pass an act authorizing the 



1 Austin A. King, who presided over this convention, was Judge of the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit, of which Ray county was a part, from 1837 to 1848, when he was 
elected Governor of Missouri. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 261 

company to issue bonds, to be indorsed by the Governor or Secretary 
of State, for the residue ; the company to give a mortgage on the 
whole work to the State, for the liquidation of said bonds. 

The convention then adjourned till afternoon. 

At the opening of the afternoon session, it was resolved that the 
rules for the government of the House of Representatives, of Mis- 
souri, be adopted for the government of this convention. 

A report was adopted, by which the basis of voting in the conven- 
tion was fixed as follows : that each county represented in the con- 
vention be entitled to one vote for every 100 votes therein, by which 
rule the county of Marion was allowed 15 votes ; Shelby, 7 ; Macon, 
9; Linn, 7; Livingston, 8; Grundy, 6; Davies, 9 ; Caldwell, 4 ; 
Ray, 15 ; DeKalb, 3 ; and Buchanan, 22. 

The committee to whom was referred the duty of submitting sub- 
jects for action of this convention reported. 

1. To appoint a committee of three members to draft an address in 
the name of this convention to the people of Western Missouri, setting 
forth the advantages to be derived from the contemplated railroad 
from St. Joseph to Hannibal. 

2. To appoint a committee of three, whose duty it shall be to peti- 
tion the Legislature of Missouri for such aid in the undertakino; as 
can be afibrded consistently with the rights of other sections of the 
State. 

3. To appoint a committee of three to petition Congress for a dona- 
tion of alternate sections of lands within six miles en each side of said 
road when located. 

4. To appoint a committee whose duty it shall be to superintend 
the publication and distribution of the proceedings of this convention, 
together with the charter of the road, and the address to the people 
of Northern Missouri. 

5. Said committees to be appointed by the president and the mem- 
bers of each committee as nearly contiguous as practicable. 

The convention then adjourned till the following morning, when on 
reassembling, the five above mentioned resolutions were unanimously 
adopted, with the exception of the fifth, which was adopted with an 
amendment striking out all after the word president. 

Among other resolutions offered at this session of the convention, 
the following by Judge King, of Ray, was unanimously adopted by 
way of amendment to a similar one offered by Dr. Grundy, of Liv- 
ingston : — 

Resolved, That, whereas, this convention has adopted a resolution 



262 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

authorizing a memorial to Congress for donation of alternate sections 
of land to aid in the construction of the contemplated railroad, also 
authorizing a memorial to the Legislature for such aid in the under- 
taking as can be aflbrded consistently with the rights of other portions 
of the State ; therefore, we, the delegates, pledge ourselves to sup- 
port no man for Congress who will not pledge himself to the support 
of the proposition aforesaid, nor will we support any man for Gov- 
ernor, Lieutenant-Governor, or member of the Legislature who will 
not pledge himself to give such aid in the construction of the said 
railroad consistent with the rights of other portions of the State as 
contemplated by the resolution aforesaid. 

Mr. George Smith, of Caldwell, offered the following resolution, 
which was read and adopted: — 

Resolved, That the committee appointed to petition the Legislature 
be instructed to ask for an amendment to the fourth section of the 
act incorporating the Louisiana and Columbia Railroad Company 
(being the law by which the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Com- 
pany are to be governed), so as to give the power to the president and 
directors of the last mentioned company to call in an amount not 
exceeding 10 per cent every 60 days, and change the notice from 60 
to 30 days. 

The following resolution by Mr. Sharp, of Macon, was adopted : — 

Whereas, It is not only extremely important t® the agricultural 
and commercial interests of the immediate country that a good wagon 
road be opened from St. Joseph to Hannibal, but the United States 
mail stages can not be put in motion on said route until said road shall 
be opened. And 

Whereas, It is of the utmost importance, as well to the whole in- 
termediate country as to the two extremes, that mail facilities be 
speedily obtained in stages through said country. Therefore, 

Resolved, by this Convention, That it be recommended to each 
county through which said road may pass, immediately to open, bridge, 
and put in good repair the said road, in order that mail stages may. 
be immediately started, according to the act of Congress establishing 
said road. 

Mr. Tarr, of Livingston, moved to reconsider the vote adopting 
the third proposition reported by the committee on business, which 
was agreed to. 

He then offered the following amendment to said third proposi- 
tion : — 

Adding to third proposition by the committee on business, as fol- 
lows, "Also to petition Congress that should any of the alternate 
sections on the road, or within six miles on either side thereof to be 
sold at any time subsequent to the 16th day of February, 1847, and 
before the action of Congress in relation to these lands, that other 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 263 

lands be granted as nearly contiguous as possible in lieu thereof. " 
This was agreed to, and the third proposition as amended was then 
adopted. 

Dr. Livingston, of Grundy, offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted : — 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this convention be signed by the 
president, vice-presidents and secretaries, and that the president be 
requested to transmit a copy thereof to each of our representatives in 
Congress, requesting them to use their utmost endeavors to obtain 
from Congress the grant of land contemplated by the proceedings of 
this convention. 

The president then announced the following committees : — 

1. To address the people of Northern Missouri — Archer, Bragg, 
and La Cossitt. 

2. To petition Congress, in accordance with the resolution of the 
convention — Cravens, Halliburton and Shortridge. 

3. To petition the Legislature — Tarr, George Smith, of Caldwell, 
and Dr. Livingston. 

On motion, it was resolved that the thanks of the delegates and 
constituents are due the officers of this convention for the able manner 
in which they have discharged their duties in this convention. 

The convention then adjourned sine die. 

The charter of the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad was secured 
mainly by the exertion of Robert M. Stewart, afterwards Governor of 
the State, and at the time of its issuance, a member of the State Sen- 
ate, and of Gen. James Craig, and Judge J. B. Gardenhire, who 
represented Buchanan county in the Legislature. (Gen, Craig 
was afterward president of this road, with two brief intervals, for the 
period of 11 years, from 1861). 

With all the enthusiasm on the part of the people, material aid was 
lacking, as it was not until 1852 that the building of the road became 
a definite fact. At that period, Hon. Willard P. Hall represented a 
district of Missouri in Congress, and was chairman of the committee 
of public lands. By his efforts the passage of a bill was secured grant- 
ing six hundred thousand acres of land to the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad Company, and the success of that long cherished enterprise 
was finally assured. The preliminary survey had been made by Simeon 
Kemper and Col. M. F. Tiernan, accompanied by Robert M. Stewart, 
whose indefatigable efforts in behalf of the interests of the road, con- 
tributed as much if not more than those of any other man to their ulti- 
mate accomplishment. Stewart became afterwards the first president 

12 



264 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNJY. 

ofthe company. The building of tlie road commenced at the east end. 
About the spring of 1857 work was begun on the west end, and by 
March of that year, the track extended out from St. Joseph a 
distance of seven miles. The first fire under the first engine that 
started out of St. Joseph on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Kailroad, 
was kindled by M. Jefferson Thompson. This was several years before 
the arrival of the first through train in February, 1859. (Sometime 
in the early part of 1857). 

The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was completed February 13, 
1859. On Monday, February 14, 1859, the first through passenger 
train ran out of St. Joseph. Of this train E. Sleppy, now (1881), 
master mechanic of the St. Joseph and Western machine shops, in 
Elwood, was engineer, and Benjamin H. Colt, conductor. 

The first to run a train into St, Joseph was Geo. Thompson, who 
ran first a construction and then a freight train. 

The first master mechanic of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Eailroad 
shops in St. Joseph was C. F. Shivel. These shops were established 
in 1857. In the following year Mr. Shivel put up the first car ever 
built in the city. 

On the 22d of February, 1859, occurred in St. Joseph the celebra- 
tion of the completion of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Road. This 
was, beyond doubt, the grandest display ever witnessed in the city 
up to that period. 

M. Jeff"erson Thompson, at that time mayor of the city, presided 
over the ceremonies and festivities of this brilliant occasion. The city 
was wild with enthusiasm and the most profuse and unbounded hos- 
pitality prevailed. 

A grand banquet was held in the spacious apartments of the Odd 
Fellows' Hall, which then stood on the corner of Fifth and Felix 
Streets. Not less than 600 invited guests were feasted here ; audit 
was estimated that several thousand ate during the day at this hos- 
pitable board. 

Broaddus Thompson, Esq., a brother of Gen. M. Jefferson Thomp- 
son, made the grand speech of the occasion, and performed the cere- 
mony of mingling the waters of the two mighty streams thus linked 
by a double band of iron. 

The completion of the road constituted an era in the history of St. 
Joseph, and from that period dawned the light of a new prosperity. 
In the five succeeding years the population of the city was quadrupled, 
and her name heralded to the remotest East as the rising emporium 
of the West. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



265 



III the summer of 1872, the managers of this road commenced the 
building of a branch southward from St. Joseph, 21 miles, to the city 
of Atchison. This was completed in October of the same year. 



MONROE COUNTY BONDED DEBT. 



30 ten per cent. bonds of f 500 each, issued December 

15, 1869, to aid in the construction of the Hannibal & 
Central Missouri Railroad, now the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railroad, interest payable 15th of January and 

July, at National Park Bank, New York 

200 six per cent. 5 year bonds of $100 each, issued May 15, 
1880, 40 do. 6 year bonds of $500 each, 40 do. 7 year, 
40 do. 8 year, 40 do. 9 year, 20 do. 13 year of $1,000 
each, 20 do. 14 year, and 23 do. 15 year, issued May 15, 
1880, under Chap. 83, Revised Statutes, in compromise 
and redemption of bonds issued to the Hannibal & Cen- 
tral Missouri Railroad, now the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railroad, interest payable annually May 15, at 
National Park Bank, New York 

Interest promptly paid; interest tax on $100 valuation 50 
cents. Taxable wealth $5,118,788. 



$15,000 00 



163,000 00 



$178,000 00 




CHAPTER XYI. 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

Old Landmarks — Maj. William N. Penn — Fielding Combs — James G. Fox — Major 
James M. Bean — Death Rates — Births — Hurricane — Agricultural Societies — 
Monroe County Immigration So ciety — Monroe City Immigration Society — Patrons 
of Husbandry — Census of Monroe County in 1848 — 1860 — Population by Town- 
ships in 1880 — Beef Cattle — Bridges, Their Location and Cost. 

OLD LANDMARKS. 

" Can storied urn, or animated bust, 
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? 

Can honor's voice provoke the silent dust. 
Or flatt'ry soothe the dull cold ear of death?" 

One by one have the old hmdraarks of the county disappeared, un- 
til at length but a few remain. These landmarks were early planted 
in the sfenial soil of old Monroe, and some of them breasted the 
storms of three-score years and ten before they were efiaced and 
blotted out of existence. Their lives were such, however, that they 
left behind them pleasant memories — memories which will become 
more and more fragrant as time recedes. 

MAJ. WILLIAM N. PENN. 

The Paris Mercury 'n\ its issue of August, 19, 1873, in noticing the 
death of Major Penn, said: — 

He breathed his last at about one and a half o'clock last night, after 
an illness of only about twenty-seven hours. Was taken with a violent 
attack of cholera morbus, or cholera, about 11 o'clock Sunday night, 
which baffled every effort of our best medical skill to arrest. Thus 
suddenly has passed away one of our oldest, most worthy and useful 
citizens. At the time of his death he held two of the most important 
trusts in the county — that of county clerk and probate judge, the 
last of which was but a few weeks since bestowed upon him through 
the free suffrages of his fellow-citizens, and which fully attested the 
people's confidence in his honesty, integrity and faithfulness in office. 
No man in the county enjoyed a greater degree of the public esteem 
than did Maj .Penn . The greater portion of his time for the last 40 years 
he served the people in important public trusts — always faithful, hon- 
est and true to the trust imposed. He was one of the few men of our 
day, a long time in office, who died poor. But he is gone — taken 
(266) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 267 

suddenly from among those who honored, who loved him and who 
will ever cherish his many virtues. He was a noble man — filling in 
a high degree the duties of husband, father. Christian citizen, public 
servant, neighbor and friend. But why attempt an eulogy? His 
honorable, useful life, is his best eulogy. We commingie'our sor- 
rows with those of our citizens generally, in the loss which society, 
the church and the county at large have sustained in his death. May 
God bless his heart-stricken family and sustain them in this the hour 
of their deep affliction. We can but offer them our heart-felt condo- 
lence. 

FIELDING COMBS. 

[Paris Mercury, Sept., 1873.] 

It becomes our painful duty to record the death of another of our old 
and valued citizens in the person of Mr. Fielding Combs, who departed 
this life at 9 o'clock, on Thursday last, in the eighty-third year of his 
age. A more honorable, upright citizen our county did not possess. 
His word was as good as his bond. He was a brother of the venerable 
Gen. Leslie Combs, of Kentucky, with whom he served with great 
gallantry in the War of 1812, and both were taken prisoners at Gen. 
Dudley's defeat at the battle of River Raisin. He moved to Missouri 
from Kentucky in 1819, and settled in Ralls county, when there was 
but a single inhabitant on the ground now occupied by the city of Han- 
nibal, and that was the person who kept the ferry at that point. 
Thence he moved to Monroe county in 1839, and settled upon the 
farm he occupied at the time of his death. He had been a member 
of the Presbyterian Church some forty years. He died after a very 
short illness. Was taken with cholera morbus on the Saturday pre- 
vious to his death, from which he partially recovered. On Wednesday 
night he was attacked with paralysis of the throat ; was unable to 
swallow anything, and never afterwards spoke. Thus has passed 
away one of the pioneer settlers of Missouri ; one who shared largely 
in the trials and hardships incident to frontier life. He acted well his 
part in life, and died respected by all who knew him. He leaves a 
rich legacy to his devoted children — that of an exemplary life, strict 
integrity and a spotless character, " He rests from his labors and his 
works do follow him." 

JAMES C. FOX. 

James C. Fox died Thursday, August 15, 1878. He was a native 
of Fayette county, Ky., and was born in 1802. At the age of fifteen 
he emigrated to the Territory of Missouri, and located about three 
and a half miles east of Middle Grove, which, for many years after- 
wards, was known as the Fox settlement. In 1822 he was married to 
Miss Ann Smith. The first public road established in the county was 
known as the " Old London Trail." It began at the Fox settlement 



268 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

and followed along down the divide between Elk and South fork, cross- 
ing South fork near where the Louisiana road now crosses that stream, 
and from thence on to New London. Mr. Fox assisted in surveying 
and locating this road. About this time (1829) he was appointed 
deputy sheriff and collector of the county (then Ralls), which position 
he held until the formation of Monroe county. When Monroe county 
was detached from Ralls, the commissioners selected to locate the 
county seat, stopped at Mr. Fox's home. In connection with Mr. 
Caldwell, he established the first store that was opened in Paris. 
The county court used to hold its sessions at Mr. Fox's residence. 
In fact, he was one of the noble persons who kiid the foundation for 
the wealth and prosperity of the county, and whose history is so 
closely interwoven with the history of the county, that in giving the 
history of the one you must needs give the history of the other. In 
1860 he lost his Avife, who left two children, Joseph H. Fox, of Shel- 
bina, and Mrs. T. L. Fox, of Quincy, Ills. In 1861 he was again 
married to Mrs. Mildred Caldwell, who, with her daughter, Miss 
Annie May, still survives him. He was one of the six members that 
organized the Christian Church at Paris in 1833, and from that time 
on was one of the pillars of that organization. By energy and econ- 
omy he amassed a large fortune, and spent thousands of dollars for 
the good of others and for charitable purposes. He was a good man, 
in the full sense of those words. 

MAJ. JAMES M. BEAN. ' 

Maj. James M. Bean died at his residence in Monroe county, Janu- 
ary 26, 1874. The Paris Mercury in its issue of January 27th, the 
day after his death, in speaking of him, said : — 

The deceased was born in Frederick county, Virginia, November 
21, 1819. In early life he moved to this State and settled in this 
town. Soon after he came here he became connected with this paper 
and continued with it until his death. He was married in this place 
in the year 1849, to Miss Fannie Runkle, whom he now leaves his 
widow. 

In the year 1854, Maj. Bean was elected as a Whig to represent 
Monroe county in the Lower House of the Missouri Legislature and 
re-elected in 1856. In 1872 he received from the Democratic party a 
nomination for, and was elected a State Senator from the seventh 
senatorial district by a majority more than double the number of 
votes his opponents received, which position he held at the time of 
his death. He had been a faithful, earnest member of the Christian 
Church and for a long time a teacher in the Sunday-school. He was 
a charter member of the Paris Lodge No. 29, I. O. O. F. In all the 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 269 

relations of life, he discharged his duty faithfully. As a citizen, 
officer, husband, father or brother, he has left an example worthy of 
imitation. It was no uncommon thing for him to spend in con- 
.stant work in the {Mercury) office, 16 to 18 hours of the day, 
and sometimes 24 hours. By overwork, he made himself pre- 
maturely old, for at 54 his body was literally worn out. Work 
on the Mercury had become a kind of second nature to him and 
he felt restless and dissatisfied when not at work. He loved his 
kind, had a genuine feeling of love for humanity, but loved the peo- 
ple of his county with a love nearly akin to enthusiasm. The paper 
over which he presided and gave his life to make, may be searched in 
vain for one single instance where the interest of Monroe county was 
sacrificed or held of second importance to the interest of any one, 
himself not excepted. 

It is not our purpose to enter into any eulogy upon our former 
associate, for long, pleasant and intimate associations with him, have 
given us an enthusiastic appreciation of his character and we do not 
deem this a proper occasion to give our estimate of the man, but sim- 
ply with a sorrowful heart, to call attention to his labors, the objects 
he had in view and the motives by which he was actuated, as we have 
learned them in our intimacy with him. 

So universally esteemed was Maj. Bean, that the business men of 
Paris closed their business houses until the funeral services were over. 
The St. Louis Republican, the St. Louis Times, and other papers 
throughout the State contained tributes of respect to his memory. 
Appropriate resolutions were offered in the State Senate, of which 
body he was a member at the time of his death, and eulogistic re- 
marks were made thereon by Hon. Chas. H. Hardin, Senators Brock- 
meyer, Ladue, Brown, Williams, Child and others. 

DEATH RATES. 

From the death register of Monroe county, we having taken the 
following facts: Whole number of deaths from July 9, 1883, to 
April 9, 1884, — nine months, 144; males, 64; females, 80. 

The Most Prevalent Diseases. — Flux, 6; consumption, 13; 
typhoid fever, 10; pneumonia, 17. About one-third of the deaths 
occurred from the four diseases mentioned. 

From the number of deaths we give the names and ages of ten of 
the oldest persons : Elizabeth Swinney, 88 years ; Nancy Rouse, 
86; Elizabeth Carter, 86; Jacob Brown, 79: Malvina Young, 78; 
William Davis, 77; Mary Chadwick, 77; Rebecca Todd, 77; Ann 
Fowler, 75 ; Col. A. A. Anderson, 72. 

The death rate would reach 192 per annum, or 10 per cent of the 
population. 



270 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



BIRTHS. 

During the same period there were 355 births. Two hundred and 
two of these were male children. 

HURRICANE. 

[Paris Mercury.] 

On Monday the 13th day of April, 1874, a hurricane passed over a 
strip of country about 50 yards wide, near Florida. Mr. Samuel 
Heavenridge, who lives about two miles east of Clark's Mills, was 
working in his garden at the time. Hearing a keen whistling noise, 
he looked up and saw approaching a dark cloud in the shape of a fun- 
nel, the upper and smaller end of which extended as far up as the 
eye could see, while the lower and larger end was whirling around 
with the rapidity of 'lightning, carrying with it logs, grass, trees, etc. 
His boys were working in the field at the time, and one of them was 
taken up and thrown a distance of 50 yards, but sustained no injury 
as he fell on plowed ground. The other boy catching hold of a bush, 
held fast until tke storm passed. Mr. H. and William Ore — the 
latter being with him — took shelter in an outhouse to await the pas- 
sage of the storm, but getting uneasy about the state of affairs stepped 
out, intending to get into the main building, when they were caught, 
Mr. H. being carried about three rods and lodged against a granary, 
from whence he was lifted about 10 feet into the air and let fall upon 
his shoulders, close beside a large rock to which he clung with a death 
grip. Mr. Ore was thrown in a different direction to that of Mr. H. ; 
he was carried about two rods north, where a flying timber struck him 
on the arm and side of the head, knocking him senseless. He soon 
after recovered, sustaining no injuries beside a few bruises. Mr. H. 
was not hurt beyond being severely jolted. Fortunately no one was 
killed. Mr. Heavenridge sa4d while the cloud was over him, it Avas 
impossible to breathe and the atmosphere smelt like burnt powder. 

March 10, 1876, a cyclone swept over a portion of Indian Creek 
township, doing great damage to houses, stock and human life. 

We take the following account of it from the Paris Mercury : — 

One of the most fearful and destructive wind-storms that ever 
occurred in the county visited the north-eastern part of it and adjoin- 
ing counties last Friday evening. Its pathway was marked by deso- 
lation, suffering and death. The moriMng sun that lit up many happy 
and cheerful houies, set, leaving them shrouded in death and desola- 
tion — the work of the Storm King. The march of a hostile and ruth- 
less army could not htive been more destructive. From its first mad 
rush, from its own mad element to the most remote point reached by 
it, one common desolation was apparent ; one continuous lane, in 
width less than half a mile, through farms, strewn with rails, building 
material, etc., while the leaves, grass and straw were drifted in piles, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 271 

as though the country had been swept by a flood. Large forest trees 
were twisted off like reeds and carried away some distance. 

On last Friday night we had information of the terrible ravages of 
the storm, and at the earliest practicable hour were on the fields 
desolated by the maddened elements. Nothing we had heard gave an 
adequate idea of the extent of the destruction caused by the'storm. 
From all we could learn the cyclone had its formation but a short 
distance west of Mr. William Priest's, about one and a half miles 
south of Clapper Station. Two clouds, one from the south-west and 
another from the north-west, appeared to collide immediately over this 
place. The collision was followed by a noise strongly resembling that 
made by a train of cars in running over a bridge. Simultaneously 
with the noise white puffs of vapor were seen to shoot up, as if to mark 
the place where heaven's engine of destruction began its fearful ruin. 
The resemblance was so striking, that some persons at Clapper 
Station mistook it for an extra train on the railroad. The illusion 
was so perfect that they did not observe their mistake until they saw 
the destroying angel pass over the prairie south of town, in an easterly 
direction. Fences at once yielded to the fury of the storm, and as ft 
moved its way over the prairie, increasing in violence, houses began 
to totter under the weight of the wind. Mr. Utterback's house was 
the first to receive any damage. Next the house of Mrs. Statew, a 
widow lad}^ was completely demolished and leveled to the ground. 
She and her son were in the building at the time. Both received 
severe injuries. The latter had two ribs broken. Mrs. Statew has 
been extremely unfortunate. Less than one year ago her house was 
burned down. It was again rebuilt. To-day it is a wreck and she 
and her son injured. Mr. Smith's house a short distance to the 
north-east of Mrs. Statew's house was unroofed on one side. Then 
Philip McNelis' house, a log building, was swept to the ground and 
portions of it carried into valley beyond. At this point the 
storm seems to have taken new strength, making a mad rush for 
the village of Elizabethtown, on an eminence beyond the valley of 
Indian creek. Four small houses and the parsonage, as if overlooked 
by the destroying engine of heavens construction, are all that 
remains of the village. Save these the desolation of the place 
is complete. On every hand piled in every conceivable shape, 
mixed and intermingled, lie the debris of buildings, homes and 
business houses. Thomas Yates, Sr., had seven houses leveled to 
the ground. The house occupied by the Misses Higgins, that occu- 
pied by Elijah Durbin, Patrick Ryan's business house and dwelling, 
James Skey's house, Joseph Carrico and Samuel Christian's business 
house, Nicholas Bick's business house, the residence of Mrs. John 
Bick, and the house occupied by Mrs. Green, a widow lady with a large 
family, have all been swept away. Some of these families are in the 
most destitute circumstances, having lost all they had. Among those 
who need help, we are informed, are Elijah Durbin, the Misses Higgins, 
Patrick Ryan and James Skey. The injured are Treacy Hayden, a 



272 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

blind girl vvho lived with Elijah Durbin, slightly injured; Patrick 
Ryan and daughter, the latter said to be fatally injured ; a little girl, 
aged five or six years, child of James Skey, fatally injured ; the Misses 
Higgins slightly ; Mrs. Green an arm broken in two places, and one 
of her children seriously injured. Viewing the wreck and ruins, it 
seems almost a miracle that so few were so seriously hurt. The 
church, a large brick ])uilding, walls 18 inches thick, well built, was 
swept to its foundation. The ground sacred to the dead did not 
escape the invading storm. The most costly monuments and slabs 
were torn from their basis and ^jroken into pieces. Large timbers 
were carried into the fields beyond the village. Dry goods were 
caught up by the fierce blast and pinned to the topmost branches of 
the trees, and left as the flags of the Storm King, raised in triumph 
of the almost complete desolation which he had wrought at this place 
in one brief instant. Still on to the north-east, with unabated fury 
drove the storm, plowing its way through the forests and leveling the 
fences. David W. Spalding's house was unroofed, and further on 
the house of W. Crane suffered the same fate. Fortunately no one 
was injured at either place. The house on the farm of A. B. Combs, 
deceased, occupied by Samuel A. Peirsol, was hurled to the ground. 
Several persons were visiting at the house at the time. Mrs. Peirsol, 
a daughter about ten years okl, named Josephine, and Mrs. Gartin, a 
sister of Mrs. Peirsol, were crushed to death instantly. A son of 
Mrs. Gartin, Mrs. Patrick Mudd, Mr. Peirsol and other members 
of the family were more or less injured. The terrible tornado leaving 
its work of desolation, swept on in the direction of Hassard. It is 
reported that Jerome Kendrick, living near Hassard, lost a child ; 
that in the vicinity of Hassard three women were killed, and a man 
and woman seriously if not fatally injured. At Hassard, the station- 
house was unroofed, the section-house entirely demolished and other 
buildings injured. Beyond Hassard, Peter Smith's house was blown 
down. Mr. Smith is said to have been instantly killed and his wife 
fatally injured. In the vicinity of West Ely, Mr. Turpin's house was 
blown down and members of the family seriously injured ; also, the 
barn and residence of Capt. Rowe were badly wrecked. The storm 
crossed the Hauni])al and St. Joseph Railroad at Wither's mill, about six 
and a half miles north-west of Hannibal. In this neighborhood, was a 
frame house occupied by a Swede, named Peterson, and his wife and 
child killed. It crossed the Mississippi river about five miles above 
Hannibal and is said to have been most terrific in that vicinity. The 
many sufferers have our sympathies. We never before witnessed 
such desolation ; may we never again. While at Indian Creek, we 
met Fathers Mulholland and Shea, Hon. P. H. McLeod and Drs. 
Norman and Mays. They were untiring in their efforts to relieve 
distress and suffering. 

(It was afterwards ascertained that 14 persons were killed and 
wounded in Monroe county by the storm.) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 273 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

The people of Monroe county, feeling the need of a county fair, 
effected an organization in 1837. The benefits of such an organization, 
when rightly conducted, are varied and manifold. The society placed 
right ideals before the people, and by various incentives, called them 
to a higher plane of thought and action. The best thoughts of the 
world, the results of much study, experiment and investigation, are 
transferred from all lands and brought into the homes of the people. 
The premium list covers the whole circle of human industries, and 
every family in the county feels the benefits incident to emulation. 
The gathering of people in masses and the annual display of the best 
products for examination, comparison and study, carries higher ideals 
and new thoughts to every home. Farmers discuss these matters 
around the fireside and their farms begin to show improvements in 
every way. Improved breeds of stock are introduced, better seed is 
sown, and new cereals tried, improved implements are bought, farm- 
houses are constructed on better plans, and the home is furnished with 
many comforts and luxuries which would never have been thought of, 
without the fair. It may be conceded that conductors of fairs have 
fallen below the true ideals, and have not used all the forces placed in 
their hands by these organizations for human improvement, but the 
Monroe county fairs have never fallen below the average. 

The first fiiir in the county was held in the ftiU of 1838, on a lot 
which lies immediately east of J. C. Fox's residence in the town of 
Paris. The o-rounds were inclosed bv a rope drawn around them, 
and although the exhibition was small — confined chiefly to agricul- 
tural products — yet much interest in the success of the fair was mani- 
fested. This general interest was kept up for many years. 

On the 27th day of July, 1879, a number of citizens met at Paris to 
take the necessary stops to reorganize the fair association. Another 
meeting was held July 30, and the following named gentlemen associ- 
ated themselves together for the purpose of holding a fair during the 
fall of 1879, and thereby became responsible for the success or failure 
of the fair: W. S. Conyers, E. T. Wetraore, Jeff. Bredford, T. T. 
Kodes, F. L. Pitts, T. B. Powers, R. M. Burgess, William Foster, 
T. W. Ragsdale, T. W. Kurd, J. H. Carr, John S. Crow, C. E. Holtz- 
claw, T. J. Barker, Thompson Holliday, James F. Woods, M. O. 
Robertson, T. O. Collins, J. J. McGee, Mercury Printing Company, 
Gress. Glascock, C. F. Afllick, M. J. Clark, R. B. Worrell, M. A. 
Maupin, M. B. Leowenstine. 



274 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

This body of men, numbering 25, was culled the Monroe County 
Fair Association. The directors were E. T. Wetmore, Jeff. Brido-- 
ford, J. J. McGee, James T. Woods, Thompson Holliday, R. M. 
Burgess, M. A. Eobertson, T. P. Bashaw, T. J. Barker, T. W. Hurd 
and J. W. Eagsdale. The board of directors elected J. J. McGee, 
president; T. P. Bashaw, vice-president; T. T. Rodes, secretary, and 
F. L. Pitts, treasurer. 

In 1880 the Monroe County Fair Association was incorporated with 
the following stockholders, each of whom subscribed the sum of $50 : 
M. A. Maupin, S. S. Bassett, Joseph West, G. P. Grimes, M. J. 
Clark, Holtzcla^v & Batsell, J. J. McGee, Edwards & Smizer, R. B. 
Worrell, M. O. Robinson, T. J. Barker, Jeff. Bridgford, E. T. Wet- 
more, F. L. Pitts, Burgess & Son, Silas Threlkeld, Ragsdale & 
. Rubey, J. H. Fox, W. W. Clapper, Crow & Goetz, Foster & Jackson, 
McCann & Son, M. B. Leowenstine, Aus. Curtright, Armstrong & 
Long, T. Buerk & Bro., Mason, Bashaw & Burnett, Rose, Rose & 
Harlow, J. D. McCanne & Snell, Rodes & Blanton, C. M. Reid, W. 
L. Burke & Bro., Charles Selby, Grimes & Barker, James Curtright 
& Woodson, W. S. Conyers, J. D. Curtright, J. G. Harley & Bro., 
John S. Crow, James F. Woods, C. M. Shrader, John S. Conyers, 
James Worrell & Branham, G. M. Bower, H. P. Long, R. T. Smith, 
Daniel Curtright & Glascock, Theron Powers, F. Lee Bros., D. H. 
Moss, George Green well. 

Fairs have been regularly held at Paris since the reorganization, and 
have been financially a success. Present officers: John D. McCann, 
president ; Hugh E. McGee, secretary ; J. J. Armstrong, treasurer. 
The next fair will be held in September, 1884. 

MONROE COUNTY IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. 

The Monroe County Immigration Society was organized March 14, 
1874, at Paris. The directors for the first year were : Dr. E. Bailey, 
of Monroe ; Jefferson Bridgford, of Jackson ; Henry Dooley, of Jeffer- 
son ; Thomas Yates, of Indian Creek ; M. D. Blakey, of Clay ; John 
BrownfieldjOf Marion; James Bridgford, of South Fork; R.Porter, 
of Union ; George F. Palmer, of Woodlawn, and F. B. Vaughn, of 
Washington township. 

The first officers elected were : Dr. E. Bailey, president ; R. M. 
Bodine, secretary, and William F. Buckner, treasurer. 

M. D. Blakey and Henry Dooley were appointed as an executive 
committee. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 275 



MONROE CITY IMMIGRATION SOCIETY 

was organized on the 6th day of August, 1875, by electing Judge G. 
L. Hardy, chairman, and J. C. Peirsol, secretary. Present at the 
meeting were E. Bailey, G. L. Hardy, J. M. Proctor, S. E. Comings, 
E. H. Walker, Samuel Sparks, J. P. Myers, G. E. Blatchford, Bishop 
& Gerard, Moss & Carsan, P. A. Pendleton, George M. Kinchloe, 
B. O. Wood, J. A. Peirsol, J. C. Peirsol, D. C. Comings, E. M. Gal- 
loway, S. H. Hallock, U. S. Pike, Sherman & Jackson, Samuel 
Snider, and K. C. Brown, all of whom became members of the 
society. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

In June, 1873, Col. A. A. Anderson organized the Granger move- 
ment in Monroe county. The following are the Granges ; Union 
Church, at school-house nearby; Dowell's School-House, Vauo-hn's 
School House, Middle Grove, Jefferson Grange, at Florida ; Excelsior 
Grange, Greenwood Grange, Central Grange, Santa Fe Grange, Elk 
Fork Grange, Long Branch Grange, Jackson Grange, Star Grange, 
Youngs Creek Grange, Granville, Madison, Oak Ridge School House, 
Cross Hollows School House, Austin School House. 

CENSUS OF MONROE COUNTY IN 1848. 

Number of free white males under 10 years of age, 1,332 ; free white 
females under 10 years of age, 1,310; white males between 10 and 18 
years, 854 ; white females between 10 and 18 years, 796 ; white males 
between 18 and 21 years, 227 ; white females between 18 and 21 years, 
236; white males between 21 and 45 years, 1,142; white females 
between 21 and 45 years, 1,049 ; white males 45 and upwards, 409 ; 
white females 45 and upwards, 336 ; deaf and dumb, 1 ; free persons 
of color, 40; slaves, 1,826; total, 9,558. Number of voters, 1,551. 
Population of Paris, 502. 

In 1860 Monroe county contained, white, 11,722; colored, 3,063. 
1870 — white, 15,144; colored, 2,005. 1880— white, 16,925; col- 
ored, 2,146. 

POPULATION BY TOWNSHIPS IN 1880. 

Clay township, 1,555 ; Indian Creek township, 567 ; Jackson town- 
ship, including Paris, 4,898 ; Paris, 1,253 ; Jefferson township, 2,416 ; 
Marion township, 2,273; Monroe township, including Monroe City, 
1,130; Monroe City, 640 ; South Fork township, 1,514 ; Union town- 



276 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ship, including Middle Grove, 1,963; Middle Grove, 169; Washing- 
ton township, 1,436; Woodlawn township, 1,319; total, 19,071. 

Of this number 338 were foreign born. 

The population of the county in 1884 is estimated to be about 22,000 . 

We take the following from the Paris Mercury of July, 1845: — 

BEEF CATTLE. 

We call the attention of our readers to the advertisement of Messrs. 
Samuel & Haines, in another column, on the subject of beef cattle. 
They shipped Monroe beef, packed at Hannibal, to England, which so 
much pleased the subjects of Queen Victoria that they have ordered 
more. This speaks well for the stock-raisers and feeders of Monroe, 
Avho, by their industry and enterprising spirit, have taken the front 
rank in the stock and produce trade. This must and will cause Monroe 
to prosper. She is now the brag county in Missouri on the subject of 
live stock and produce, and from her numerous natural advantages she 
is able, and no doubt will maintain her position. The people of 
Monroe owe a debt of gratitude to our enterprising and indefatigable 
fellow-citizen, Pleasant McCann, Esq., for his well aimed exertions in 
brino-inof about this advantao-eous state of things. One such citizen 
as McCann is worth more to a community than a thousand of your 
glove-handed ruffle-shirt gentry. Who would have thought a few 
years ago that Monroe county would now be raising beef to feed the 
citizens of Great Britain? This should encourage us to persevere, to 
make good roads, bridge our water courses, cultivate our rich and 
beautiful prairies, and enhance the value of our lands, and facilitate 
our transportation. 

BRIDGES, THEIR LOCATION AND COST. 

North fork. Salt river, three bridges — Elliott bridge, Paris and 
Hannibal road, 145 feet, $5,000.00; Pratt truss double intersection, 
iron, 156 feet span, one mile north of Florida, $7,000.00 ; Pratt truss 
combination, 140 feet span, at Clinton, $1,500.00 ; Clear Creek, on 
Paris and Shelbina Road, wooden, $150.00 ; Four bridges on Crooked 
Creek, 1 combination and 3 wood, $1,500.00; Otter Creek, 5 
wooden bridges, $1,500.00 ; on Middle fork of Salt river, 5 bridges 
to wit: at Leesburg one Pratt truss combination, 110 feet span, 
$1,000.00; at Porter's Ford 1 National truss, 100 feet span, con- 
demned; 1 on Holliday and Grunville road, Pratt truss, iron single in- 
tersection, 100 feet span, $2,000.00 ; 1 at Paris, Elliott's bridge, 100 
feet span, $5,000.00 ; 1 a mile south of Florida, National truss, 3 
spans, 400 feet, $5,000.00; 7 bridges on Elk fork of Salt river, 
viz. : 1 on Paris and Louisiana road, Pratt truss combination, 135 feet 
long, $1,500.00 ; 1 on Paris and Mexico road, Elliott make, $4,000.00 ; 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 277 

1 on Paris and Columbia road, Pratt truss combination, 135 feet span, 
$1,500.00 ; 1 on Paris and Middle Grove road, Elliott make, $5,000.00 ; 
1 on Madison & Sturgeon road, Pratt truss combination, 135 feet span, 
$2,000.00 ; 1 wooden bridge on road from Madison to Middle Grove, 
$200.00 ; 1 wooden bridge on road from Evansville to Middle Grove, 
$200.00 ; On Long Branch of Salt river, 4 bridges, viz. : 1 on Paris 
and Santa Fe road, Pratt truss combination, 130 feet span, $1,500.00; 
1 on Paris and Mexico road, Pratt truss combination, 75 feet, 
$800.00; 1 wooden bridge on Paris and Centralia road, $200.00; 1 
wooden bridge on Madison and Centralia road, $200.00 ; 1 bridge 
on South fork of Salt river, Elliott make, 100 feet span, $4,000.00 ; 
1 bridge on Indian creek, wooden, $250.00 ; 1 wooden bridge on Mud 
creek, $200.00. Total, $51,200.00. 




CHAPTER XVII. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

First Baptist Church of Paris. — On the 7th daj of May, 1831, at 
the house of Eli Bozarth, four miles south of Paris, the organization 
of this church (then called Bethlehem) was effected through the 
efiorts of Revs. Archibald Patterson and Edward Turner. The con- 
stituent members were John Suney, Mary Suney, Paul Herreford, 
Sarah Herreford, John H. Curry, Matilda Curry, Benjamin Suney, 
Mary Suney, Isaac Coppage, Edward Turner, Lucretia Turner, Nancy 
Donaldson, Mary Smith, C. C. Acuff, Peter N. Mahan, Jane C. 
Mahan, John Hocker, Fanny Pool, and a colored man named Peter. 
At a subsequent meeting, in April, 1832, the name was again 
changed, this time to Middle Fork, afterwards receiving the present 
title. The first pastor of the church was Edward Turner, followed 
successively by Anderson Woods, 1836; Norman Parks, 1841; W. 
Keach, 1844 ; Jacob Bower, 1847 ; Bartlett Anderson, 1849 ; Henson 
Thomas, 1851 ; W. Mitchell, 1858 ; S. A. Beauchamp, 1860; G. W. 
Robey, 1866 ; George C. Brown, 1867 ; H. M. King, 1869 ; James S. 
Green, 1873; G. T. Colvin, 1874: W. W. K(me, 1875; William E. 
Chambliss, 1877; William Green, 1880, and J.T.Williams, 1881. 
The first church building was built of brick in 1833, it being suc- 
ceeded by a frame house in 1859. In 1858 a Sabbath-school was 
started and has had six superintendents since then : W. B. Craig, 
R. D. Woods, Charles Dawson, T. B. Gannaway, Jere. B. P. Smith 
and J. T. Williams. It now numbers 100 scholars. The church has a 
membership of 150. 

North Fork O. S. Baptist Church. — The location of this church 
is in section 13, Jeiferson township, east of Stoutsville. Its forma- 
tion occurred about 1832 or 1833, the first house being a log struct- 
ure, built near 1835. Those who comprised the original members 
were Hiram Thompson and wife ; Jonas Reavis and wife ; Jane Don- 
aldson, John Ingle and wife; William J. Henderson and wife; Zach. 
Herndon and wife ; Charles Crutcher, Mary Dooley, Lucy Hard- 
wick, John B. Yowell and wife ; Joel Finks and wife ; William 
Turner and wife ; Richard Turner and wife ; Hert Yager and 
(278) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 279 

wife ; James Bush and wife ; George Williamson and wife ; Edward 
Eagsdale, Mrs. Eagsdale and a relative, also Miss Ragsdale ; Polly 
Martin, Samuel Vanscoike and wife ; William Crutcher, Hiram 
Dooley and wife; Jane Ridgeway, William Allen and wife; Mrs. 
Edwards, Sophia Gatson, Dulcena Shearer, Calvin Shearer, Will- 
iam Wilkerson, Levina and Peggy Wilkerson. William J. Hen- 
derson is the only surviving member of this church of 40 years ago. 
There are now 38 members. Christopher Gentry, Archibald Patter- 
son, Charles Turner and William Priest have been their pastors, the 
latter for a period of over 30 years. Their present church edifice, a 
frame, was erected about 1851, costing nearly $800. 

Mount Prairie Missionary Baptist Church — On section 13 of 
Jefferson township, was constituted as a church April 15, 1837, the 
original members being William Conrad and wife ; Sarah Scobee, 
Elmira Lee, Emily Hasket, Sarah Morton, James Dixon, Catherine 
Utterback, Matthew Walton, Henry L. and Hannah Houston, Lucy 
White and Celia Ann Conrad. Their present church edifice, a frame 
structure, was built in the summer of 1859, and is valued at about 
$300. William Hurley Henderson, Woods C. Gentry, N. P. Acraft, 
H. Thomas, Dudley Enlow, F. Smith and W. B. Craig have served 
as pastors of the congregation, which now numbers nearly 60 mem- 
bers. 

Crooked Creek Baptist Church. — As might be inferred from its 
name, this church is situated on Crooked creek, in township 56, range 
10. It is one of the oldest congregations in the county, having been 
constituted as a church on the first Saturday in March, 1840, with 
Isaac Bates, Jane Bates, William Cook, Dorcas Cook, Margaret Mau- 
pin, Margaret Goe, David Lusk, Jane Lusk, Jacob Troup, Catherine 
Troup and Jessie White as the original persons of a membership 
which now numbers 96. Various changes and of a diversified nature 
have accompanied this little band through its long continued useful- 
ness here, but at present it is prosperous, and has every reason to be 
encouraged. They have had three church buildings — the first a log, 
built in 1844 ; the second a frame, in 1858, costing $1,400 or $1,500 ; 
and the third a frame, erected during the present year at a cost of 
$1,800, and which was dedicated on the first Sunday in July, 1884, 
by Rev. W. Pope Yeatnan. The names of the pastors who have had 
charge here, with the length of the service of each, is as follows : 
Elders B. Stephens, two years ; Norman Parks, four years : Christie 
Gentry, two years ; H. H. Tilford, two years ; Henson Thomas, two 
years ; H. H. Tilford, three years ; S. A. Beauchamp, one year ; Mil- 

13 



280 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ford Powers, one year; Gr. C. Brown, two years; J. F. Smith, five 
years ; W. E. Chambliss, two years ; W. B. Craig, eight years, and now 
the incumbent of the position. The Sabbath-school of 40 scholars, 
superintended by William Fuqua, is in a flourishing condition. 

Long Branch Baptist Church — Situated near the south line of 
South Fork township, on the Mexico road, was constituted an organi- 
zation early in 1844, when John B. Eudasill, James Botts and wife, 
Margaret ; Mrs. Lucy Dowell ; James W. Cauthorn and Betsy, his 
wife ; Edward Goodnight and wife, Polly ; Harrison Goodnight, and 
Nancy Charlton comprised the membership. Among those who have 
ministered to them are William Jesse, Norman Parks, James F. 
Smith, H. H. Tilford, Dudley V. Inlow, S. A. Beauchamp, H. M. 
King, M. M. Powers, N. S. Johnston, G. T. Colvin and W. B. Craig. 
In 1857 their frame house of worship was constructed at a cost of 
$800, and in 1873 it underwent extensive improvements at an addi- 
tional expenditure of nearly $1,000. It now has a membership of 
150. P. H. Rudasill is superintendent of a Sabbath-school of 40 
scholars. An interesting meeting is held by some of the members 
on Sunday, in a school-house in this vicinity. 

Salem Baptist Church. — This church has been organized since 
May, 1857, Revs. H. Thomas and A. Goodridge being instrumental 
in its formation. The original members were 17 in number, anions^ 
them were Lewis Phillips and wife, Thomas P. Moore and wife, 
Simeon Heddens and wife, Benjamin Phillips and wife, Samuel Willis 
and wife, David Phillips, Dick Thomas, John and William Burner 
and Mrs. Nancy Bundrent. In 1857 the first house for worship was 
built and in the fall of 1881 the second one was completed, the latter 
a frame, costing in the neighborhood of $1700, the dedicatory ser- 
vices|being held the second Sabbath in January, 1882, by Rev. Berry. 
Revs. H. Thomas, Abram Goodridge, Milford Powers, Wiley Patrick, 
Henry King, William B. Craig, William Chambliss and John T. Will- 
iams have at different periods supplied the pulpit of this church. The 
membership is now about 90. The Sabbath-school has an enrollment 
of about 35 pupils. Lewis Thomas is the superintendent. The loca- 
tion of this congregation is in the northern part of Jackson township, 
on section 22. 

Mt. Airy Baptist Church — Was organized in February, 1868, with 
William Elders, Mary Elders, N. W. Dawson, E. H. Dawson, John W. 
Bell and Melvina Bell as the constituent members. In 1873 a frame 
building, in which services are held, was erected at a cost of about 
$1,000. W. B. Craig, W. T. Elliott, Rev. George C. Brown, M. Powers, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 281 

and W. B, Craig a second time, have served as pastors. There are 
now about 60 communicants in the church, which is located on section 
3 of Union township (township 54, range 11). 

Huntsville Baptist Church. — About the year 1869, Ab ram Utter- 
back and wife, Gustavus Bannister, Joseph Smeltzer and perhaps 
others, met and formed an organization at Hand School-house through 
the efforts largely of Rev. Milford Powers. Since then Revs. W. B. 
Craig, George C. Brown, W. B. Craig (a second time) and G. D. 
Tolle (who was the last one) have been the ministers in charge. 
There is no pastor of the church at present. Services are held once 
a month. The number of present membership is about 50. In the 
summer of 1873 a frame house in which services are held was com- 
pleted and is valued at nearly $1,000. 

Lebanon Baptist Church — Is located near Victor, in South Fork 
township. Its formation was consummated in 1879, the organizing mem- 
bers being A. C. Goodridge, Sarah Simpson, Joseph M. Simpson, Nancy 
Gillespie, Milford Powers, Harriet Powers and Laura, James, Louella, 
Richard, Anna and Mary C. Powers. The present membership is 21. 
Milford Powers has been the only pastor of the church since its organ- 
ization. The frame church building was erected by the Christian and 
Baptist denominations in 1879 and is valued at $1,200. It is an interest- 
ing fact to note that no debt hangs heavily over this enterprising body 
of believers. Miss Alice Clark is superintendent of a Sabbath-school of 
25 scholars. 

Paris M. E. Church South. — This church was one of those 
who, in 1844, upon the division of the denomination, went into the 
Southern association, and it has since remained under the jurisdiction 
of the M. E. Church South. It was organized in 1832, the first 
members being Thomas S. Miller and wife, Thomas Noonan and wife, 
Wesley Hill, Joel Maupin, Jefferson T. Marr and wife, Richerson S. 
Marr, William Stevens and wife, John S. Fowkes and wife, John T. 
Nesbit and wife, Walker Wright and wife, Mrs. Virginia Bryan, 
Joseph Wast, Henry Marr and wife, Harrison Sparks and wife. Two 
buildings for worship have been erected — the first, a frame, in 1846, 
at a cost of $1,000, and the second, a brick structure, in 1881, this 
being valued at $3,000. Connected with it is a good parsonage, 
frame, worth $800. Seventy members constitute the present congre- 
gation. Those who have served as pastors are James Jameson, Jacob 
Lanius, Benjamin R. Johnson, J. Gray, Hugh L. Dodds, George 
Grove, Berry H. Spencer, Arthur Sears, John F. Young and Jesse 



282 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Sutton. A Sabbath-school of 35 scholars is superintended by J. M. 
McMurry. 

Spencer Chapel, M.E. Church South. — This organization was 
effected in 1832, Thomas Maupin and wife, William Maupin and wife, 
and others, being the lirst members. It is located in Clay township, 
in the north-western part of the county. Two houses of worship have 
been built, both frame, the first in 1846, at a cost of $600, and the 
second in 1871, the value of the latter being $2,000. 

Mount Zion M. E. Church South. — Eight miles south-west of 
Paris this church is found, it having been organized in 1833. Our 
efforts to secure additional data proved unsuccessful in this instance. 

Austin M. E . Church South. — At Austin station, in Jackson 
township, was formed in 1833, the members of the organization being 
Henry Marr and wife, Samuel West and wife, John Rucker and wife, 
Anthony Rucker, William M. Sharp and wife , John S. Sherman and 
wife, Susan Austin, David Ashby and wife, Henry Ashby and wife 
and Stephen Hess and wife. There are now 50 members in the 
church. Preaching services are held in a school-house, there being 
no regular house of worship. Ministers who hold services here are 
the same as the pastors of the Paris church. 

Granville M. E. Church South. — Was first organized in about 
1840, some three miles south of Granville, but in 1871 removed to 
that place, which is 10 miles north-west of Paris. Among the original 
members may be mentioned L. G. Maupin and wife, James Tyson, 
wife and mother, John Evans and wife, Mrs. James Dawson, Nancy 
Barton, William A. Sparks and Avife, Walker Wright and wife and 
Mrs. Orr. About 80 persons constitute the membership at this time. 
Their frame church-building, 32x40, put up in 1871 at a cost of 
$1,700, was dedicated by J. W. Cunningham of St. Louis. Revs. 
Jordan and Benj. Davis were the first ministers in charge, and since 
their removal to the present location. Revs. William Bell, James 
Smith, H. P. Bond, J. W. Jackson, B. F. Spencer, J. F. Monroe, 
J. W. Jordan, S. L. Woodie, W. E. Docery and W. T. Ellington 
have served as pastors. 

Monroe Chapel M. E. Church South. — Owing to the destruction 
by fire of the early records of this church, we are unable to give the 
date of its organization, though it was between 1840 and 1850, prob- 
ably 1845. The names of the first members could not be obtained. 
Some of the pastors of the congregation have been : William Bell, 
Lilburn Rush, Walter Toole, William Warren, W. W. Wainwright, 
J. W. Jordan, A. P. Linn, Revs. Hedgepeth, Root, Blackwell, Will- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 283 

iam M. Wood and Eev. Shackleford. The original church was built 
about 1845, and the present one in 1877. It cost about $1,500, is a 
frame, and is 34x50 feet in dimension. There is a membership here 
of some 200. The Sabbath-school of 106 pupils, is superintended by 
John C. Rhodes. 

Greemoood M. E. Church South. — Organized in 1854, is in 
Washington township, 10 miles north of Paris. The building in 
which services are held was built in 1866. It is a conveniently 
arranged structure, neat in appearance, and cost $1,800. It is a frame 
house. The ministers who served the church have been the same as 
the incumbents of the Paris pulpit, until the Greenwood church edifice 
was constructed. 

Mt. ZionM. E. Church South} — W. H. Violet and wife , Philip 
Schrader and wife, Harry Patterson and wife, M, F. Mason and wife, 
D. Miller and wife, and William Miller and mother were among the 
original members of this church, which was organized in 1858. There 
are now about 60 persons connected with its membership. The 
pastors of the congregation have been : Revs. William Fenton, John 
Taylor, Loving, Root, William Sutton, Collett, J. McErvin, James 
James, William Shackleford and Walter Tool. The same year of its 
formation a building for worship was erected at a cost of $800. There 
are 40 scholars in the Sabbath - school, superintended by Jacob 
Schrader. The location of this church in the center of section 8, in 
Jackson township. 

M. E. Church South. — Located at Madison, in Marion town- 
ship, is found this little band, now numbering 56 members. 
It was organized in 1868 by Rev. John R. Taylor, and on 
the records appear the following names as original members : 
Thomas Brownfield and wife, Nathaniel Brownfield and wife, 
Robert E. Thomas and wife, Rachel Thomas, Mary Thomas, 
Josiah Thomas, Solon Burnsworth and wife, Elmer Burnsvvorth, 
Caroline Harley, Jacob Lenhart, John W. Lenhart and wife, George 
H. Lenhart, Charles Lenhart, Nancy A. Pool, Annie E. Dawson, Ed- 
ward Dawson, James A. Dawson, May Frazee, Ella F. Wood, Anna 
Adkisson and Millie Crim. About $1,500 were raised for a frame 
house of worship which was completed in 1872. Rev. Walter Toole 
is the present pastor of the congregation. His predecessors were 
Revs. William Wood, Baldwin, William Sutton, R. G. Loving, H. 



1 See church of same page, 282. 



284 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

W. James, Joseph Row, John S. Hooker, William M. Sarter, William 
M. Sutton and W. G. Shackleford. 

[Contributed.] 
Monroe City M. E. Church South. — This church began its work 
in Monroe City in the year 1866, under the ministry of the Rev. 
Charles Babcock. Services were held in the Seminary building. The 
church was organized by Rev. John R. Taylor in 1870, witii 10 mem- 
bers ; Benjamin H. H. Tucker, class leader; John Shearman and 
Prof. J. Milton McMurry, stewards. The ministers who have 
officiated at her altar from time to time, by conference appointment, 
are Jesse Faubion, John S. Todd, Lilburn Rush, B. M. Spencer, H. 
W. James, A. P. Linn, and the present incumbent, L. F. Linn. The 
class has had a steady and healthy growth from its beginning to the 
present time, and now has a membership of about 200. Six to eight 
sermons are preached each month to overflowing congregations. The 
church building is a neat, plain brick structure, centrally located, 
having a seating capacity for about 300. The foundation was laid in 
1877, and was completed and free from debt, August 1, 1878, upon 
which day it was dedicated by Rev. J. H. Pritchett, of the Missouri 
Conference. The first board of trustees were Lovel Rouse (a great 
and good man who is with the blessed), H. H. See, J. B. Randol, 
Benjamin H. D. Tucker, S. R. Boulware, James H. Grady and John 
Shearman. The Sunday-school was organized in the spring of 1878, 
with J. B. Randol, superintendent; Dr. Adolphus Noland, secretary, 
and Mrs. Mary Carrol, treasurer, with a grand total attendance of 30, 
from which it rapidly increased till the grand total enrolled is now 
nearly 150. At the present time it is under the efficient manager, R. 
V. Sullivan, superintendent. The history of the M. E. Church South 
at this place would indeed be incomplete if special personal mention was 
not made of some individuals to whose fervency, zeal and self-sacrificing 
of personal interests, the society largely owes its grand success and 
bright prospects for a glorious future, conspicuously among whom 
were Lovel Rouse, deceased, and J. B. Randol, now of Colorado. 
These were the standard-bearers, but close to them stood J. H. and 
R. V. Sullivan, John Shearman, W. R. P. Jackson, H. H. See, 
deceased, and others. There were ladies, too, who stood the heat 
and burdens of the day. There were Mrs. Ann Boulware, deceased, 
Mrs. J. H. Sullivan, Mrs. Mary Carrol, Mrs. Dr. A. Noland and 
others. Harmony has been a prevailing principle from the founda- 
tion of the society. A weak effort was made by several who 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 285 

absorbed the heretical ideas of a traveling band called Holiness Band, 
to inculcate their ideas as Methodist doctrine, but the spirit ot God 
prevailed with the membership, and the misguided few either 
denounced their error or sought other lields in which to scatter their 
nefarious doctrine. 

Forest Grove M. E. Church South. — Located in Woodlawn 
township, at Forest Grove, about 16 miles north-west from Paris, was 
organized in 1879. Our endeavors to secure the names of the first 
members and the pastors proved futile. The present membership is 
30. A frame church building, costing $1,000, was built in 1880. 

Deer Creek M. E. Church South. — Located near Deer Creek, in 
Washington township, was constituted as the above in 1879, the con- 
stituent members being Samuel Bowling, Nancy J. Bowling, Mollie 
Bowling, Robert Bowling, J. H. Jette, Lue Lasley, Z. M. Lasley, 
Lue Ide, Elzada Ide, Levi Ide, James E Ragsdale, Mary E. Ragsdale, 
John Bohrer, Susan Bohrer, Benjamin E. Washburn, Sarah P. Wash- 
burn, William C. Washburn, Joseph H. Washburn, William Nesbit, 
Catherine Nesbit, J. H. Dooley, Mary E. Dooley, Walter Ransdall, 
Ann Ransdall, Lee Ransdall and Porter H. Manuel. Their frame 
house of worship was built at a cost of $1,000, in 1878. The present 
membership is 60 ; the pastor being Rev. William M: Featherston. 

Madison Christian Church. — Five persons composed the original 
membership of this church upon its organization in 1838. October 
24, 1841, Elders Henry Thomas and Martin Vivion succeeded in 
effecting a reorganization, when the constituent members were Mar- 
tin Grove and wife, Isaac and Elizabeth Baker, Thomas Farthino-, 
James P. Grove, Peter Johnson, John Grove, Moses Baker, Sarah 
Vivion, Samuel Akins, Ursula Waller, Mary A. Waller, Matilda 
Noel, Sarah Harris, Joseph Cunningham, Mary Cunningham, Mary 
Hayden, Susan Grove, Martin Vivion, Susan Vivion, Robert Harris, 
Armstrong Dawson, Elizabeth Johnson, E. M. Yager, Sally Waller, 
John W. Dawson and Sarah Dawson. The membership is now 143. 
The first pastor, Elder Martin Vivion, was succeeded by Henr}'- 
Thomas, followed in succession by John McCune, James Perry, Al- 
fred Wilson, Martin Wilmot, G. A. Perkins, J. C. Davis and H. F. 
Davis. The present incumbent is William M. Featherston. In 1873 
a frame house, in which services are held, was built for $1,500. 

Union Christian Church. — This congregation now worships iu a 
frame building on section 2Q, township 54, range 11 (Jackson town- 
ship), which was erected in 1872, costing $2,400. Their first house 
of worship was constructed in 1845, immediately following the organ- 



286 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

izatiou of the church, when E. Maddox and wife, William Fuhrman 
and wife, Con. Brown and wife, John Fuhrman, wife and family, 
Jesse Maddox and wife, Charles Burton and wife, Gabriel Wood and 
wife and Wilson Maddox and wife, composed the list of organizing 
members. It now boasts a membership of 135. D. P. Henderson, 
Henry Thomas, Alfred Wilson and Rev. Mason have ministered to 
the spiritual necessities of this band of believers. 

Christian Church of /Santa Fe. — About 1855 a house of worship, 
now occupied by this body, was completed at a cost of nearly $2,500. 
Its organization was effected June 17, 1838, when Daniel M. Swain, 
Enoch Fruit, Samuel Gilbert, Jane Camplin, William Donaldson, 
Berry Tally, Margaret Fruit, Sally Tally, Eleanor B. Davis, B. F. 
Davis, Jacob Cox, Cassandra Cox and Lovel Crigler were those com- 
prising the first members. This number has been increased by addi- 
tions until it has reached 1 70. Elders Henry Thomas, Alfred Wilson, 
— Errett, David Davis, John A. Brooks, W. G. Sniber and W. G. 
Barker have filled this pulpit at different times. James B. Davis is 
superintendent of the Sabbath-school, having an average attendance 
of 50. W. M. Houston is clerk of the church. 

Granville Christian Church. — This church which now numbers a 
membership of 202, had the following named persons as the original 
members upon its organization in November, 1858 : Penelope Shrop- 
shire, Sarah Evans, Maria HoUingsworth, Nancy Hayden, Eliza Wood, 
Sarah Jackson, Margaret A. Morrison, Eliza Jackson, Phebe Jackson, 
Margaret Whitesides, Mary Wilson, Catherine Howell, Sarah Shrop- 
shire, Berzilla Forsythe, Sarah Barnes, John W. Wood, Eliza Jane 
Wood, Nancy S. Wood, John Wood, America Shropshire, Walter 
Shropshire, Martha Goodwin, Phebe Thompson, Arabella Goodwin, 
Richard Thompson, Eli Jackson, Tirey Ford, J. H. Goodnight, John 
E. Howell, Thomas D. Whitesides, Milton Forsythe, James F. Wood, 
John Hickey, Jesse S. Dry, J. S. Mitchell, James S. Mason, George 
W. Clay, Benjamin HoUingsworth, John C. Kipper, George Porter, 
Ella Kipper, Laura Kipper, Mary A. Smith, Emily Smith, Minna 
Catlett, Mary B. Goodwin, Malinda Morrison and Mary Twiman. 
Those who have served as the pastors of the congregation are A. 
Wilson, J. D. Wilmot, William M. Featherston, Revs. Colston, 
Donan, Rice, Hatch, Hy. Thomas, J. C. Davis, Ridgeway, G. A. 
Hoffman and Rev. Hughley. On December 11, 1858, their first frame 
church building was completed, and in 1880 the present frame house 
of worship was erected at a cost of $1,900. The superintendent of 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 287 

the Sabbath- school, which has an attendance of 100, is Mr. J. S. 
Austin. 

Pleasant Grove Christian Church. — This church is situated on 
section 3, township 54, range 9, five miles east and one mile north of 
Paris. Its formation occurred in December, 1862, Elders S. H. 
Smith, C. W- Chowning, J. N. Keaves and J. J. Crigler, Mllas John- 
son, W. F. Adams, H. C. Greening, Alexander Smith, William Y. 
Smith, Joseph Smith, S. O. Adams, A. H. Adams, Sue Elliott, Annie 
E. Long, Mattie A. Long, Nancy Adams, Lucy J, Reaves, Allie E. 
Crigler, Sallie A. Greening, Rebecca Johnson, Delia Searcy, Mary 
Adams, Eliza Norman, Patsy Smith, Elizabeth Reavis, Mary Johnson, 
Isabel Chowning, Mary A. Scobee, Sallie Adams, Hannah Livingstone 
Jane A. Adams, R. Underwood and Andy Underwood comprising the 
organizing members. Of these 18 are dead, and 15 survive. In 
1868 a frame house of worship was built for $1,400. The pastors 
of the congregation (which now numbers 108) have been E. J. 
Lampton, Alfred Wilson, Bob Wallace, Henry F. Davis, G. W. Sur- 
ber, Philip Bruten, A. J. Myhr, R. M. Giddens, J. N. Wright and 
Jacob Hughley. Several successful revival seasons have been held by 
E. J. Lampton, W. M. Featherston, Alfred Wilson, A. H. Rice, 
William Martin, J. C. Reynolds, H. F. Davis, G. W. Surber, R. M. 
Giddens, J. N. Wright, A. B. Wade and J. J. Errett. Mrs. E. M. 
Howell is superintendent of a Sabbath-school numbering about 70 
scholars. 

Christian Church. — Located at Monroe City, was organized on 
the 4th Sabbath in February, 1869, by Eld. J. N. Wright, the follow- 
ing named persons constituting the original members : John T. Ragg- 
land, Jonathan Fudge, David Payne, J. O. Wood, B. F. Noble, Mary 
A. Pond, Emma J. Bush, William Bowles, Mary Bowles, R. A. Palmer, 
Mary Dawson, E. P. Hayden and Sarah Boulware. Four of these are 
still livino^ and members of the conffrejjation. In 1870 a frame house 
of worship was built, costing $2,000. Since that time Revs. J. N. 
Wright, A. H. Rice, W. M. Featherston, E. B. Challenner, H. F. 
Davis and W. G. Surber, who is the present pastor, having nearly 
completed his fifth year, have been the ministers in charge. The 
church has a membership of 100, while the Sabbath-school presided 
over by H. Cory, as superintendent, numbers 50 scholars. 

Oak Ridge Christian Church — Three and a half miles south of 
Paris, was constituted a legal organization in August, 1871, when Will- 
iam H. Johnson, William T. Bryan, Benjamin Mallory, John West 
and wife, Sarah ; James H. Waller, Martha J. Waller, Belle Waller, 



288 HISTORY OF MOXROE COUNTY. 

Alonzo Waller, Robert Evans, Emaline Evans, James Dye, Mary 
Dye, Founteroy Dye, Elias Dye, Eliza Woods, W. H. McElroy, Ellen 
McElroy, John Bryan, John Foreman and Walter Grove placed their 
names on the church roll as constituent members. Daniel Booth was 
their first pastor, followed by Henry F. Davis, and James A. Grove is 
the present incumbent. The number of the membership at this time 
is 96. In 1874 a frame church building was completed at an expendi- 
ture of $700. It is now paid for. Mr. William Johnson painted the 
buildinof, gratis, thereby contributing not a little to the outward 
appearance and beauty of it. 

Jackson Chapel {Christian Church) — Is located six miles north- 
east of Paris, and is a frame building of the value of $1,250.00, erected 
in the summer and fall of 1875, and dedicated in March, 1876. 
This congregation was organized April 30, 1876, the original mem- 
bers being Jacob Kennedy, Anna R. Kennedy, W. P. Wallace, Belle 
Reed, W. P. Reed, Charlie Burke, John L. Burke, Eliza Burke, Jeff. 
Bi-idgford, M. E. Bridgford, Church Bridgford, Nelia Bridgford, 
Ambrose Crutcher, Mary Crutcher, C. W. Reed, Louie Reed, J. J. 
Wright, Sarah Wright, C. Bowman, Sarah Bowman, E. S. Brooks, E. 
J. Wallace, Virginia Ragland, Mary Brown, Hester Evans, Rena Tillett, 
A. E. Wallace, Jennie Maupin, Celestia Burgess, W. S. Brown, Mrs. 
Ella Brown, R. T. Smith and Mrs. R. T. Smith. Seventy-seven per- 
sons constitute the present membership. The various pastors of the 
church have been Elders W. G. Surber, Jacob Hughley, E. B. Chal- 
lone and R. M. Giddens. The Sabbath-school of 125 members has 
for its superintendent, Jennie N. Burgess. 

Antioch Cliristian Church — Which is ©n section 29, of Jackson 
township, upon the county line, was organized September 16, 1876, 
by Elder William Mason with the following as the first members : 
Granville Snell and wife, George Creason and wife, B. F. Creason 
and wife, J. D. Gant and wife, E. W. Rogers and wife, David Lee, 
W. H. Snell, E. P. Snell and wife, Volney Paris and wife, Henry 
Paris, John W.Lee and wife, G. R. Paris, Elijah Threlkeld and wife, 
Walter Snell and wife, William Fisher and wife, Edna Bookman, 
Alma Bookman, Nannie Camplin, Elijah Camplin, Elizabeth Adams, 
Augusta Moore, W. L. Petty, Elizabeth Yount, Charles Threlkeld, 
Mary Carr and Martha Swinney. The present membership numbers 
about 153. Rev. William Mason and Rev. H. F. Davis, who is the 
present pastor, have filled the pulpit of the church. Their house of 
worship, built in 1880, is valued at $1,400.00. Thomas Hess is super- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 289 

intendent and Miss Jennie Leet seci-etary of ii Sabbath-school n um- 
bering 60 scholars. 

Fail-view Christian Church. — In 1879, an organization now known 
as the above church, was constituted through the efforts of Elder 
Hoffman, with Mrs. S. A. Quarles, Mrs. Sarah Jordan, John Shelton 
•and wife, Michael Clark, Mrs. Hettie Armstrong, Mrs. Dr. Johnson, 
Mrs. Carrico, Charles Crump and wife, Mrs. S. J. White, G. Hunt 
and wife, William Williams and wife and Geo. W. Bonsell and wife, 
as the original members, which number has been increased by the ad- 
dition of nearly 100 persons. The frame church building, situated on 
section 18, township 54, range 8 (Jefferson township), is 32x48 feet 
in dimensions and cost $1,000.00 in 1878. Connected with the church 
is a Sabbath-school of 40 members, presided over by Miss Alice Clark, 
and also a Ladies' Christian Aid Society, with a membership of 20. 
Revs. Hoffman, I. F. Myrh, Phil. Benton and R. X. Giddens have 
been the pastors in charge. 

Pleasant Hill Presbyterian Church. — In November, 1825, this 
church, now located six miles east of Paris, on the Louisiana road, 
was organized by Rev. Thomas Durfee, a missionary, with James 
McGee, John McKarney, Margaret McKarney, Elizabeth McKarney, 
Mary B. McKarney, Rosy Ann McKarney (all these of one fomily), 
]N[aryAnn McGee and Marietta, a colored woman, as the constituent 
members. Mrs. Rosy Ann ( McKarney ( Smith is the only one of 
the above now living. John McKarney and James McGee were 
the ruling elders. The membership now numbers 54. The present 
church edifice was constructed in 1857 ; it is a frame and cost 
$1,200.00. The tirst pastor. Rev. Alfred Wright, was succeeded by 
George C. Wood, Thomas Eustace, A. C. McConnell, J, B. Poage, J. 
P. Finley, H. P. S. Willis, William Wiley, W. H. Hicks, J. V. 
Barks, T. B. Lunsford, N. Armstrong (from Canada), L. P. Bowers 
and C. W. Humphreys, the present supply. Connected with the 
church is a flourishing Sabbath-school, containing 30 pupils, the super- 
intendent being C. F. Richmond. 

South Fork Presbyterian Church — In South Fork township, near 
the fork of Salt river, on the road from Florida to Mexico, was con- 
stituted an organization by Dr. Samuel C. McConnell, October 22, 
1853. The names appearing on the records as original members are 
John Kerr,, Hester Kerr, Elizabeth Anderson, Isabel M. Hanna, Rob- 
ert B. Kerr, Susan I. Botts, AVilliam H. Kerr, Sarelda M. Kerr, J. C. 
Heizer, Mary Heizer, James Smiley, Elizabeth A. Smiley, S. I. Bates, 
Daniel H. Kerr, Nancy V. Heizer, Joseph Heizer, Nancy Heizer, Maiy 



290 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

I. Kerr, John W. Heizer, James Haiina, John Hanna, Esther I. 
Hanna, William Hanna, Amelia Hanna, R. M. Hanna, Joseph Hanna, 
David Hanna, Eliza Hanna, Susan C. Hanna, James E, Crawford, 
Mitchel Meteer, Mary B. Meteer and Ellen Finks. The membership 
now numbers 130. From 1853 to 1858 Rev. Georo;e Van Erman 
filled this pulpit, and he was succeeded by J. M. Travis, from May, 
1859, to the present. Their frame church edifice was built in 1857. 
A Sabbath-school of 50 pupils has for its superintendent George W. 
Crawford. A large proportion of the members of this church who 
organized Florida and Bethel churches, were taken from South Fork. 
Over 400 persons have been enrolled as communicants of the church. 

New Hope Presbyterian Church — Now has a membership of 75, 
the pastor being Rev. John M. Travis. The frame church building, 
erected in 1858 at an expenditure of $1,000, is located one and a hilf 
miles south-west of Strother (in South Fork township). The organi- 
zation was effected December 19, 1857, John Forsyth, Isabel For- 
syth, William S. Forsyth, William M. Vaughn, Ann E. Vaughn, 
James M. Vaughn, Sarah J. Vaughn, Enoch Hunt, Harriet N. Hunt, 
Jane Alverson, Moses Hall, Mary E. Hall, Mary J. Guthrie, John N» 
Price, David Woolridge, Prudence Woolridge, Clifton E. Wills and 
Lewis A. Hunt being the original members. George H. Hersraan is 
superintendent of the Sabbath-school of 25 scholars. 

St. Stephen Church — At Elizabethtown (in Indian Creek town- 
ship), is one of the pioneer churches of the county, having been formed 
February 12, 1833. The organizing members consisted of Thomas 
Yates, Benedict Carrico, John Dixon, Joshua B. Carrico, Homer P. 
H. McLeod, T. Hagan, J. A. Cummings, J. J. Quinlan, J. Dough- 
erty, P. Morrissey and others whose names we could not obtain. The 
church now has in its membership 200 families. Their house of wor- 
ship cost $7,000 and was built in 1876, of brick. Those who have 
ministered to the spiritual necessities of this body have been Peter P. 
Lefaver, G. H. Ortlangenberg, Thomas Cussick, Dennis Kennedy, E. 
Berry, Thomas Ledwith, Edward Hammel, J. J. Hogan and others. 

Hickory Grove Church — In Marion township, has had eight pastors 
since its organization on the 4th Saturday in August, 1843. Benjamin 
Terrell, from 1843 to 1858; James Porter, from March, 1858, to 
October, 1859 ; James Burton, from October, 1859, to October, 1860; 
Bartlett Anderson, from October, 1860, to 1863 ; W. L. T. Evans, 
from 1863, to February, 1879 ; J. G. Swetnam, from February, 1879, 
to December of the same year ; M. F. Williams, from December, 
1879, to December, 1881, and J. D. Smith, from March following to 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 291 

the present. The church edifice was completed in 1846. It is a frame 
structure and cost $800. Among the original members were John and 
Emily Briscoe, Hugh Miller, Mary Miller, John Walkup, Lucinda 
Walkup, Gabriel Alexander, Lucinda J. Alexander, Nathaniel S. Bul- 
lock, Kebecca Bullock, H. Haley, Ehoda Haley, E. Haley, S. S. 
Embree, Elender Embree, James Williamson, O. C. Smith, Hannah 
Brown, John W. Ash, Naomi Ash, J. Y. Miller, AnnE. Miller, Rhoda 
Turner, Mary King, D. Bates, Edmond Ash, Elizabeth Evans, Diana 
Williamson and Charles W. Embree. The membership is now 175. 
Mr. J. W. E. Cosby is superintendent of the Sabbath-school, which 
numbers 50 scholars. The church is located in a small village, the 
post-office of which is Ash. 

Salt River Holiness Association. — There is a Holiness Association 
in the county known by the above name. It is located on section 18 
of Jefferson township. We were unable to learn anything else con- 
cerning it, save that it was organized during the summer of 1882. 




CHAPTEK Xyill. 

MONROE COUNTY IN 1884. 

A beautiful country is this North-east Missouri, whose fortunate 
location, charming hindscape, equable climate, versatile and generous 
soils, fruitful orchards and vineyards, matchless grasses, broad grain 
fields, *noble forests, abundant waters and cheap lands, present 
to the capitalist and immigrant one of the most inviting fields for 
investment and settlement to be found between the two oceans. Dur- 
ing the unexampled Western migratory movement of the last eight 
years, which has peopled Kansas, Colorado and Nebraska and other 
regions with an intelligent and enterprising population, this rich and 
productive country, has, until recently, remained a terra incog?iita to 
the average immigrant, the new States above named getting acces- 
sions of brain, heart, muscle, experience and capital, that have given 
them a commanding position in the Union. And yet it can not be 
denied that Missouri offers to intelligent, enterprising and ambitious 
men of fiiir capital more of the elements of substantial and enjoyable 
living than any country now open to settlement. In one of the fair- 
est and most fertile districts of Missouri is Monroe county. Monroe 
county is admirably located within the productive middle belt of the 
continent, a strip of country not exceeding 450 miles wide, lying be- 
tween the latitudes of Minneapolis and Richmond, reaching from ocean 
to ocean, and within which, will be found every great commercial, 
financial and railway city, ninety per cent of the manufacturing in- 
dustries, the great dairy and fruit interests, the strongest agriculture, 
the densest, strongest and most cosmopolitan population, all the 
great universities, the most advanced school systems, and the 
highest average of health known to the continent. Scarcely less 
significant is the location of the county in the more wealthy 
and productive portions of the great central State of the Union, 
which, by virtue of its position and splendid aggregation of 
resources, is bound to the commercial, political and material life 
of the country by the strongest ties, and must forever feel the 
quickening of its best energies, from every throb of the national heart. 
Monroe county is in the right latitude, which is a matter of primary in- 
terest to the immigrant. Lying in the path of empire and transcon- 
(292) 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 293 

tinental travel, in the latitude of Washington and Cincinnati, it has 
the climate influence that has given to Northern Kentucky and 
North Virginia an enviable reputation for equable temperature. A 
mean altitude of about 800 feet above the tides gives tone and rarity 
to the atmosphere and the equable mean of temperature. 

Most of the short winter is mild, dry and genial enough to pass for 
a Minnesota Indian summer. The snow-fall is generally light, infre- 
quent and transient. The long summer days are often tempered by 
inspiring breezes from the South-western plains, and followed much of 
the time by cool, restful nights. 

The annual rain-fall is from 28 to 40 inches, and is so well 
distributed over the growing season, that less than a fair crop of 
grains, vegetables and grasses is rarely known. The annual drainage 
of the country is excellent, the deepest set streams readily carrying off 
the surplus water from the generally undulating surface, only a 
limited area being too flat to shed the surplus rains. 

The water supply of Monroe county is alike ample and admirable. 
More than a score of deep-set streams traverse every portion of the 
county, and with an occasional spring, hundreds of artificial ponds, 
and many living wells and cisterns, furnish pure water for all domestic 
purposes. The markets are well supplied with hard and soft woods 
at $2 to |3 per cord, and there is a good supply of building and fenc- 
ing timber. The supply of good building stone, too, is equal to all 
present and prospective needs, massive deposits of well stratified lime- 
stone being found outcropping along the streams and ravines. 

The cost of fencing is materially lower here than in most of the 
new or old prairie States. In the wooded districts, the fences are 
cheaply made of common posts or stakes and rails. In the prairie 
districts some fencing is done with osage orange. With proper care, 
a farmer can grow a mile of stock-proof hedge in four years, at a cost 
of $1.25 in labor. The newer farms are being fenced with barbed 
v;ire, which is esteemed the quickest, most reliable, durable and 
cheapest fence now in use here. The stock fiirmers are especially 
friendly to barbed wire fencing, some of them having put up several 
miles in the last three years. 

The soils of Monroe county are developing elements of productive 
wealth as cultivation advances. 

The prairie soil is a dark, friable alluvial, from one to three feet 
deep, rich in humus, very easily handled and produces fine crops of 
corn, oats, flax, rye, broom corn, sorghum, vegetables and grasses. 
The oak and hickory soil of the principal woodlands is a shade 



294 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

lighter in color ; is rather more consistent ; holds a good per cent of 
lime and magnesia, carbonates of lime, phosphate, silicia, alumnia, 
organic matter, etc., and produces fine crops of wheat, clover and 
fruits, and with deep rotative culture, gives splendid returns for the 
labor bestowed. 

The valleys are covered with a deposit of black, imperishable allu- 
vial, from three to eight feet in depth, and as loose and friable as a 
heap of compost, grow from 40 to 80 bushels of corn to the 
acre, and give an enormous yield to anything grown in this latitude. 
While these soils present a splendid array of productive forces, they 
are supplemented by sub-soils equal to any known to husbandry. 
The entire superficial soils of the county are underlaid by strong, 
consistent silicious clays and marls, so rich in lime, magnesia, alumnia, 
oro-anic matter, and other valuable constituents, that centuries of 
deep cultivation will prove them like the kindred loess of the Rhine 
and Nile valleys, absolutely indestructible. Everywhere about the 
railway cuts, ponds, cisterns, cellars and other excavations, where 
these clays and marls have had one or two years' exposure to frost 
and air, they have slacked to the consistency of an ash heap, and bear 
such a rankgrowth of weeds, grass, grain, vegetables and young trees, 
that in the older and less fertile States they might readily be taken for 
deposits of the richest compost. 

After three years' observation in Central and Northern Missouri, 
we are prepared to believe that a hundred years hence, when the 
older Eastern and Southern States, shall have been hopelessly given 
over to the artificial fertilizers of man, and a new race of farmers are 
carryino- systematic and deep cultivation down into this wonderful 
alien deposit of silicious matter, the whole of North and Central 
Missouri will have become the classic ground in American agricul- 
ture ; and these imperishable soils in the hands of small farmers will 
have become a very garden of beauty and bounty, and these Monroe 
county lands will command splendid prices on a strong market. 

The lanes of the county are nearly all available because they are 
nearlv all good. The lowest bottoms are becoming free of swamps 
and lagoons, and the highest elevations are comparatively- free of rocks 
and impediments to cultivation. It is safe to say these soils, together, 
o-ive the broadest ranoe of production known to American husbandry. 
It is the pride and boast of the Monroe county farmer that he can 
grow in perfection every grain, vegetable, grass, plant and fruit that 
flourishes between the northern limits of the cotton fields and the Red 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY, 295 

river of the North. Both the surface indications of the soil and its 
native and domestic productions indicate its versatility and bounty. 

But a few years ago much of the outlying commons was covered 
with a luxuriant growth of wild prairie grass, of which there were 
many varieties, all of more or less value for pasturage and hay. 
Nearly all the natural ranges are now inclosed and under tribute to 
the herdsmen, and it is safe to say that their native herbage will put 
more flesh on cattle from the beginning of April to early au'tumn than 
any of the domestic grasses. With the progress of settlement and 
cultivation, however, they are steadily disappearing before the 
tenacious and all-conquering blue grass, which is surely making the 
conquest of every rod of the county not under tribute to the plow. 
Blue grass is an indigenous growth here — many of the older and open 
woodland pastures rivaling the famous blue grass regions of Ken- 
tucky, both in the luxuriance of their growth and the high quality of 
the herbage. Now and then one meets a Kentuckian so provincial in 
his attachments and conceits that he can see nothing quite equal to the 
blue grass of Old Bourbon county; but the mass of impartial Ken- 
tuckians, who constitute a large per centum of the population here, 
admit that the same care bestowed upon the blue grass fields of Ken- 
tucky gives equally as fine results in Monroe county, whose blue grass 
ranges are certainly superior to any in Illinois. 

This splendid king of grasses, which in this mild climate makes a 
luxuriant early spring and autumn growth, is also supplemented here 
by white clover, which is also "to the manor born;" and on this 
mixture of alluvial with the underlying silicious marls and clays 
makes a fine growth, especially in years of full moisture, and is a 
strong factor in the sum of local grazing wealth. 

With these two grasses, followed by orchard grass for winter 
grazing, the herdsmen of Monroe county have the most desirable of 
all stock-growing conditions —perennial grazing — which, with the 
fine grades of stock kept here, means wealth for all classes of stock- 
growers. There is another essential element of grazing resource here 
and it is found in the splendid timothy meadows, which are equal to 
any in the Western Eeserve br the Canadas. These meadows give a 
heavy growth of hay and seed, both of which are largely and profitably 
grown for export. Red clover is quite as much at hope here as tim- 
othy, and its cultivation is being successfully extended by all the 
better farmers for mixed meadow pasturage and seed. Here, too, is 
found a growth of herds' grass (red top) which during the past sum- 
mer has made fine showing, the low swale lands and ravines presentino- 



14 



'296 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

grand, waving billows of herds' grass, almost as rich and rank of 
growth as the blue stem of the wild Western prairie bottoms. With 
this showing for the native and domestic grasses, it is almost needless 
to pronounce Monroe county a superb stock county. 

With millions of bushels of corn grown at a cost of sixteen to eighteen 
cents per bushel ; an abundance of pure stock water and these matchless 
grasses ; the fine natural shelter afi'orded by the wooded valleys and 
ravines ; the facilities for transportation to the great stock markets ; 
the mildness and healthfulness of the climate and the cheapness of the 
grazing lands, nothing pays so well or is so perfectly adapted to the 
country as stock husbandry. Cattle, sheep, swine, horse and mule 
raising and feeding are all pursued with profit in this county, the busi- 
ness, in good hands, paying net yearly returns of twenty to forty per 
cent on the investment, many sheep growers realizing a much greater 
net profit. 

Cattle growing and feeding, in connection with swine raising and 
feeding, is now the leading industry of the county. High-grade short 
horns of model types, bred from the best beef getting stock, are kept 
by many of the growers and feeders, the steers being grazed during 
the warm months, after which they are "full fed" and turned off" 
during the winter and spring, weighing from 1,200 to 1,700 pounds 
gross at two and three years old, the heavier animals going to Euro- 
pean buyers. The steers are fed in conjunction with Berkshire and 
Poland China pigs, which fiitten upon the droppings and litter of the 
feed yard, and go into market weighing from 250 to 400 pounds at 
10 to 14 months old. These steers and pigs are bred and grazed, 
and without doubt will average in quality and weight with the best 
grades fed in any of the older States. Horse and mule raising is a 
favorite industry with many of the farmers and has been pursued with 
profit for years, a large surplus of well-bred horses anc\ mules going 
mainly to Southern markets each year. Sheep raising has for several 
years been a favorite and highly profitable branch of stock husbandry 
here, many growers realizing a net profit of 40 to 60 per cent on the 
money invested in the business. The wool produced in 1880 
amounted to 229,158 pounds. This county is remarkably well suited 
to sheep growing, the flocks increasing rapidly and being generally 
free from disease. There are many small flocks that give a higher 
per cent of profit than the figures above given, but even the larger 
herds make a splendid showing. Merinos are mainly kept by the 
larger flockmasters, but the hundreds of smaller flocks, ranging from 
40 to 100 each, are mainly Cotswolds and Downs, the former predom- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 297 

inating, and the wool clips running from five to nine pounds per capita 
of unwashed wool. 

Sheep feeding is conducted with unusual profit here, the mild win- 
ters, cheap feed and the very cheap transportation to the great mutton 
markets especially favoring the business. 

A statement, which gives the number of cattle, sheep, hogs, horses, 
mules, and the value of each class in this county, in 1880, is un- 
questionably fifteen to twenty per cent below the real number of ani- 
mals kept in the county, and shows a large increase over the report 
of 1870. The live stock exports of the county last year exceeded 
1,500 car loads of fat cattle, sheep, swine, horses and mules, worth 
in the home market at present prices considerably more than $2,000,- 
000, and yet the business is comparatively in its infancy, not more 
than half the stock growing resources of the county being yet 
developed. 

Dairy farming might be very profitably pursued here, the grasses, 
water and near market for first-class dairy products all favoring the 
business in a high degree. In 1880, there were 400,000 pounds of 
butter made. 

Monroe county could be made a stock breeder's paradise, as the 
demand for all classes of well-bred stock is always in excess of the 
supply. In former years the local growers have mostly depended on 
the breeders of the older neio:hborino; counties for their thoroughbred 
stock animals, but of late many fine short horns have been brought 
in, and superior stock horses have been introduced, and there are a 
dozen of good breeders of sheep and swine, whose stock will rank 
with the best in the country. 

Stock breeding, grazing and feeding under the favoring local con- 
ditions, is the surest and most profitable business that can be pur- 
sued in the West, or, for that matter, anywhere in the " wide, wide 
world." 

Not a single man of ordinary sense and business capacity in this 
county, that has followed the one work of raising and feeding his 
own stock, abjuring speculation, and sticking closely to the business, 
has (or ever will) failed to make money. It beats wheat growing 
two to one, though the latter calling be pursued under the most fav- 
orable conditions in the best wheat regions. It beats speculation of 
every sort, for it is as sure as the rains and sunshine. What are 
stocks, bonds, "options," mining shares, merchandise, or traffic of 
a,ny character besides those matchless and magnificent grasses that 



298 HISTORY or monroe county. 

come of their own volition and are fed through all the ages by the 
eternal God, upon the rains and dews and imperishable soils of such 
a land as this? If the writer were questioned as to the noblest call- 
ing among men, outside of the ministry of " peace and goodwill," he 
would unhesitatingly point to the quiet and honorable pastoral life of 
these Western herdsmen. Stock growing in Monroe county, as 
everywhere, develops a race of royal men, and is the one absorbing, 
entertaining occupation of the day and location. If it be eminently 
practical and profitable, so, too, it is invested with a poetic charm. 
To grow the green succulent, luxuriant grass, develop the finest lines 
of grace and beauty in animal conformation, tend one's herds and 
flocks on the green, fragrant range, live in the atmosphere of delicate 
sympathy with the higher forms and impulses of the animal life in 
one's care, and to be inspired by the higher sentiments and traditions 
of honorable breeding, is a life to be coveted by the best men of all 
lands. By the side of the herds and grasses and herdsmen of such a 
country as this, the men of the grain fields are nowhere. These men 
of the herds are leading a far more satisfactory life than the Hebrew 
shepherds led on the Assyrian hills in the old, dead centuries ; they 
tend their flocks and raise honest children in the sweet atmosphere of 
content. They are in peace Avith their neighbors, and look out upon 
a pastoral landscape as fair as ever graced the canvas of Turner. The 
skies above them are as radiant as those above the Arno, and if the 
finer arts of the old land are little cultivated by the herdsmen of these 
peaceful valleys, they are yet devoted to the higher art of patient and 
honorable human living. 

The lands are cheap, the location exceptionally fine, and the other 
advantages over the older States so great that the question of compe- 
tition is all in favor of this country. This country is admirably suited 
to " mixed farming." The versatility and bounty of the soil, wide 
range of production, the competition between the railways and great 
rivers for the carrying trade, and the nearness of the great markets 
all favor the variety farmer. With a surplus of capital, sheep, pigs, 
mules, horses, wool, wheat, eggs, poultry, fruit, dairy products, etc., 
he is master of the situation. The farmers of Monroe county live 
easier and cheaper than those of the older States. The labor bestowed 
upon 40 acres in Ohio, New York or New England, will thoroughly 
cultivate 100 acres of these richer, cleaner and more flexible soils. 
Animals require less care and feed and mature earlier ; the home re- 
quires less fuel ; the fields are finely suited to improved machinery, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 299 

and it is safe to say that the average Monroe county farmer gets 
through the real farm work of the year in 150 days. 

Nature is so prodigal in her gifts to man, that the tendency is to go 
slow and take the world easy. Nor is this at all wonderful in a coun- 
try where generous Mother Nature does seventy per cent 
of the productive work, charitably leaving only thirty per 
cent for the brain and muscle of her sons. It is only 
natural that this condition of things tends to loose and 
unthrifty methods of farming, and that the consequent waste 
of a half section of land here would give a comfortable sup- 
port to a Connecticut or Canadian farmer. It is in evidence, how- 
ever, from the experience of all thorough and systematic farmers here, 
that no region in America gives grander sections to good farming 
than this county. There is not one of all the thorough, systematic, 
rotative and deep cultivators of the country who has not and does 
not make money. No soils give a better account of themselves in 
skilled and thrifty hands than these, and it is greatly to their honor 
that they have yielded so much wealth under such indifferent treat- 
ment. These Monroe county lands will every time pay for themselves 
under anything like decent treatment. They are near the center of 
the great corn and blue grass area of the country, where agriculture 
has stood the test of half a century of unfailing production, where 
civilization is surely and firmly founded on intellectual and refined 
society, schools, churches and railways, markets, mills and elegant 
homes. The lands of the county will nearly double in value during 
the next decade. Nothing short of material desolation can prevent 
such a result. Everywhere in the older States there is more or less 
inquiry about Missouri lands, and all the indications point to a strong 
inflow of intelligent and well-to-do people from the older States. 
Does the reader ask why lands are so cheap under such favorable, 
material conditions? Well, the question is easily answered. Up to 
a recent date, little or nothing has been done by the people of the 
State to advertise to the world its manifold and magnificent resources. 
Still worse, Missouri has, for two decades, been under the ban 
of public prejudice throughout the North and East, the people of 
those sections believing Missourians to be a race of ignorant, inhos- 
pitable, proscriptive and intolerant bulldozers, who were inimical to 
Northern immigration, enterprise and progress. Under this impres- 
sion, half a million immigrants have annually passed by this beautiful 
country, bound for the immigrants' Utopia, which is generally laid in 
Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and Texas. This mighty army of reso- 



300 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

lute men and women, with their wealth of gold, experience and cour- 
age, have been lost to a State of which they unfortunately knew little 
and cared to know less. Under such conditions there has, of course, 
been a dearth of land buyers. Happily Monroe county has been 
advertised by her local newspapers, her enterprising real estate men 
and other agencies, and has, perhaps, suffered less at the hands of ill- 
founded prejudice than many other sections. 

The people of Monroe county — 22,000 strong — are as intelligent, 
refined and hospitable as those of Ohio or Michigan ; and a more 
tolerant, appreciative, chivalrous community never undertook the 
subjugation of a beautiful wilderness to noble human uses. We have 
passed a number of years in Northern and Central Missouri, visiting 
the towns, looking into the industrial life of the people, inspecting the 
farms and herds, reviewing the school and carefully watching the drift 
of popular feeling, and are pleased to aflSrm that there is nowhere in 
the Union a more order-loving and law-respecting population than 
that of Monroe county. 

"The life they live" here is quite as refined and rational as any 
phase of the social and political life at the North. Whatever they did 
in the exciting and perilous years of the war, they are to-day as frank, 
liberal and cordial in their treatment of Northern people, and as ready 
to appreciate and honor every good quality in them, as if they were 
" to the manor born." 

A strong Union sentiment is everywhere apparent. Many persons 
were strong Union Democrats during the war, never swerving in their 
fealty to the Union, and the old flag floats as proudly in Central and 
North Missouri as in the shadows of Independence Hall. All parties 
are agreed that slavery is dead, and that its demise was a blessing to 
every prime interest of the country. There is not a man of character 
in the county who would restore the institution if he could. A good 
majority of the first settlers of this county hail from Kentucky and 
Virginia, or are descended from Kentucky or Virginia ftimilies, and 
have the deliberation, frankness, good sense, admiration of fair play, 
reverence for woman and home, boundless home hospitality and strong 
self-respect, for which the average Kentuckian and Virginian is pro- 
verbial. They have a habit of minding their own business that is 
refreshing to see. The new-comer is not catechised as to social ante- 
cedents or politics, but is estimated for what he is and does. They 
don't care where a man hails from, if he be sensible and honest. 
They take care of their credit as if it were their only stock in trade. 
When a man's word ceases to be as good as his bond, his credit, busi- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 301 

ness and standing are gone, and the loss of honorable prestige is not 
at all easy of recovery. 

Sterling character finds as high appreciation here as in any country 
of our knowledge. The visitor is impressed with the number of strong 
men — men who would take rank in the social, professional and busi- 
ness relations of any community in civilization. Monroe county has 
evidently drawn largely upon the best blood, brain and experience 
of the older States. In every department of life may be found men of 
fine culture and large experience in the best ways of the world, and 
the stranger who comes here expecting to place the good people of 
this county in his shadow, will get the conceit effectually taken out of 
him in about 90 days. They are not a race of barbarians, living a 
precarious sort of life in the bush, but a brave, magnanimous, intelli- 
gent people, who, if their average daily life be sternly realistic in the 
practical Avays of home-building and bread-getting, have yet within 
and about them so much of the ideal that he is indeed a dull observer 
who sees not in their relations to the wealth of the grain-fields and 
herds, and the poetry of the sweet natural landscape, a union of the 
real and ideal that is yet to make for them the perfect human life. 
They find ample time for the founding and fostering of schools, the 
love of books and flowers and art, a cultivation of the social graces, 
and the building of temples to the spiritual and ideal. Monroe county 
raises horses and mules and swine, fat steers, and the grain to feed 
the million, but is none the less a genereus almoner of good gifts 
for her children. She has 108 free schools for white and colored chil- 
dren . 

Public morals are guarded and fostered by the presence and influ- 
ence of churches, representing nearly all the denominations, and are 
nowhere displayed to better advantage than in the general observance 
of the Sabbath, and in the honest financial administration of county 
afiairs. There are no repudiators of the public credit and obligation 
here. They have in a high measure that singular and inestimable 
virtue called popular conscience, and make it the inexorable rule of 
judgment and action in all public administration. It is as unchange- 
able as the law of the Medes and Persians, and though public enter- 
prise has impelled the expenditure of a great deal of money, large 
sums have also been voted for the building of railways, for county 
buildings and appointments, and for bridges, with a liberal expendi- 
ture for incidental uses, all within little more than a decade ; nobody 
has had the hardihood to even talk repudiation, and Monroe will, we 



302 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

hope, soon be out of debt and the last doUar of her bonded indebted- 
ness be paid. 

It is clearly no injustice to other portions of Missouri to pronounce 
Monroe one of the model counties. She has an untarnished and envi- 
able credit, excellent schools, light taxes, a brave, intelligent popula- 
tion, and presents a picture of material thrift which challenges the 
admiration of all. There are a score of men in the county worth from 
$30,000 to 150,000. A few are. worth from one to $200,000. Half 
a hundred more represent from $20,000 to $50,000, and a large num- 
ber from $15,000 to $20,000, while after these come a good-sized army 
whose lands and personal estate will range from $10,000 to $15,000. 
This wealth is not in any sense speculative, for it has been mainly dug 
out of the soil, and, in a modest degree, represents the half-developed 
capacity of the grasses and grain fields. It is not in the hands of any 
speculative or privileged class, but is well distributed over the 
county in lands, homes and herds. It is one of the pleasures of a life- 
time to ride for days over this charming region of fine old homes, 
thrifty orchards, green pastures and royal herds, and remember that 
the fortunate owners of these noble estates have liberal bank balances 
to their credit, and are well on the road to honorable opulence. 

Many of our readers will be inclined to wonder if it is an over- 
colored sketch of the country and people, and ask for the shady side 
of the picture. " Are there no poor lands, poor farmers, or poor farm- 
ing in Monroe county — nothing to criticise, grumble about or find 
fault with in the ways of the 22,000 people within the range of the 
latter? " Yes, there is a " shady side " to the picture, and it is easily 
and quickly sketched from life. The scarcity of farm labor is apparent 
to the most superficial observer. The negroes, who did most of the 
farm labor under the old compulsory system, have gone almost solidly 
to the towns, and are no longer a factor in the farm labor problem. 
The average farm hand has acquired the easy, slip-shod habits of the 
slave labor system, and is at best a poor substitute. Four-fifths of 
the farmers undertake too much, expending in the most superficial 
way upon 200 or 400 acres the labor which would only well cultivate 
100 acres, and the result is seen in shallow plowing, hurried seeding, 
slight cultivation, careless harvesting, loose stacking, wasteful thresh- 
ing and reckless waste in feeding. The equally reckless exposure of 
farm machinery in this county would bankrupt the entire farm popu- 
lation of half a dozen New England counties in three seasons. The 
visitor in the country is always in sight of splendid reapers, mowers, 
seeders, cultivators, wagons and smaller implements, standing in the 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 303 

swarth, furrow, fence-corner or yard where last used, and exposed to 
the storms and sunshine until the improvident owner needs them for 
further use. 

The exposure of flocks and herds to the cold, wet storms of the 
winter, without a thought of shelter, in a country where nature has 
bountifully provided the material for, and only trifling labor is required 
to give ample protection, is a violation of the simplest rule of economy 
and that kindly human impulse that never fails to be moved by the 
sight of animal suffering. The astonishing waste of manures by the 
villainous habit of burning great stacks of straw and leaving rich half- 
century accumulations of manure to the caprice of the elements, may 
be all right in bountiful old Missouri, but in the older Eastern country 
would be prima facie evidence of the insanity of the land-owner who 
permitted the waste. 

The waste of valuable timber is equally unaccountable, if not really 
appalling. While economists in the older lands are startled at the 
rapid approach of the timber famine, and are wondering where the 
timber supply is to come from a dozen years hence, the farmers of 
Monroe county and all North Missouri have until recently been split- 
ting elegant young walnut and cherry trees into common rails to 
inclose lands worth $10 to $25 per acre ; cutting them into logs for 
cabins, pig troughs and sluiceways, and even putting them on the wood 
market in competition with cheap coals, complaining the while of the 
cost of walnut furniture brought from factories a thousand miles 
away. 

There are too many big farms here for the good of the overtasked 
owners or the country. No man can thoroughly cultivate 600, 1,000 
or 1,500 acres of land, any more than a country of homeless and land- 
less tenants can be permanently prosperous ; and the sooner these broad, 
unwieldly estates are broken into small farms and thoroughly culti- 
vated by owners of the soil in fee simple, the better it will be for land 
values, schools, highways, society, agriculture, trade and every vital 
interest of the country. Such a consummation would vastly add to 
the wealth and attractions of this beautiful and fertile region, grivins: it 
the graces of art, manifold fruits of production, and universal thrift 
that attend every country of proprietary small farmers. There is too 
much speculation and too little work for the benefit of farming or 
economic living. Everybody is trading with his neighbor in live stock, 
grain, lands, town lots, options, or anything that promises money 
without work, forgetting that the country is not a dime the richer for 
the traffic. Nothing surprises the Eastern visitor as much as the want 



304 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

of appreciation for their couiitrj, expressed by so many of the old and 
substantial farmers of this region. They get the Texas, Kansas or 
Colorado fever, and talk about selling beautiful farms in this fair and 
fertile county for the chances of fortune in one of these regions of the 
immigrant's Utopia, as if they were unconscious of living in one of 
the most favored lands upon the green earth. A six weeks' tour of 
some of the older and less favored States, followed by a trip of crit- 
ical observation into some of the newer ones, might give these uneasy 
and unsettled men a spirit of happy content with their present homes 
and surroundings. 

Monroe county has productive capacity great enough to feed a fourth 
of the population of Missouri, but before its wonderful native resources 
are developed to the maximum, it must have 20,000 more men to aid 
in the work. Men for the thorough cultivation of 40, 80 and 120 
acre farms ; for the modern butter and cheese dairy ; skilled fruit 
growers to plant orchards and vineyards and wine presses ; hundreds 
of sterling young young men from the Northern States, the Canadas 
and Europe to solve the farm labor problem in a country where relia- 
ble labor is scarce and wages high, and skilled artisans to found a 
hundred new mechanical industries. All these are wanted, nor can 
they come a day too soon for cordial greeting from the good people of 
Monroe county, or the precious realization of a great destiny for one 
of the most inviting regions on the green earth. 

Taking the census of 1880 as a basis of calculation and comparison, 
Monroe county, agriculturally, occupies a place in the front rank of 
counties, and in some respects it is unrivalled by any other in the 
State. 

In 1880 the county produced 3,379,539 bushels of corn, only 12 
counties out of the entire number of 114 producing a greater number 
of bushels than Monroe. The crop averaged 38^/2 bushels per acre. 
We can more fully appreciate the crop of corn raised by Monroe 
county by a simple comparison. 

During the same year California raised 1,993,325 bushels ; Colorado, 
455,968 ; Oregon, 126,862 ; Rhode Island, 372,967 ; Washington Ter- 
ritory, 39,182; Utah, 163,342; Nevada, 11,891, and District of 
Columbia, 29,750. Total number of bushels, 3,193,287. 

It will be seen that Monroe county produced more corn in 1880 
than eight States and Territories produced. Take the tobacco crop 
for the same year. Chariton, Callaway, Carroll, Howard, Macon, 
Randolph and Saline each raised more tobacco than Monroe. Chari- 
ton and Carroll averaged more pounds to the acre than Monroe ; the 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 305 

averao^e number of pounds per acre for Monroe was 784, and the entire 
crop was 421,232 pounds. 

As a sheep county, Monroe leads all the counties in the State, the 
number for 1880 being 32,873 ; Linn county ranking second, with 
32,458. Being the banner sheep county, it would most naturally 
follow that the wool clipping was greater in pounds, which was a fact, 
the whole number of pounds of wool being 229,158 ; Linn county 
clipped 183,052. 

There were nine counties that raised more hogs than Monroe, the 
number in Monroe being a little less than 65,000. 

Fourteen counties produced more cattle than Monroe the number 
for Monroe for that year (1880) being a little less than 30,000. 

Twelve counties produced more butter than Monroe, the latter hav- 
ing upwards of 400,000 pounds. 

Only three counties contained a greater number of horses than 
Monroe. 

The fticts and figures which are briefly, but correctly, given above 
show the following facts : — 

That in 1880 only 12 counties in Missouri raised more corn than 
Monroe, and that Monroe raised more corn than was produced by 8 
States and Territories ; that 7 counties grew more tobacco than 
Monroe, but that Monroe averaged a greater number of pounds to the 
acre than 4 of these counties ; that Monroe county raised more sheep 
than any other county in the State and clipped a greater number of 
pounds of wool than any other county ; that 9 counties contained 
more hogs than Monroe ; 14 counties more cattle; 12 counties made 
more butter, and 3 counties contained more horses. 

Taxable wealth from 1874 to 1884 — \^lh, $4,965,290.00; 1876, 
$4,904,376.00; 1877, $5,369,522.00; 1878, $5,273,805.00; 1879, 
$4,234,400.00; 1880, $4,548,160.00; 1881, $4,573,920.00; 1882, 
$4,871,044.00; 1883, $4,523,170.00. 

FRUIT. 

Monroe county is one of the best fruit growing counties in the State, 
and will in a few years equal if not surpass any other county in the 
production of apples. The apple crop for the winters of 1882-83 
amounted to over 100,000 barrels that were shipped to Chicago and 
the Northern markets, saying nothing of the thousands of bushels that 
were sold to the local trade and used at home. The apple crop for 
1884 promises a greater yield than for any preceding year. The Ben 
Davis takes the lead; then comes the Genitan, Jonathan, Wine-sap, 



306 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



Baldwin, Willow Twig, Yellow and White Belle Flower, Parmain, 
Maiden's Blush, Milan, Newtown Pippin, the Northern Spy and a 
few other kinds. Small fruits, such as cherries, currants, gooseber- 
ries, blackberries, strawberries and raspberries do well, and are not 
only raised by farmers, but these fruits are to be seen in the yards 
and o-ardens of those who live in the towns and villages throughout 
the county. 

Grapes, especially the Concord, thrive well, and could be produced 
in great abundance if there was any market or demand for them 
away from the county. Pears hit occasionally — once every two or 
three years; peaches do well when they are not injured by cold 
weather; an ordinary hard winter, however, will kill the trees. 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 



MOJ^ROE tow:n^ship. 



KICHARD ASBURY, M. D. 

(Physician and Surgeon, Monroe City) . 

Dr. Asbury was one of the first residents of Monroe City, having 
come here as early as the spring of 1866. But three families of those 
residing here at that time are still residents of the place. He built a 
neat two-story frame business house, the first one of any considerable 
size or importance erected here, A regular graduate of medicine and 
a physician of established reputation, he soon built up an excellent 
practice in the adjacent vicinities of Monroe, Ralls, Marion and Shelby 
counties, a practice which has steadily increased from the first. Dr. 
Asbury was also engaged in the drug business at this place with suc- 
cess for a number of years. A man of liberal, progressive ideas and 
wide general information, he has always taken an intelligent interest 
in the progress and prosperity of the community, and has contributed 
an important share toward building up Monroe City and surrounding 
country, and for the general interests of the people. Recognizing his 
concern for the welfare of the place, he has been called repeatedly to 
serve as city councilman and gave conclusive proof of his usefulness 
in that position by advocating with a due regard for economy and 
practicability all needed public improvements, such as the improve- 
ment of streets and making of sidewalks, etc. Dr. Asbury is a native 
Missourian, born in Lewis county, near the city of Monticello, May 
17, 1838. His parents were William F. and Elizabeth (Blair) Asbury, 
his father originally of Virginia, but his mother of Kentucky. They 
were married in Kentucky and came to Missouri in 1834, settling five 
miles west of Monticello. The}'^ subsequently removed to Scot and 
county, near Memphis, where the father died in 1853. The mother 
died some 13 years before, in 1840. Richard, the subject of this 
sketch, was only two years of age when his mother died, and his father 
afterwards married. Miss Mary A. Measner then becoming his wife. 
There were nine children by the father's first marriage and one by the 
second. The father was a farmer and also practiced medicine, being 
a man of wonderful natural aptitude for the medical profession. 
Richard Asbury received his education at the common schools, and 
when 20 years of age, during the Pike's Peak excitement, went to the 
South Park country in Colorado, where he spent nearly a year, en- 

(307) 



308 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

gaged in mining. On his return he entered school at Canton, under 
the instruction of Prof. Grant, who taught a private class at the 
college in that place. After this he entered upon the regular study 
of medicine, under Dr. R. S. Briscoe, and continued under him for 
about a year, teaching school, however, a part of the time. He subse- 
quently studied under Dr. Hubbard at Canton and taught for another 
year. For a while, also, he was engaged in mercantile business with 
J. B. Reddish. Entering the College of Physicians and Surgeons at 
Keokuk, Iowa, he took a regular course in that institution and gradu- 
ated in 1865. After his graduation he located in Saline county, uear 
Petre, where he practiced for about a year. He then came to Monroe 
City, in 1866, as stated above. In the meantime, however, in 1861, 
he joined the Southern army and was in the service for about a year, 
being a part of the time under Col. Green, and a part under Col. 
Porter. On May 12, 1864, Dr. Asbury was married to Miss Martha 
E. Plant of Monticello. There are three children living of this union : 
Sarah E. (" Bessie"), who is now attending Prof. Musgrove's sem- 
inary at Monticello; Massanello P. ("Ned"), now also attending 
the same institution, and Carrie V., at home, aged eight years. Two 
are deceased, Richard V. and Lillie C, who died at tender ages. In 
about 1874 Dr. Asbury's wife's health began to fail and it so con- 
tinued up to the time of her death, which occurred on March 17, 1883. 
Two years before, he went south, hoping that a change of climate 
would prove beneficial, but all to no avail. She had long been an 
earnest member of the Christian Church, and at last passed away 
peacefully in the full hope and faith of the blessed Redeemer. Dr. 
Asbury has had several partnershij)s in the practice of medicine, but 
has always commanded a good practice personally, for he has many 
old patients who would not be satisfied with any other physician while 
he could be had. He has always taken a warm interest in the cause 
of temperance and is an earnest believer in the effectiveness of pro- 
hibition laws. He has been a member of the school board for a num- 
ber of years, and, indeed, has ever shown a willingness to assist in 
any movement designed for the general good. 

WILLIAM A. BIRD 

(Photographer, Monroe City), 

In 1873 Mr. Bird commenced learning the art of photography and 
has since devoted his time and attention almost exclusively to his call- 
ing. The wants of society are varied, and in a well regulated com- 
munity, as in the ideal Republic of Plato, the pursuits of its members 
must be greatly diversified. The egotism of the less liberal and less 
broad-minded class of individuals is so great, however, that it is not 
an uncommon thing to see one in a given calling estimating with little 
appreciation the pursuit of another — looking upon it, in fact, as of 
little value, and unworthy the time and attention of a man of sterling 
intelligence, positive character, or personal force. In this light some 
are wont to look upon photography. Ignoring the great service the 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 309 

art performs to humanity, they are not disposed to regard its adepts 
with that respect and consideration to which men faithfully devoted to 
a worthy calling are justly entitled. The art of photography preserves 
a singularly correct representation of the features and appear- 
ance of those nearest and dearest to us, after they have passed 
away. It presents to us the likeness of a loving and beloved mother 
when she is to be seen no more, or of a father, or of a husband 
or wife or children. The features of absent friends long separated 
from us are by it brought to view, telling us of the changes 
which the flight of years has made in those we esteem. In the realm 
of the gentler, blush-producing emotions of the heart, the value of 
its services is as inestimable as the stars that people space are innum- 
erable. Who of our day, in the opening bloom-time of life, has not 
had his soul thrilled, as if the music of the spheres were vibrating in 
his breast, at looking upon the fair features of some lovely maid,"the 
ideal of his heart, as presented by the heaven-invented art of photog- 
raphy? No one who has ever been young and loved can ever become 
so soured as to esteem to photographers' work less than a gift of heaven, 
a divine mission, appointed like the ministers of old to publish glad 
tidings to all the world. Then should not one who devotes himsehf to 
this hardly less than sacred office put forth every energy of head and 
heart and of personal exertion to prove himself worthy of it? In this 
light the true artist regards it, and it is in this light that the subject 
of the present sketch has ever viewed it. With an intuitive sense of 
the importance of, and due regard for, the conditions of invention, 
composition, design, chiaroscuro and coloring, including the princi- 
ples of light and shade, warm and cold expres'sions, perspective, etc., 
he has studied his art with that intelligence and assiduity and practiced 
himself in its work with that comprehensive appreciaton of what is 
necessary to be done, which could not fail of placing him in the front 
rank of artists in North Missouri. The gratifying result is shown in 
the superior excellence and enviable reputation which distinguish his 
work. It is not too much to say that no photographer in this part of 
the State has been more fortunate in mastering his art than the sub- 
ject of the present sketch. His work can compare favorably with that 
of the most eminent adept, were they hung side by side in any reput- 
able solan d'art photographique of a large city . Mr. Bird , whose name 
itself is not an unpleasant suggestion, is a native of the classic State of 
Illinois, born in Ogle county7May 19, 1850. His early life was spent 
on the farm and without any thrilling event indicative of a remarka- 
ble future. He early became identTfied, however, with a base ball 
club at Eockford, III., showing that he is possessed of that activity 
of mind and body and of that disposition to keep quite up with the 
times in Avhich he lives so necessary to success in life. He was for 
some time a professional base ball player, and his name as such became 
a familiar object to the public in the local prints, and in a way quite 
creditable to himself and the club with which he was identified. In 
short, he was a successful base ball player, as he is a successful pho- 



310 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

tographer. In 1872 he came to Missouri, locating at Shelbina, where 
he followed clerking for a year and at the same time studied and 
worked at photography. He came to Monroe City in 1880, and now 
has one of the handsomest suits of art parlors, in his line, including 
a studio and laboratory, to be found in this section of the State. His 
career, indeed, as indicated above, has been one of gratifying and un- 
usual success. August 24, 1880, he was married to Miss Frankie L., 
a refined and accomplished daughter of J, C. York, of Shelbina. Mr. 
Bird is also agent for the Kimball organ. Mrs. Bird is a member of 
the M. E. Church. 

JAMES H. BLINCOE 

(Contractor and Builder, and Dealer in Lumber, etc., Monroe City). 

Mr. Blincoe is the leading contractor and builder of this place, 
if indeed not also of the county, and does a business exceeded in 
extent and importance only by the excellence and popularity of his 
work. He has been engaged in business here for the past seven years 
and during this time has erected a number of the handsomest build- 
ings, both residence and otherwise, to be seen in the place, a town 
noted for the fine taste and display in its architecture. He is by 
natural taste an architect, a designer of superior ability, while he is a 
thoroughly experienced carpenter and he always gives his personal 
attention to the erection of the buildings which are contracted to him, 
doing a large part of the work himself. He works, however, a half 
a dozen or more first-class carpenters during the building season, and 
receives great commendation for the expedition as well as thorough- 
ness with which he does his work. Mr. Blincoe is one of the highly 
respected citizens of the place and is a member of the school board 
of which Dr. Jackson is president. He carries a large and excellent 
stock of lumber and all sorts of building materials, so that while he 
is enabled to sell to the general public at the lowest retail prices, he 
is at the same time able to give his patrons as a builder the benefit 
of wholesale prices in the erection of their houses. Mr. Blincoe is a 
Missourian by nativity and was born in Marion county, February 24, 
1844. His father was George T. Blincoe, in his younger days a con- 
tractor in Marion county, and his mother was a Miss Elizabeth Turner, 
both Virginians. James H. was brought up to his present business and 
has since worked at it at different points in Missouri up to the time 
of coming to Monroe City, in 1877. Here he soon came to the front 
in his present lines, a position he is likely to hold as long as good 
health is spared to him. On the 14th of June, 1865, he was married 
to Miss Anna Mitchell, of Marion county, a daughter of Burrill and 
Caroline (McCullough) Mitchell. Mr. and Mrs. Blincoe have four 
children: William E., Alice, James H. and an infant. He and wife 
are members of the M. E. Church South, and he is a member of the 
Masonic order. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 311 

BOULWARE & SULLIVAN 

(Dealers in Dry Goods, Clothing, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, etc., etc., Monroe City) 

Mr. Boulware, the senior member of the above-named firm, was 
brought up to merchandising, his father, William Boulware, having 
been an old merchant of this place. He entered his father's store 
after taking a course at Monroe Academy, and continued clerking for 
his father from the age of 15 up to 1872, when he formed a part- 
nership with his brother, Edward S., and the two engaged in his pres- 
ent line of business in this place. They continued in the business 
together with good success for two years, when Edward S. sold his 
interest in the firm to James M. Johnson, and about eighteen months 
afterwards the latter sold to Mr. Sullivan. Since then, in 1876, the 
firm has been doing business under the name of Boulware & Sullivan. 
The business was started on comparatively a small capital, but the firm 
now have one of the leading houses in their line in Monroe county, 
and, indeed, in all this section of country for miles around. Messrs. 
Boulware & Sullivan keep three clerks constantly employed, besides 
giving the business their own daily attention. They have a new brick 
business house, erected by themselves in 1883 at a large cost, a build- 
ing 28x100 feet, which they have literally packed witli every variety 
of goods to be found in a first-class store in their line. Their business 
is on a cash basis, both as buyers and sellers, and while it is thus on a 
sound basis, they are at the same time able to sell at prices which no 
credit house can compete with, for they get the benefit of important 
discounts by making cash purchases. Mr. Boulware is a native of 
Monroe county, born near this city March 22, 1852. His mother was 
Miss Anna McPike, related to the well-known McPike family of North 
Missouri. Aaron was the youngest of four children, the others being : 
Eachel Z., now Mrs. R. V. Sullivan ; Edward S., of Marion county, 
and James M., of Lewis county. September 21, 1876, Aaron Boul- 
ware, the subject of this sketch, was married to Miss jNIinnie Menden- 
hall, a daughter of Dr. Thomas J. Mendenhall, of Monroe, formerly of 
Wilmnigton, Del. ; he is now practicing in Philadelphia, Penn. 
Mr. and Mrs. Boulware have two children : Thomas Mendenhall 
and Anna McPike. He and wife are both members of the Episco- 
13al Church, and he is a member of the Masonic order. 

Randolph V. Sullivan, the junior member of the firm, was born 
in Mason county, Ky., November 4, 1834, and was a son of Austin 
and Catherine (Hiles) Sullivan, who came to Missouri in 1867, and 
settled in Marion county. In 1871, however, they went to Rising Sun, 
Ind., where their eldest son lives, and where the father died in 1882. 
The mother is still living there. Four of their family are living: 
Robert A., of Marion county: James H., of Monroe county; Jerome, 
of Vernon county; Randolph, the subject of this sketch, and William 
H., the eldest, a physician at Rising Sun, Ind. Randolph V. was 
reared in Kentucky and educated at the Dover Seminary in that State. 

15 



312 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

He spent two years there in a drug store, and came to Missouri in 1856. 
Here he engaged in farming, near Monroe City, which he followed until 
1876, being also engaged during the same time in grazing and feed- 
ing stock of all kinds. On the 29th of June, 1859, Mr. Sullivan was 
married to Miss Rachel Z. Boulware, only daughter of William Boul- 
ware, and a sister to Aaron Boulware, of the present firm. The Ijusi- 
ness of this firm has already been spoken of in the preceding sketch. 
Mr. Sullivan has been for some time acting President of the Monroe 
City Bank, since the ill health of the President, John B. Randol, and 
at the last election of officers he was elected President of the bank in 
which he is a prominent stockholder. He is one of the substantial 
property holders of the county, and a sober-minded, safe business 
man. Mr. and Mrs. Sullivan have three children : William A. and 
Charles M., both clerking in the store, and Anna K., who is at home. 
William was educated at Central College, and Charles and Anna were 
educated at the Monroe Academy. Mr. Sullivan is superintendent of 
the Sunday-school and he and all his family, except Charles, are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 

ROBERT B. BRISTOW 

(Of Bristow & Lighter, Attorneys at Law, Monroe City). 

Maj. Bristow, one of the leading lawyers of this judicial circuit and 
a prominent, influential citizen of Monroe county, came to Missouri 
from Virginia in 1870, where he had been successfully engaged in the 
practice of his profession continuously since the close of the war. He 
is a native of Virginia and resided there until his removal to Missouri. 
Maj. Bristow was born in Middlesex county, January 21, 1840, and 
was a son of James S. and Leonora (Seward) Bristow, both of old 
Virginia families. His father was a farmer by occupation and Robert 
B. was brought up to hard work on the farm. However, he had good 
educational advantages and took a regular course at Alleghany Col- 
lege, Virginia, where he graduated in 1859. Intended for the law, 
he immediatel}' afterwards entered upon the study for that profession 
under the eminent jurist. Judge Brockenborough, of Lexington, Va. 
He also took a regular course at the Virginia Law School, but 
received no degree as that institution did not then confer degrees. 
After quitting the law school he engaged in teaching, but was not 
long permitted to preside over a school-room, for the cyclone of Civil 
War soon came sweeping over the country and drew every one capable 
of bearing arms into its terrible embrace. He went directly out of the 
school-room into the first battle of Manassas, and for more than four 
years he bravely bore himself in march and camp and on the bloody 
field as a worthy soldier of the cavalier South. He entered the army 
as a private and by his merits rose to the rank of major, which he 
held at the close of the war, and finally surrendered at Appomattox 
where the Southern standard v/ent down to rise no more. He was 
four times wounded during the progress of the war and was in many 
of the hardest battles fought during that long and terrible struggle. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 313 

But none of his injuries proved pernianent, and he came out of his 
four years' service fully capable of co[)ing with the duties and respon- 
sibilities of life, his severest wound being that of the heart by the 
defeat of the cause which he loved so well and fought for so long aud 
bravely. After the surrender he located for the practice of his profes- 
sion at Saluda, the county seat of his native county, where he prac- 
ticed with success until his removal to Missouri in 1870. From 
Virginia he came directly to Monroe City, and here formed a partnership 
in the practice of law with Rev. P. R. Ridgley, a prominent attorney 
as well as an able divine, now of Rocheport, Mo. This partnership 
continued until 1872, and they also condncted the Monroe City Appeal. 
Rev. Mr. Ridgley, however, went to Rocheport, and a few weeks 
later Maj. Bristow had the misfortune to lose the Appeal office by 
lire, which left him about $1,000 in debt. He then sold the good 
will of the Appeal for what he could get and devoted himself 
exclusively to the practice. He has been quite successful as a lawyer, 
both in the trial of cases and in the accumulation of the rewards of a 
good practice, being not only one of the leading lawyers of the circuit 
in reputation and business but also in easy circumstances. Maj. Bris- 
tow is a man of marked character and sterling natural ability, as well 
as thorough master of the science of the law and an able practitioner 
and speaker. As an advocate he is conceded to have few equals if any 
in the circuit, and the influence he has before juries is one of the prin- 
cipal secrets of his success. Always thoroughly posted in the law of 
the case and never failing to make himself perfectly fiimiliar with the 
facts, with this preparation when he comes to present his case to the 
jury in that terse aud forcible language of which he is master, as well 
as that eloquence which he commands at will, he is almost irresisti- 
ble. In 18 — he formed a partnership in the practice with his present 
partner, John T. Lighter, Jr., Esq. Mr. Lighter is an able and 
accomplished young lawyer, a graduate of the law department of the 
State University and a successful practitioner. On the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, 1866, Maj. Bristow was married to Miss Lucinda E. Cauthron, of 
Essex county, Va., and related to the prominent Audrain county 
family by that name of this State. Maj. and Mrs. Bristow are mem- 
bers of the Baptist Church, and he is one of the leading members of 
the I. O. O. F. in this part of the State. 

BENEDICT BUELL 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-oflSce, Monroe City) . 

One of the most increscent forces operating to the material devel- 
opment and general advancement in prosperity of Monroe county is 
the large number of men of means and enterprise, and of sterling 
business and industrial ability, who are constantly casting their for- 
tunes and identifying their lives and activity for this county. Promi- 
nent among these in the last year or two is the subject of the present 
sketch. Mr. Buell, a relative to the litterateur Buell, well known as 
the author of " Russian Nihilism," and numerous other works, resided 



314 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

in St. Louis county, where he was partly reared, until his removal 
to Monroe county in the fall of 1883. Already, by his industry and 
enterprise, he had achieved substantial success in the accumulation of 
property, and came here with ample means to buy a valuable tract of 
land and improve it in an excellent manner. He has built an unusu- 
ally good and tastefully constructed residence, commodious and con- 
veniently arranged, and in other respects is making his farm one of 
the desirable homesteads of the township. Mr. Buell is a native of 
St. Louis county, born October 19, 1834. His parents were Jacob 
O. and Rosanna (Carrico) Buell, his mother a sister to Benedict Car- 
rico, a sketch of whom appears in this volume, and for whom the 
present subject was named. Mr. Buell was quite young when his 
father died, leaving one other son, Walter, who is now on the farm 
with the subject of the present sketch, having only recently returned 
from California, where he made his home from the year 1850. In 
1836 Mrs. Buell, the widow, with her two sons, Beneclict and Walter, 
removed to Monroe county, but returned to St. Louis county four 
years afterward and was married there' to Mr. Van Meter. She 
resided in St. Louis county for 16 years, but came back to Monroe in 
1856. However, she returned to St. Louis county in 1877. Her 
second husband died while they resided in Monroe count3^ Benedict 
Buell was brought up to farming but also learned the stonemason's 
trade, at which he worked in St. Louis until 1854. He then spent 
three years mining and freighting in California. Returning to St. Louis 
county in 1857, two years later he was married there to Miss Mary 
Kieif, who was born and reared in St. Louis. In 1860 he began running 
a threshing machine in St. Louis county, and continued that, in addition 
to his other agricultural industries, up to the time of his removal to Mon- 
roe county. Until the application of steatn power to threshers became 
practicable he used horse power, but as soon as steam could be used 
he applied it as a motive power to his thresher, and is conceded to be 
the first man who ever threshed wheat in St. Louis county with a 
steam thresher. In 1879 Mr. Buell bought his present tract of land in 
Monroe county. This is a fine piece of land of 160 acres, the improve- 
ment of which he began in 1883. His identification with this county 
is a valuable acquisition to its agricultural interests and to its citizen- 
ship. Mr. and Mrs. Buell have four children : William B., Anna L., 
Lee and Wesley. His eldest son is married and resides in this town- 
ship. His eldest daughter is the wife of Mr. Hamilton Green, who 
resides on the farm with his father-in-law. The second son, a graduate 
of the Mound City Commercial College, is a successful teacher in the 
county. The youngest son, Wesley, is at home, Mr. and Mrs. Buell 
are members of the Catholic Church, and he is a member of the 
Knights of Honor. 

J. PORTER BUSH 

(Farmer, Stock-raiser aud Stock-dealer, Post-office, Monroe City). 

Mr. Bush, one of the most enterprising and intelligent agricultur- 
ists of Monroe township, is a Kentuckian by nativity, born in Clark, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



315 



county, November 2, 1837. His parents were Jeremiah and Nancy 
H. (Gentry) Bush, who lived in Clark county, Ky., being highly 
respected citizens, until their death, the father being a substantial and 
prominent farmer and stock-raiser of that county. J. Porter was 
reared on the farm, and completed his education at Central College 
of Danville, Ky. The two years following, 1854 and 1855, he 
spent in a store at Winchester, Ky. Following this he was in 
no particular line of business until 1860, when he became station 
agent of the Hanuibal and St. Joe Koad at Osborn, having previously 
learned telegraphy. The following fall, November 15, 1860, he was 
married to Miss Anna E. Gentry, daughter of Hon. Joshua Gentry, 
then president of the Hannibal and St. Joe Railroad Company. He 
continued in the service of that company until 1866, having been 
agent at Palmyra from May 1, 1862, to April, 1866. Then he settled 
on his present larm three miles south of Monroe City, where he has a 
fine place of 320 acres, which has a tract of 80 acres of timber tribu- 
tary to it. Besides farming in a general way he makes a specialty of 
raising fine short-horn and Hereford cattle for the Western trade, and 
now has 40 head of fine cattle on hand. He also has superior grades of 
sheep and hogs. For a number of years he has been engaged in feed- 
ing and shipping stock, and handling them quite extensively, in which 
he has been entirely successful. During the war Mr. Bush was a 
Union man, and was a member of the enrolled militia while in the 
service of the railroad, being connected with the rail protective ser- 
vice, and was frequently called out from his regular office duties to 
protect the road. He was at Monroe City, July 10, 1861, when the 
depot was burned by Capt. John Owens' men of the Southern service, 
and was at Hunnewell at the time Porter and Green entered that place 
on their raid in North Missouri, being robbed there, and only escap- 
ing with his life by the citizens telling them that he had gone off on 
the previous train. He was ordered out for service at the time the 
Southrons burnt the Salt river bridge, and on several other occasions 
of great personal danger. Gen. Porter, of the Confederate army, 
made a raid on Palmyra in 1863 while he (Mr. Bush) was located 
there, and released all the Confederate prisoners in that place and 
carried oft' old man Allsman, for whom Gen. John McNeil had 10 
Confederate prisoners shot at that place. Mr. Bush was present at 
the shooting of the prisoners. Mr. and Mrs. Bush have a family of 
seven children, and have lost one, besides their eldest, in infancy. 
The others are James J., Charley C, Jesse J., Sarah G., Ambrose 
G., Catherine N., and Annetta. He and wife are members of the 
Monroe Christian Church, and he is a member of the A. O. U. W. 

BENEDICT CARRICO 

(Farmer, and Cattle-raiser, Post-office, Monroe City) . 

On his father's side, Mr. Carrico is of English descent, though the 
family was settled in Virginia for several generations, but on his 
mother's side he is of Irish ancestry, his grandfather, Ignatious 



316 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

O'Brien, having been a native of the Emerald Isle. His father was 
Walter Carrico and his mother, before her marriage, was a Miss 
Helena O'Brien. Three of the Carrico brothers came to Missouri — 
Vincent, the eldest, coming away back when St. Louis was a mere 
frontier trading post; Dennis came in 1810 and Walter in 1818; a 
sister also came, Theresa, back in 1810 ; she became the wife of Josias 
Miles, and Richard Miles, mentioned in this volume, was her son. They 
all first located in St. Louis county. Walter Carrico, the father of 
the subject of this sketch, came to Monroe county in 1836 and settled 
on Indian creek, near Swinkey, where he entered nearly 600 acres of 
land and lived until his death in 1840. His wife died in 1865. They 
had three sons and four daughters, namely: Ignatious, who died in 
Texas ; Benedict, the subject of this sketch; Joseph M., of St. Louis 
county ; Elizabeth, who died whilst the wife of Francis Miles ; Theresa, 
who died whilst the wife of James Murphy ; Rosanna, who died 
after her marriage to John Van Metre, and Nancy who died whilst the 
wife of D. D. St.Vrain. Benedict Carrico and Joseph M. Carrico are 
the only two of the family now living. The former was but twenty- 
two years of age when he came to Monroe county and on the 7th day 
of February, 1837, he was married to Miss Catherine L., a daughter 
of Edward Hardesty. She was born in Kentucky in 1818, and died 
in this county March 13, 1879, leaving her husband eio;ht children : 
Walter V., of Hannibal; Susan E., now the wife of V. B. Calhoun of 
Hannibal ; Edward D., who is at home ; Benedict F., who resides 
near his father; Theresa A., now the wife of A. W. Vaughn, of the 
same vicinity ; Francis I., now the wife of Nicholas Calhoun, of Marion 
county; Thomas M., who is still on the farm with his father, and 
Elizabeth, who died a young lady, about four years ago. Mr. Car- 
rico has followed farming and stock-raising ever since he came to the 
county. He lived in the north-eastern part of the county until 1849. 
He then settled on a part of his present place. At first he had but 
80 acres, but now he has 13 acres less than 300, and has given some 
land to his children. Whilst his life has been one of industry and 
good management, it is thus seen that his labors have not been with- 
out their reward. His main business has been raising cattle and 
mules at which, in his time, he has made a good deal of money. He 
also raised considerable tobacco years ago. Mr. Carrico and all of his 
children are members of the Catholic Church. Personally he is 
looked upon as one of the old and highly respected citizens of the 
township, and is much esteemed by all who know him. 

HARRISON CARY 

(Dealer iu Groceries, Monroe City) . 

Mr. Cary, one of the old citizens of Monroe county, was one of the 
first merchants to engage in business at this place. He began here in 
1862, when there were but two other business houses, those of J. M. 
Preston and H. A. Buchanan, both dealers in general merchandise. 
Mr. Cary has been in business from that time to this almost continu- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 317 

oiisly. On first coming to Monroe City he formed a partnership with 
John Gates, with whom he continued for two years. He was then alone 
for awhile, and his next partner was Heber Hough. They were in 
the business together up to 1870. Mr. Cary started his present bus- 
iness in the line of groceries, queen's-ware, glass-ware, etc., in 1875. 
His business has grown with the growth of the place and the sur- 
rounding country. He now carries an unusually large stock of goods 
and has erected a handsome two-story brick business house with a 
laroje cellar for his trade. This buildino; has three rooms, all of which 
are occupied by his stock, and for conveniently handling goods he has 
an elevator. He carries a stock of several thousand dollars and does 
an extensive and lucrative business. He also handles seeds and other 
farm products, except grain, stock and the like. Mr. Gary was born 
in Marion county. May 29, 1822. His parents were Edward and 
Elizabeth (Whaley) Cary, his mother a daughter of Capt. Whaley, 
formerly of Kentucky. They were married in Kentucky and came 
to Missouri in 1820. In 1846 young Cary enlisted for the Mexican 
War, becoming a soldier under Price, afterwards Gen. Price of the 
Civil War, and being in Col. Dave Willick's battalion. The principal 
scene of his service was in the Santa Fe country, and he was out for 
about 14 months. Mr. Cary underwent great hardships during his 
service, for soldiers were not as well cared for then as now, and 
besides, campaigning in a wild, almost provisionless country — there 
were no railroad means of transportation, but the dreary march most 
of the time without roads — and in all the changes of the weather was 
the lot of the soldier. Returning to Marion county after his service, 
he engaged in farming there, which he had previously followed, and 
on the 14th of June, 1849, was married to Miss E. C. Gash, of that 
county. He continued to farm in his native county until 1856, when 
he went to Texas, but returned the following year. He then came to 
Monroe county and improved what is now known as the J. M. Proctor 
farm, where he resided until he came to Monroe City in 1862. Mr. 
Cary took no part in the war, but was preyed upon by both sides and 
greatly annoyed and harassed by evil-disposed persons, without a fear 
of the Lord before their eyes or a decent regard for either the rights 
of person or property. Before the war Mr. Cary was a Whig, but 
has since been identified with the Democratic party, though only as a 
citizen, for he has never been an aspirant for office. However, he was 
a member of the first town council of Monroe City, and was also for 
a time mayor of the place. Mr. and Mrs. Cary have two children, 
Adolphus E., now connected with his father in business, and Mary L., 
the wife of Rev. Henry F. Davis, of the Christian Church. Adolphus 
E. is a graduate of the Christian University of Canton, Mo., having 
received his honors in the class of 1876. Mr. and Mrs. Cary are 
members of the Christian Church. 



318 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

DAVID G. DAVENPORT 

(Attorney at Law, Monroe City). 

Mr. Davenport, who has been engaged in the practice of law for 
over 30 years continuously, except during most of the war and 
for a short time afterwards, has been located at Monroe City since 
1873. As a lawyer, his career has been one of substantial success, 
and he is now one of the well-to-do citizens of this place as well as 
one of the prominent attorneys of the county. Mr. Davenport, 
although partly reared in Marion county, was born in Baltimore, 
Md., his natal day being the 20th of January, 1822. His father was 
David G. Davenport, and was originally from Lewistown, Del. He 
was reared, however, in West Virginia, but educated at Washington 
City, D. C. He early went to Baltimore, where Miss Susan Green 
became his wife, a young lady of Maryland birth and education. 
When David G., Jr., was some 15 years of age his parents removed 
to Missouri, settling near West Ely, in Marion county. Young 
Davenport received a good education and began the study of law in 
1848, under Judge Van Swearengen, who is well known to Missouri 
lawyers by his long and eminent service at the bar and hardly less by 
his being the subject of ex-Senator Waldo P. Johnson's famous poem, 
entitled "The Nestor of the Missouri Bar," which was read for the 
first time before the Bar Association of Vernon county some 10 or 12 
years ago. Mr. Davenport also read law under A. W. Lamm, a leading 
lawyer of Hannibal, and for whom Judge Van Swearengen' s son, A. 
W. Van Swearengen, a prominent lawyer of Montevallo, Mo., was 
named. Admitted to the bar in 1850, Mr. Davenport went at once 
thereafter to California, where he resided for about two years. He 
then returned to Missouri and engaged in the practice at Palmyra, 
where he continued with success until the second year of the war. 
By this time affairs had become so critical that it was no longer safe 
for a man of pronounced Southern convictions to remain at home, and 
he accordingly joined the Southern army, becoming first lieutenant of 
a company under Col. Porter, and taking charge of Porter's body- 
guard. Later along in the war he was wounded and taken prisoner. 
After his capture he was taken to Jefferson City and then to St. Louis, 
where he was court-martialed and thereupon committed to prison at 
Alton. He was finally transferred to Camp Chase, being kept in con- 
finement until the close of the war. After his return home he found 
that loyalty had not only been victorious but thrifty. Both Southern 
rights and Southern property had suffered, the latter perhaps even 
more than the former. Mr. Davenport found that his worldl}^ pos- 
sessions to the amount of about $20,000 had been swept away in com- 
mon with those of other " rebels." It is a poor thing that can't be 
made to pay, and in the late war " patriotism " was by no means an 
unprofitable enterprise, considering the l)ounties, the pickings from 
wicked "rebels," and the back pay and fat pensions that have fol- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 319 

lowed. After the war Mr. Davenport resumed the practice of law, 
not, however, for a few years, on account of the proscriptive clause 
of the Drake Constitution, which prohibited every one identified or 
sympathizing with the South in the remotest degree from practicing 
law, preaching, teaching school, or following almost any other occu- 
pation except manual labor, or business pursuits. After the removal 
of his political disabilities, however, he commenced the practice at 
Palmyra, but in 1873 came to Monroe City. On the 2d of October, 
1852, he was married to Miss Fannie C. Lair, daughter of William 
Lair of Marion county. They have had three children : David R., 
an attorney by profession, but at present, a general traveling agent 
of the Phoenix Insurance Comj)any of London, England, with head- 
quarters at Chicago; Fannie O., now Mrs. William E. Moss; and 
Palmyra M., now the wife of James ShaAV, of Hannibal. Mrs. Daven- 
port is a member of the M, E. Church, South. 

DURRANT & JACKSON 

(Dealers in Hardware, Stoves, Tin-ware, Agricultural Implements, Reapers, Mowers, 
Wagons, Buggies, Grass, Hay Seed, Etc., Monroe City). 

In youth Mr. Durrant learned the tinner's trade, at which he worked 
as a journeyman for a number of years, and in 1876 came to Mon- 
roe City as an employe of March & McCIure. They carried on busi- 
ness here, he W(n-king for them, until 1879, when they failed and made 
an assignment. He and Thomas J, Yates bought their stock and re- 
organized the business, which has since become the leading establish- 
ment in these lines in Monroe county, and one of the principal houses 
of the kind in North Missouri, outside of a large city. For this 
highly gratifying result more credit is due to the energy, enterprise, 
industry, and business abilit}^ of Mr. Durrant than to the exertions of 
any other man, for he has been longer and more intimately identified 
with the business than any one ar any time connected with it. In 
1881 Mr. Yates retired from the firm, Mr. Ely taking his place, and 
the hardware branch of the business was sold to Mr. William R. P. 
Jackson. On the 1st of January, 1882, the two houses were again 
consolidated under the firm name of B. M. Ely & Co., and a year 
later Mr. Ely retired, when the firm became Durrant & Jackson, as it 
has since continued. They carry large stocks of goods in all the lines 
mentioned above, and have the largest warehouse on the railroad from 
Hannibal to St. Joe. They are doing quite an extensive jobbing 
trade in the grass seed line, handling from five to eight car loads 
annually. Their yearly business in all the diflferent lines amounts to 
nearly $50,000. Such is the reward of close attention to business, 
enterprise and fair dealing. 

Geo. W. Durrant was born in Bradford county, Penn., and was one of 
nine children of George B. and Elizabeth (Smith) Durrant, formerly 
of England. Both parents died when George W. was quite a youth, 
and but three others of the family are living: William, in Pennsyl- 
vania, and Samuel and Fred., in Michigan. At the age of 14, 



320 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Geortre W. entered the general mercantile store of J. D. Humphrey, 
of Orwell, Penn., who was a first cousin to John Brown, of Harper's 
Ferry memory, in which young Durrant continued until he was 18 
years of age. He then learned the tinner's trade at Towanda, Penn., 
where he worked three vears. After attaiuino; his majority he worked 
for 12 years as a journeyman, working in Pennsylvania, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and in 1876 he came to Monroe City, as stated above. 
October 4, 1869, Mr. Durrant was marl-ied at Pontiac, Mich., to 
Miss Katie J. Goodrich. Thev have two children, George R, and 
Willie M. 

Mr. Jackson, of the above named firm, although a comparatively 
young man, has long been prominent in business afl:airs in Monroe 
City. Coming of a well known and highly respected family of North 
Missouri, he received a good education and came to Monroe City in 
1872, and engaged in the clothing and boot and shoe trade, which he 
followed with success, having several partners from time to time, for 
about five years. Meanwhile, he organized the Monroe City bank, of 
which he became cashier, and in order to give his bank business his 
entire time and attention, he retired from merchandising in 1876. 
He continued cashier of the bank for about five years, and until it was 
well founded on a sound basis and doing a prosperous business. In 
1881 he bought the hardware branch of the business of B. M. Ely & 
Co., and later along he became a half and equal owner with Mr. Dur- 
rant in the entire business, under the firm name of Durrant & Jack- 
son, as already mentioned. At the time of engaging in the hardware 
business he retired from the bank, since which he has devoted himself 
exclusively to the large and varied business interests of Durrant & 
Jackson. Mr. Jackson is one of the most thorough-going, clear- 
headed and progressive business men of the county, and according to 
all appearances has a most promising business future. Mr. Jackson 
is a man of family, having married February 1, 1876. His wife was 
previously Miss Sallie B. Holmes, a daughter of Henry J. Holmes, 
of this county. The}' have four children : Nellie B., Harry W., Edith 
F. and Homer L. Mr. Jackson was a son of James W. Jackson, an 
early settler of Marion county, from Delaware. His mother was a 
Miss Sarah E. Sharp before her marriage, a daughter of Rev. Richard 
Sharp, the well known Southern Methodist minister of this section of 
the State. He died February 28, 1881. William R. P. was born on 
the farm in Marion county, December 2, 1850, and was one of a large 
family of children. He was educated at the Palmyra Seminary. 

JUDGE JAMES D. EVANS 

(Judge of the County Court and of J. D. & J. W. Evans, Grocers, Monroe City). 

A good name is the result of a lifetime of upright conduct and use- 
ful citizenship, and when it is said that one has a name without 
reproach among those with whom he has lived for years, and who know 
him well, no ordinary compliment is paid. In sketching the life of 
Judge Evans, this statement, in common justice and truth and with 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 321 

no tinge of flattery, requires to be made, for having lived in the county 
from childhood, his record from the beginning has been with- 
out a stain, and stands \out to-day without a blot. His life 
has been and is one not only of negative uprightness, but 
of positive and active benefit to the county. For many years he was 
one of its best farmers and most enterprising stockmen, contributing 
a great deal by his example and progressive ideas to the improvement 
of the methods of farming and the grades of stock raised in the county. 
His large farm of 340 acres was mainly devoted to the stock business 
and he kept on hand a fine herd of short-horn cattle for breeding pur- 
poses, from which went out into different localities some of the best 
stock in the county. 

The Evans family is one of the old and respected families of Monroe 
county. Matthew W. Evans and wife, nee Mary A. Sherwood, came 
from Kentucky as early as 1828, and indeed, Matthew Evans hadbeen 
to this State several times prior to that, coming the first time in 1818. 
On removing here with his family he stopped for four years in 
Boone county, and then came to Monroe county in 1832, entering a 
tract of 360 acres, near Paris, where he improved a large farm, and 
lived until his death. He died at the age of 72, in 1872. His first 
wife had preceded him to the grave by 16 years. His second wife, 
before her marriage to him, was a widow lady, a Mrs. Sidney A. 
Adkinson. He was a prominent farmer and quite a large stockman, 
and was well and favorably known throughout the county. By his 
first wife there was a family of six sons and three daughters, but three 
of whom are living: Judge Evans, Mrs. Mary E. (John) Edwards 
and Mrs. Hester E. (Janies H.) Crooks, the latter of Pueblo, Col. 
Judge Evans, born August 24, 1830, was reared in Monroe county, 
and at the age of 20 crossed the plains to California, 1850, as a mem- 
ber of a Boone county company of gold seekers. He was in California 
for three years. Returning in 1853, he resumed farming in this county, 
to which he had been brought up, and for that purpose improved a 
place of 200 acres, 12 miles north-west of Paris. December 14, 
1854, he was married to Miss Sarah C. Haydon, daughter of Jeremiah 
V. Haydon, a pioneer settler of the county, widely known here and 
highly respected, and from Jessamine county, Ky. The year 
that he was married Judge Evans' younger brother John, then 19 
years of age, also went to California, but has never returned, nor has 
any word come back from him since 1857. He has long since been 
given up as dead. 

After improving his farm, Judge Evans continued agricultural life, 
raising grain and handling stock, until March 1, 1883; he removing 
to Monroe City in May of the same year, being an incumbent of the 
office of county judge, which he had held for several years, and desir- 
ing to retire from tarm life. 

He was identified with mercantile business as far back as 1870, 
when he became interested in merchandising at Granville. For five 
years following he was interested in selling goods, the last two years 
as president of the Grange co-operative store at Granville. h\ Feb- 



322 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ruary, 1884, he and his son, James W., formed a partnership at 
Monroe City, and opened their present grocery store. They carry a 
complete stock of staple and fancy groceries, and their store is one 
of the flourishing grocery houses of the place. 

Although mainly self-educated, Judge Evans is a man of good bus- 
iness qualifications and much general information. But above and 
beyond either of these he is a man of sterling native good sense and 
marked natural strength of character. In any community where the 
advantages of the people are at all similar or not out of all comparison, 
he would inevitably be chosen as a representative citizen in matters 
of public concern, and otherwise. Clear-headed, intelligent and hon- 
est, he has the sagacity to see what is best to be done for the public 
and the weight of character to command consideration for his opinions. 
Hence, it is hardly less than as a matter of course that he should be 
called to fill some position where sound judgment, integrity of char- 
acter and good business qualifications are required. In 1880 he and 
two others were candidates for the office ot county judge, and he was 
nominated and elected to this office, receiving the majority of the 
votes cast. He was a successor to Judge Duley, one of the ablest of 
the former judges of the county court. In 1882 Judge Evans was 
again a candidate, was renominated and re-elected, the opinions of the 
people being confirmed by his record as a judge, as shown by his 
re-election without opposition. He is now vice-president of the court 
and adds not a little by his ability and efficiency as an officer to the 
high reputation the court has among the people. In the spring of 
1883, Judge Evans had the misfortune to lose his wife. She died at 
the age of forty-four, a bereavement hard to bear for him and their 
family of children. She was a true and affectionate wife, a gentle and 
devoted mother, and a neighbor and Christian lady whom all that 
knew her had learned to prize as a valued friend and generous, pious- 
hearted woman. She had borne him a worthy family often children, 
namely: Matthew H., Kosa E., Mary B. (the last two twins), James 
W., Nannie. L., Lula, John J. W., Fannie M., Lena, and Tebbs. The 
eldest, Matthew H., a young practicing physicain, died .Tuly 26, 1882. 
He had graduated at the St. Louis Medical College in 1880, and was 
in the practice two years before his death at Oxford, Kan. He was mar- 
ried in 1881 to Miss MoUie Eubanks, of Paris, whom he left a widow. 
He was a young man of superior mental endowments and bright promise, 
and his death was a heavy affliction to his parents and other loved ones, 
and particularly so to his mother, who Avas destined so soon to follow 
him to the mystic shore across the silent river. His young wife, whose 
hope in life seemed to go out with the spirit of her beloved husband, 
a young lady of the purest and gentlest qualities of mind and heart, 
now under the pall of her great bereavement, makes her home with 
her father, James Eubanks, of this county. 

Judge Evans has given all of his children who are old enough to go 
ofi* to school, or is giving them, good educations, principally at the 
State Normal School, at Kirksville. The Judge is a prominent mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, and holds membership in good standing in 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 323 

Granville Lodge No. 240, A. F. & A. M., Monroe Chapter No. 16, 
E. A. M., and Parsifal Comraandery, No. 44, Knights Templar, at 
Paris, Mo. He is a worthy communicant in the Christian Church. 

THOMAS D. FREEMAN 

(Farmer, Monroe City) . 

Mr. Freeman has led a life of industry and intelligence, and one 
without reproach as well as satisfactorily rewarded in the sober com- 
forts that come of honest exertion regulated by good management. 
But whilst he has a neat competence as the fruit of his well spent life, 
his heart has not been set maiuly on the accumulation of property, but 
his greatest desire has been to bring up his family of children in a 
worthy manner and give them such training of head and heart as 
would tend to make them respected and useful members of society. 
Favored in no ordinary degree are the young who have such a parent 
to lead them in their early years so wisely in the pathway of light. 
A year ago Mr. Freeman quit his farm and came to town to reside 
with no other purpose than to give his children the benefit of the 
excellent schools kept at this place. He has four children : Janie D., 
Frances W., Maggie E. and Thomas D. In view of the fiither's 
forethought and zeal in behalf of the training of his children, it is 
earnestly to be hoped that their future will fully justify the interest he 
shows for their welfare. Mr. Freeman came to Missouri from Ken- 
tucky with his parents, Lewis D. and Jane (Davis) Freeman, in 1851, 
when he was 21 years of age. The family settled in Marion county, 
near Monroe City, where the father made a farm and lived until his 
death, at the age of 82, in 1880. The mother died in 1868. There 
were but two children, Thomas D. and James, now of Ft. Scott, Kas. 
For a number of years prior to their father's death the sons ran the 
farm principally, a large stock farm of nearly 400 acres, and dealt in 
and handled stock. Thomas D. entered the Confederate service in 
1861, assisting Capt. Stacy to organize a company, of which he was 
first lieutenant, but was captured while attempting to cross the river 
and kept in confinement as a prisoner seven months in St. Louis and 
Alton, 111., then sent to Vicksburg, Miss., and exchanged, when he 
again entered the army and remained until the close of the war. Re- 
turning after the restoration of peace he resumed farming, and in 1870 
he was married to Miss Sarah H. Fagan, a daughter of Hon. Henry 
G. Fagan, a leading citizen of Marion county, who represented the 
county in the Legislature and was otherwise prominent in its affairs. 
He died in 1876. He came to Marion county in 1817 and lived on 
the homestead he settled, a fine place of nearly 500 acres, for over 50 
years continuously. He was one of the well-known and highly 
esteemed men of the county. 



324 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 



MILTON B. GARNER 

(Of Garner's Wagon, Carriage, and General Repair Shop, Monroe City). 

On the far-off coast of the Pacific sea, where the sun sinks to rest 
at eventide, in the huicl of fruits and vines, and of golden sands, the 
subject of the present sketch, a Missourian by nativity, born and reared 
in Monroe county, learned the trade which he is now pursuing with 
industry and success in the county of his birth. In 1875 he crossed 
the phiins and passed beyond the cloud-capped heights of the Cordil- 
leras, making his destination at Winders, in Yaho county, Cal., where 
he spent two years. There he learned his trade and returned to Mis- 
souri, stopping at Palmyra, where he worked for five years. In the 
fall of 1882 he came to Monroe City and established his present shop. 
He now manufactures about 25 wagons annually, besides a number of 
spring wagons and other vehicles, and keeps four hands employed. 
His business is already established on a solid basis, and his wagons 
have an enviable reputation, the demand for them being greater than 
his means to supply. Mr. Garner was born in Moiu'oe county, Jan- 
uary 5, 1855, and was a son of John and Catherine (Terrill) Garner, 
well known and respected residents of the county. His youth was 
spent at home, and he remained in the county until he went to Cali- 
fornia in 1875, as stated above. May 2, 1883, he was married to Miss 
Minnie L., a daughter of John T. Christian, of Christian county. They 
are now established at housekeeping in Monroe City, and Mrs. Garner 
presides with becoming grace over her neat and tidy home. 

GENTRY & SNIDER 

(Dealers in Groceries, Provisions, Farm Produce and Cured and Fresh Meats, Monroe 

City). 

This firm was formed on a small capital in the spring of 1872, 
and has since been in business at this place continuously. By enter- 
prise, close attention to business and fair dealing, its house has risen 
to the position of one of the prominent business establishments of the 
place. Messrs. Gentry & Snider carry a large stock of groceries, 
queen's-ware, glass-ware, stone-ware, provisions, etc., etc., and besides 
have a meat market, where they keep cured and fresh meats in ample 
quantities for the trade constantly on hand. They have two separate 
establishments, one for the grocery business and the other for the 
meat market. In 1879 they erected a handsome grocery building at 
a cost of over $5,000, in which they carry everything to be found in 
a first-class grocery store. For the custom of their meat market they 
kill about three beeves weekly, and have the bulk of the trade in the 
fresh meat line. They also do a large business in handling farm pro- 
duce, such as vegetables, including potatoes, poultry, eggs, etc. They 
ship about 800 cases of eggs annually, and, indeed, handle more farm 
produce than all the other firms of the place combined. They make 
a specialty of cured meats, preparing them or curing them for their 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 325 

trade themselves. Both are thorough-going business men who have 
the conlidence of the community, and their personal popularity con- 
tributes materially to the marked success they have had. Overton H. 
Gentry was born in Monroe county, near Monroe City, October 18, 
1836. His father, Rev. Christy Gentry, was a well known minister of 
the Missionary Baptist Church of this county, and died here in 1866. 
He was actively engaged in the ministry up to the time of the enforcement 
of the provisions of the Drake Constitution, prohibiting ministers who 
had any sympathy whatever with the Southern people from preaching 
the Gospel, unless they took an oath of perjury declaring that they had 
no such sympathy. He declined to take the oath, but suffered so much 
from being prohibited to preach the word of God that that is believed 
to have had much to do with his taking off, for he died soon after- 
wards, and was greatl}^ depressed in spirit up to the time of his death, 
constantly saying to his friends that in a w^orld where the word of God 
could not be preached without debauching the conscience of the min- 
ister with odious prescriptive test oaths and purjury, there was nothing 
to live for. His widow, whose maiden name was Lucy Christ}^ died 
in 1869. Overton H. was the oldest of their family of 11 children, 
nine sons and two daughters, only four sons of whom are living: 
Richard, William T., of St. Francois county, Joshua H., of 
Vernon county, and Overton H. On the 18th of April, 1861, Over- 
ton H. Gentry was married to Miss Susan Elgin, a daughter of Sam- 
uel H. Elgin, of this county. He resided at the old homestead until 
1867, and then in the same vicinity until 1872, when he came to Mon- 
roe City and engaged in business with Mr. Snider. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gentry have one child, Addie, now a young lady, who was educated 
at the Monroe Institute. Mr. Gentry was a member of the city coun- 
cil for two years, and he and family are members of the Baptist 
Church. Mr. Gentry is a substantial property holder of Monroe City. 
Mr. Snider is from Ralls county, and his parents, Samuel and Sarah 
(Dennison) Snider, were from Pennsylvania. They came to Ralls 
county in an early day, and Samuel R. was born there September 12, 
1848. Both his parents are now deceased, the father dying in 1860, 
and the mother in 1861. Samuel R. was one of five children, four of 
whom are living : Mahala, now Mrs. Willow Newell ; Samuel R., Delia, 
now Mrs. John Henderson, and William, all in Monroe City. Samuel 
began work for himself at the age of 19, under William P. Bush, 
handling stock, and also learned the butcher business. He worked 
with Mr. Bush until 1872, when he became connected with Mr. Gen- 
try in their present business. They bought out Mr. Bush's neat 
market and have since conducted it, and also the grocery business. 
Mr. Snider is a thoroughly experienced butcher, and besides, a good 
business man and personally well thought of. He and Mr. Gentry 
employ from one to three hands all the time, and are steadily coming 
to the front as enterprising business men and substantial property 
holders. Mr. Snider is a member of the Baptist Church and of the I. 
O. O. F. 



326 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

GRIMM & LOSSON 

(Manufacturers of and Dealers in Boots and Shoes, Monroe City) . 

With an annual business of from $12,000 to $14,000, these gentle- 
men may well congratulate themselves upon having one of the leading 
and solid houses in their line throughout this entire section of 
country. Their success is the fruit of their own industry, fair dealing 
and business enterprise. Both are self-made men. In other words, 
they began without means, and have come up from the workman's 
bench to their present enviable positions in business life. Each 
learned his trade when young, and both followed it until they were 
able to begin in business with a respectable capital. .They now work 
several hands, and everything is done under their immediate personal 
supervision, so that they know that no work goes out from their house 
that will injure their reputation or ftiil to give satisfaction. The 
public have found this out, and hence the popularity and large trade 
of their house. Both gentlemen are natives of Germany, Mr. Grimm 
born in Wurtemburg, November 27, 1852, and Mr. Losson, in Lorraine, 
August 3, 1852. The former came to America with his parents in 
1870, locating at Hannibal, and the latter with his parents in 1866, lo- 
cating at Palmyra. Mr. Grimm learned his trade at Hannibal, and 
worked there until 1875, and Mr. Losson learned his trade under his 
uncle, Simeon Herndon, at Palmyra, where he worked until 1880. 
The senior member of the firm came direct to Monroe City on leaving 
Hannibal, as did the junior member on leaving Palmyra. They 
organized their present partnership in the fall of 1880, and have since 
had a most gratifyingly prosperous business career, as is proven by 
the large trade they have built up. Mr. Grimm was married Septem- 
ber 16, 1872, to Miss Anna Peuera. They have four children: Anna 
M., Katie, Theresa and Nicholas A. Both parents are members of 
the Catholic Church. Miss Minnie Diemer became the wife of Mr. 
Losson, August 26, 1872. They have three children : Mary, William 
and Frankie. He is a member of the Catholic Church and she of the 
Lutheran. Both of these o-entlemen are accounted amono; the best 
business men of Monroe City and are highly respected. 

HICKMAN, HAWKINS & CO. 

(Carpenters, Contractors and Builders, and Dealers in Lumber, Lath, Shingles, Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Lime, Plaster, etc., Monroe City), 

The firm of Hickman & Hawkins in the above business was formed 
in 1878, and this they carried on with steadily increasing suc- 
cess and reputation, until the first of January, 1884, when Mr. Ogle 
was admitted into the firm, the business being continued under the 
name of Hickman, Hawkins & Co. This is one ©f the leadino; firms 
in the lines mentioned above in Monroe county, and besides carrying a 
large stock of lumber, sash, doors, blinds, laths, hair, lime, cement and 
other building material, etc., which brings them an extensive trade 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 327 

from the general public, as carpenters, contractors and builders, they 
have an important patronage in the erection of houses of diflerent 
kinds, residence, business and otherwise, and, indeed, all sorts of 
work in their line. They have erected a large number of buildings of 
a superior class in Monroe City and the surrounding country, some of 
them running up in cost from $1,000 to $5,000 and upwards. Their 
reputation is well established and no one contemplating building can 
have any reasonable cause to refuse them the contract when the terms 
are satisfactory, for they never fail to do first-class work, and acquit 
themselves of their contract with honor to themselves and satisfaction 
to their patrons. Mr. Hickman is a native of Harrison count}^ Ky., 
born September 28, 1834:. When 21 years of age he came to Mis- 
souri, having previously learned the carpenter's trade, and up to 1861 
worked at his trade in this State, respectively, in Ralls county, at 
Hannibal, LaGrange, and also in Warsaw, III., and again at La- 
Grange, Mo., as well as other points. At the outbreak of the war 
he entered the Confederate service under Price, and was out either in 
active service or in prison until in the spring of 1865. He was drum- 
major and participated in numerous sanguinary battles. He was cap- 
tured at the surrender of Vicksburg and again at Franklin, Tenn., 
being confined in prison the last time several months, at Camp Chase. 
After the war he followed his trade two years in Cincinnati, and then 
at Quincy, III., until 1870. The next two years he spent in Ralls 
county, and he came to Monroe City in 1872, where he has since been 
in business. Mr. Hickman was married in 1858, to Miss Sarah M. 
Mayer, a native of England, and of LaGrange, Mo. They have six 
children : Mollie A., now Mrs. George Schofield ; James T. S., Jesse 
A., Lucy E., Emma L. and Nannie F. He and wife are members of 
the Christian Church, and he is a worthy member of the A. O. U. W., 
the I. O. O. F., and the R. T. of T. He served five years as alder- 
man in Monroe City and five years as school director. He was a son 
of Hugh S. and Sarah A. Hickman, her maiden name being Holton, 
both now deceased. 

Mr. Hawkins is also a Kentuckian by nativity, but his parents were 
early settlers of Monroe county, his father, Fielding S., being a con- 
tractor and builder at this place when it was first laid out. He was 
also justice of the peace here for a number of years, and died at the age 
of 64, May 18, 1882. His wife, whose maiden name was Anna Hamil- 
ton, died in the fall of 1860. George A. Hawkins was the first of their 
family of four children, and was brought up to the carpenter's and con- 
tractor's trade by his father, which he has since worked at continuously. 
He was married June 27, 1871, to Miss Endora Hayden,from Marion 
county. They have four children : Eva, Leona, Endora and Maude. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins are members of the Christian Church, and he 
is a member of the I. O. O. F. and a Royal Templar of Temperance. 
He has served one term in the city council. Mr. Hawkins is now 36 
years of age, having been born July 4, 1848. 

Mr. Ogle, unlike his two partners in this particular, is a native Mis- 
sourian, born in Ralls county, December 2, 1852. His father was the 

16 



328 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

well known Jesse Ogle, proprietor of Ogle's mill in that county, but 
he has been deceased since 1870. Joseph E. began to learn the car- 
penter's trade in 1872, and workedfor about two years at both Salisbury 
and Paris. He helped to build Wayland's machine shop at Salisbury 
and also helped rebuild the college at College Mound. For a number 
of years past, however, he has been at Monroe City, and has become 
one of the prominent and successful men of the place. May 4, 1876, he 
was married to Miss Sarah J., a daughter of Jacob Paynter. Mr. and 
Mrs. O. have four children : Georgia, William, Ernest and Chauncy. 
He and wife are members of the M. E. Church. Mr. Ogle has held the 
office of town marshal for one term. 

By these facts it is seen that all three of these gentlemen are experi- 
enced and capable builders. Individually and in their business they 
are well respected by all who know them. They have contributed 
their full share to the growth and prosperity of Monroe City and are 
entitled to no ordinary credit for the good taste and judgment they 
have shown in the erection of the buildings put up by them. Their 
future in business seems to be one of gratifying promise. 

ISAIAH JONES 

(Farmer and General and Fine stock-raiser, Post-office Monroe City). 

Mr. Jones is a former merchant of long and successful experience, 
and came to Monroe county in the spring of 1883, to engage in farm- 
ing and stock-raising. He has 170 acres in his homestead, situated a 
mile and a half south-west of Monroe City, and besides this he has 
over 1,000 acres some eight miles south of his home place on Indian 
creek. Prior to coming to this county he had been living at Gilead 
for the previous fifteen years, where he carried on merchandising, and 
was also postmaster. In addition to his mercantile business Mr. 
Jones had a fine farm in Lewis county, where he was quite successful 
in raising stock, and he also followed buying stock and shipping them 
to the wholesale markets, shipping large quantities of cattle, hogs, 
etc., annually. He is a native of Maine, born in Kennebec county, 
October 17, 1829. He was reared in Maine, but in 1853 crossed the 
continent to California, where he engaged in mining, and with good 
success. While in California he was married on the 20th of April, 
1859, to Miss Mary Davis, of Sacramento City, but formerly of Mass- 
achusetts. Mr. Jones came to Missouri in 1868 and located at Gilead, 
in Lewis county, referred to above. He was quite successful there in 
merchandising and agricultural pursuits, but being able to sell out to 
advantage, he disposed of his interests in Lewis county and came to 
Monroe, where he has since resided. His farm near Monroe City is 
well improved. His residence is a particularly commodious and 
tastefully constructed building, and, indeed, all his buildings and im- 
provements are made with regard to appearance and good taste only 
less than to durability and convenience. Mr. Jones is engaged in 
raising fine short horn cattle and now has a herd of about fifty head 
of this class of stock. He is a man of large business experience and 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 329 

stirring qualities, and is unquestionably a valuable acquisition to the 
agricultural class, and indeed, the citizenship of Monroe county. He 
is of that class of new-comers that every community most desires — a 
man of means, business ability and high character. He will undoubt- 
edly take an enviable position among the leading agriculturists of the 
county at an early day. Indeed, he is already recognized as one of 
our progressive and prominent farmers and stock-raisers. Mr. and 
Mrs. Jones have reared a fomily of three children : Albert M.,.a young 
man 23 years of age, now in Nebraska; Ada M., a young lady at home, 
a graduate of LaGrange College in the class of 1883 : and Percy D., a 
young man in his nineteenth year, also still at home. Mr. and Mrs. Jones 
are both members of the Baptist Church. Their family is cordially 
received in the best society of Monroe City and vicinity, and indeed, 
wherever they are known. Miss Ada, the daughter, is especially 
welcomed and prized by the young people of the vicinity. She is 
thoroughly accomplished and being a young lady of great vivacity and 
su^Derior mental endowments, as well as an exceptionally fine con- 
versationalist and always graceful and pleasant to those around her, 
she ornaments with, singular attractiveness the refined and cultured 
circle in which she moves. In form and feature nature has done all 
for her that could be desired, while the kindness of her parents in 
giving her everj'^ opportunity for mental improvement, worthily sec- 
onded by her own industry, have contributed to fit her for the most 
polite and accomplished society. 

JAMES L. LYON 

(Railroad Agent, Telegraph Operator and As;ent of the American Express Company, 

Monroe City). 

Mr. Lyon has been identified with the railroad business almost con- 
tinuously since he started out in life for himself, and has been in the 
office at Monroe City for the last 17 j^ears. This long service at one 
office speaks more for him as an efficient, upright and popular local 
officer of the road than mere words can express, however ingeniously 
or eloquently put together. He has not only done his duty faithfully, 
but has given unqualified satisfaction both to the general officers of 
the road and to the public. Nothing truer or more creditable could 
be said of his administration than that if his position were an elective 
one he would be chosen to it, probably, almost unanimously, if not 
• quite so. The business of the office since he entered it has more than 
quintupled, or increased fivefold. Mr. Lyon had the benefit of a good 
practical education as he grew up, and Avas born in Beaver, Pa., 
November 12, 1844, but principally reared in Missouri. In 1855 his 
parents, Thomas and Harriet (Pettigrew) Lyon, removed to Iron 
county. Mo., and six years later to Mooreville, near Chillicothe, but 
finally settled in Utica in 1855. The mother died there the same 
year, but the father survived until 1882, dying at Hannibal. There 
were three children: Samuel, James and Thomas, the first a printer 
at St. Joe and the last named connected with the railroad at that citv. 



o30 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

James L. commenced railroading in 1864. Subsequently he learned 
the operator's business and came to Monroe City in 1867. In 1866, 
however, he was in the drug business. He is also agent of a promi 
nent fire insurance company, and does some business in that line. 

S. MEGOWN 

(Of Megown & Keut's Merchant Mills, Monroe City). 

These are one of the leading mills in Monroe county, and were 
erected originally in 1869 by Josselyn & Cumniings, which firm dis- 
solved and the mills fell into the hands of William Booker, of Ralls 
county. Mo., from whom Wilson & Megown bought it. In one j'^ear 
and a half Wilson sold to Josselyn, and a year later Mr. Megown 
bought Josselyn' s interest and became sole proprietor of the mills, 
and on May 17, 1881, he sold H. J. Kent a third interest in the mills. 
A year ago they put in the roller process. They now have a capacity 
for sixty barrels of flour daily and do an exclusively merchant busi- 
ness, buying wheat for manufacture into flour and exchanging flour for 
grain. They have no corn buhrs in the mill, but manufacture flour 
altogether. Their machinery is all in first-class condition and their 
flour has obtained a wide reputation for superior excellence. In 1872 
Mr. Megown engaged in milling at the old Hornbuck mill, near Sid- 
ney, in Ralls county, where he continued until he bought into the 
present mill. Prior to that he had been engaged in farming and run- 
ning a repair shop. On the 26th of January, 1860, he was married to 
Miss Sarah J. Couch, a daughter of Henry Couch, of Ralls county. 
They have eight children : John W., Margaret J., Mary A., Etta E., 
Julia A., Henry E., Samuel and Ella. Mr. Megown is a native of 
Ralls county, born in Spencer township, near New London, January 
11, 1841. His father, Samuel Megown, and mother, whose maiden 
name was Julia McCread3^ were both from Pennsylvania. They 
came to Missouri as early as 1846. The father was a brick mason 
and a manufacturer of brick, and Samuel was brought up to that busi- 
ness. Early in the war he enlisted in the six months' service on the 
Union side, and afterwards in the Enrolled State Militia. He was in 
the artillery service a part of the time. In all he did about 18 months' 
military duty. He was first under J. F. Rice, of Henderson's divis- 
ion, and then under Capt. Johnson, of theE. M. S. M. Mr. Megown 
is one of the substantial, highly respected citizens of Monroe City. 

ROBERT K. MEGOWN, 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-ofRce, Monroe City). 

Mr. Megown, who has a place of nearly 200 acres situated in sec- 
tions 21 and 22, township 56, range 8, in Monroe county, and is one 
of the energetic farmers of Monroe township, is a native Missourian, 
born in Ralls county, four and a half miles west of New London, 
January 7, 1843. He was reared in that county and remained on the 
farm until he was 19 years of age, when he enlisted in the Missouri 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 331 

State militia, Union service, under Col. Lipscomb, under whom he 
served for about seven months, and participated in the pursuit of 
Porter and the fights at Cherry Grove and Kirksville. Being disabled, 
however, by an afiection of the lungs,' he was discharged on that 
account and returned home to the farni". His father, Samuel Megown, 
being a brickmason by trade as well as a practical farmer, Robe'i-t K. 
learned to lay brick whilst a youth, and also brick-making, at which 
his father was a master workman. He has therefore followed making 
and laying brick more or less ever since he attained his majority, up 
to the time when he engaged in farming, and he has since followed 
farming, principally, and handling stock. He is now engaged with J. 
H. McClintic in buying and shipping stock, and is considered an excel- 
lent judge of stock and a successful dealer. On the 6th of August, 
1867, Mr. Megown was married to Miss Nancy J, Shulse, a daughter 
of William A. Shulse. She died, however, on the 13th of June, 
1876, leaving him three children, Nora, Zoe and Lena. To his present 
wife Mr. Megown was married November 14, 1876. She was a sister 
to his first wife. Miss Martha E. Shulse. They have had four chil- 
dren : Samuel A., who died at the age of two years ; Myrtle E., 
Alberta, and Julia A. Mr. Megown resided in Ralls county until 1879, 
and settled on his present farm in 1881. He and wife are members of 
the Baptist Church. 

HON. PATRICK H. McLEOD 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Monroe City). 

'Squire McLeod, for 32 years a resident of Monroe townshii), and 
long a magistrate in this township— one of its old, influential and 
highly-respected citizens, a man of superior education and natural 
ability, is thus spoken of by the biographer of the Twenty-eighth 
General Assembly of Missouri, of which body he was an able and hon- 
ored member: "This venerable silver-haired gentleman, one of the 
oldest members of the floor, having passed his allotted time of three- 
score years, was born in Derry county, Ireland, in 1814. Leaving the 
Green Isle in 1834, he emigrated to this county, coming to Washing- 
ton City, where an elder brother, Matthew McLeod, was'conducting^i 
classical high school, and another relative, John McLeod, was principal 
of the Columbia Academy, an institution well known to the old inhab- 
itants of Washington City. He remained in Washington Citv several 
years, attending school and assisting his relatives in teaching. An- 
drew Jackson was President at this^time, and from this indomitable 
old hero Mr. McLeod first imbibed his Democratic principles, and has 
adhered to them with strict fidelitv all his life. While residing in 
Montgomery county, Md., in 1839, "he was united in marriage to Miss 
M. C. Jones, daughter of J. J. W. Jones (one of the most distin- 
guished flimilies in the State), by whom he had 10 children, several r.f 
whom are still alive. In 1848 he traveled extensively in the West, 
and in 1849, in company with Gen. Craig and other irentlemen resid- 
ing in the 'Platte purchase,' he was allured to the Pacific Coast in 



332 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

search of the unbounded gold fields that report had located in Cali- 
fornia, After prospecting for several years with varied success, in 
1852 he removed to Missouri, locating on Indian creek, Monroe county, 
where he has since uninterruptedly resided. When the late war com- 
menced, in common with most of his neighbors, he was despoiled of 
most of his [)roperty by the Federal forces on account of his Southern 
sympathies, and sufi'ered many indignities at their hands. He has 
never taken an active part in politics, and, excepting a few township 
oflSces, his present position in the Legislature is the first position ever 
held by him. He was elected as a Democrat, l)eating his tadpole 
opponent, G. H. Hasman, nearly 800 votes. Mr. McLeod is a member 
of untarnished and unblemished reputation ; is well qualified for the 
position he holds, standing without a superior, as far as emphatic and 
practical duties pertaining to the duties of a representative are con- 
cerned. He is connected with several important committees, never 
evading his duties on any of them." In 1876 'Squire McLeod de- 
clined to be a candidate again for the Legislature, and has since led a 
retired life on his farm. He has held the office of justice of the peace, 
however, since 1854, except during the war, when he declined to take 
the Drake test oath, and also except while in the Legislature. On 
first coming to this county he taught a 12-month school, the first one 
ever taught in the township where he has since resided, and he has 
always been a zealous advocate of popular education. 'Squire and 
Mrs. McLeod have reared a family of seven children : James E., Anna 
M. C, now Mrs. James Hardesty ; William T., Sarah H., now Mrs. 
James Spalding; Josephene, now Mrs. William R. Yates; Maggie, 
now the widow of George Stanton, and Ellen still at home. Jose- 
phene and Sarah were students in Monroe Institute and taught school 
prior to their marriage. 'Squire McLeod and family are members of 
the Catholic Church. 

WILLIAM B. A. McNUTT, M. D. 

(Of McNutt & Norton, Physicians and Surgeons, Monroe City). 

It was a common remark with Sir William Jones, a man possessed 
with one of the greatest minds that illuminates the history of any 
country, that the great disparity between the positions men occupy 
in a given calling or profession results not so much from the difi'erence 
of their opportunities as of their capacities and natural aptitudes. 
One eminently suited for a particular occupation generally makes an 
eminent failure in some other pursuit, if he undertakes it. The 
touchstone of success is in the proper choosing of one's calling. A 
mistake made here and all the rest of one's life will be " bound in 
shallows and in miseries." Hence it is that in all the lines of 
trade, in the mechanic arts, and in the professions, we daily see ex- 
amples of those who have succeeded to a marked degree and of others 
who have made signal failures, — whereas, there was perhaps but 
little difference in their opportunities and advantages. Original adapt- 
ability to a line of duties will inevitably tell to advantage if one but 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 333 

apply himself with proper energy and resolution in the field for which 
he is by nature fitted. These preliminary remarks are suggested by 
contemplating the remarkable success the subject of the present 
sketch has had in the medical profession. He is still comparatively a 
young man, and his experience in the practice is not the experi- 
ence of a lifetime ; yet to-day he occupies a position in his profession 
above many whose heads have grown white in their long practice of 
medicine, a position second perhaps, if not indeed, to that occupied 
by no other physician in the county. Dr. McNutt has a large prac- 
tice, a practice unusually large, considering the necessarily sparse 
population of an essentially agricultural community and the natural 
healthfulness of the country. His practice is limited only by these 
circumstances and the distance that a physician can without great in- 
convenience or peril to the sick be called. To understand how it is 
that he should so early in life make so marked a success in his profes- 
sion, we have studied closely the man and his surroundings, and 
we have no hesitation in saying that we can attribute his success 
chiefly to no other causes than his striking natural adaptability for the 
healing art and his thorough devotion to it. When nature makes a 
physician, the man himself has little to do, but when he seconds the 
work of nature by his own industry, even greater than those less 
favored might hope to succeed by, the result can not but be a more than 
ordinary success. Let us then briefly sketch the outline of Dr. Mc- 
Nutt's life, a sketch which most appropriately finds a place in this 
volume. Necessarily it must be brief, too brief, indeed, to even ap- 
proach doing justice to the subject. Dr. McNutt was a son of Dr. 
John McNutt and wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth F. M. G. 
Steele, old and respected residents of Monroe county. The fiither is 
a retired physician of the county, located at Middle Grove. Dr. Mc- 
Nutt was born at Middle Grove, October 4, 1850. The taste and 
aptitude for the medical profession, which he inherited from his 
father, were greatly strengthened by his bringing up. From an early 
age it was seen that he was destined to becouie a physician, all his 
desires and inclinations manifesting themselves in that direction. He 
was accordingly educated with that object in view, and his father 
improved every opportunity to .strengthen his purpose and to instill 
into the youth's mind a correct and liberal knowledge of the science 
with which he was to deal. His preparatory general education was 
received at Middle Grove Academy, and then he entered upon a higher 
course of study at Westminster College, where he took a course of 
two years. After this he entered immediately upon the regular study 
of medicine under the daily instruction of his father. He made 
rapid progress in the curriculum of studies required preparatory to 
matriculation at medical college, and in due time, in 1873, entered 
the St. Louis Medical College, where he took a regular course of two 
terms, graduating amons; the first in his class, in 1875. In the mean- 
time he had practiced during the interim between his terms at medical 
college, and after his graduation, he came to Monroe City, where he 
established himself as a physician. Since then he has been continu- 



334 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ouslv in the practice at this place, and in this comparatively short 
period has risen to the first position in his profession in the county. 
He is a leading and influential member of the State, District and 
County Medical Societies. He and Dr. J. J. Norton have been in the 
practice together as partners for about six months past, July 9, 1876, 
Dr. McNutt was married to Miss Lillie, a daughter of Dr. E. Bailey, 
of this place. This union, one of singular happiness, was broken by 
the hand of death early in 1883. Two children were born, but one 
of whom is now living, Bailey, aged seven years. The Doctor is a 
prominent member of the Episcopal Church, and of the Commandery 
and Royal Arch Lodge of the A. F. and A. M. Socially, he is as 
popular and prominent as he is professionall3^ 

RICHARD MILES 

(Retired Farmer, Post-office, Indian Creek) . 

This venerable old citizen has been a resident of Missouri for over 
seventy-four years, having been brought to this State when in boy- 
hood by his parents, Josius and Theresa Miles, who came from Ken- 
tucky as early as 1810, and settled in St. Louis county. Richard 
Miles, our subject, was then six years of age, having been born in Nel- 
son county, Ky., February 14, 1804. At the age of twenty-one, or 
rather in his twenty-first year, on the I8th of October, 1825, he was 
married to Miss Yates, a daughter of Stephen Yates, and the follow- 
ing vear he removed to Callaway county, where his father-in-law's 
family had settled in 1820. He lived on Hancock's Prairie, in that 
county, near his father-in-law, until 1832, when he removed to Mon- 
roe county and at what is now known as Shrinkey, on Indian creek. 
Here he and his good wife have since resided, and have reared their 
family of children. They still occupy the same house wdiich he built 
in 1832, but to which additions have been made, and these notes 
were taken in a large comfortable room, twenty-two feet square and 
eio-ht feet to the ceiling, built fifty-two years ago, and characteristic 
of the architecture of those days. At the same time Mr. Miles came 
here Thomas Vincent and Raphael Yates also came, and Edward 
Hardesty, who married a Miss Yates, all settling in the same neigh- 
borhood. Mrs. Miles' parents, Stephen and Zella (Austin) Yates, 
came the year following. Thomas Yates is the only one of the set- 
tlers of 1832, except Uncle Dick Miles and wife, now living, and he 
was the only one who never married. The only settlers in this part 
of the county that preceded these were those who came in 1831, 
namely : John Thrusher, Robert Lewellin, John Dale, Leonard Green, 
William Sipple, Fanthroy Dye, Edward Goodnight and Alexander 
Winsatt, the first four settling above Shrinkey and the last four below 
Shrinkey. Those who came in 1832 also settled above Shrinkey. 
Mrs. Miles was born in Washington county, Ky., September 6, 1804, 
and came with her parents to Missouri in 1818, residing in St. Louis 
county two years and going thence to Callaway county. It was in 
St. Louis county that she met her then future husband and there in 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 335 

the wild and weird frontier of civilization, when only the canoe and 
flatl)oat plied the waters of the Mississippi, a lifetime before the 
whistle of a locomotive had sounded the bugle note of modern pro- 
gress, the short, sweet story of their love was told under the wide 
extending branches of primitive forest trees and there, — 

, "In the depths of the shaded dell, 

Where the leaves were broad and thicket hides, 
With its many stems and its tangled sides, 
From the eye of the hunter well," 

two loving hearts were plighted in bonds of enduring devotion that 
were to bind two lives together through the long journey of life and 
until the end shall come. They were married, and through the long 
vista of years that has been measured out since the happy union they 
are still seen together, each past the age of four-score years, and each 
crowned with the wreath of honored old age, hair as white as their 
lives have been spotless, symbolizing the purity and happiness of the 
home that awaits them beyond the grave. They reared a familv of 
five children : Josiah, Susanna, Permelia A., Thomas J., and Vincent. 
Permelia A., is the wife of Hiram Rally, of Ladonnia. Thomas J. 
lives on the farm, and a niece, Miss Isabelle Miles, a young lady eigh- 
teen years of age, of the most faultless embonpoint of person as well as 
of features, and extremely pleasant and entertaining in conversation, 
has charge of the household, the affairs of which she conducts 
with neatness and grace. All the family are members of the Catholic 
Church. The son, Thomas J., is married and has a worthy fomily of 
children. He was lieutenant in the Missouri State militia during the 
war, but was not called into active service, while in that commission, 
although he had previously seen service and was captured at the fall 
of Paris, and paroled. 

DR. ADOLPHUS NOLAND 

(Dental Surgeon, Monroe City). 

Dr. Noland, a former educator of superior education and established 
reputation and a man of marked general culture, has been actively 
engaged in the practice of the dental profession for the last 15 years, 
and has risen to a position of prominence in his profession quite in 
keeping with his high character as a man and his enviable social 
standing. He is one of the leading surgeons of dentistry in North 
Missouri, and has an established practice over a large district of 
country, including several counties, which exceeds in value several 
thousand dollars annually. A close student of the science of dentistry 
and having a remarkable natural aptitude for his profession as an art, 
as well as being a man of advanced, progressive ideas, he keeps fully 
up with the times and promptly avails himself of all new ideas, 
methods and improvements evolved in the progress and development 
of his calling. There are therefore no new processes with which he 
is not familiar, and he is prepared to do work as scientifically, expe- 



336 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

ditiously and with as little discomfort and inconvenience to the patient 
as it can be done anywhere in the conntry. Such is his reputation 
and the importance of his practice, that he makes from 20 to 40 sets 
of teeth montlily, and while he works on as reasonable terms as any 
practitioner of established reputation, yet he is sometimes called to 
furnish patients with teeth in cases so difficult, and requiring so much 
care and skill, that $500 is considered, in the profession and by all 
capable of judging, quite a reasonable charge. Successful as a prac- 
titioner, Dr. Noland has been not less successful in the accumulation 
of those substantial evidences of skill and ability in any of the liberal 
pursuits of life, and is a man in quite easy circumstances, one of the 
well-to-do property holders, in fact, of Monroe City. He has a 
handsome home, comfortably and tastily furnished with all the 
conveniences and needs to be looked for in a family of culture and 
refinement. Much devoted to general literature as well as to the 
sciences and other branches of advanced learning, he has provided him- 
self with a handsome library, aggregating several hundred volumes, 
selected with great care and good judgment. He has several rare and 
valuable works on archaeology, the study of which he makes some- 
thing of a specialty, and also has a cabinet of curios in that depart- 
ment of investigation, including one or .more skeletons of the 
pre-historic mound-builders, taken from ancient mounds of Illinois. 
In his practice, Dr. Noland has a skillful assistant in the person of 
Dr. L. B. Brown, who is thoroughly proficient in his profession. Dr. 
Noland's dental rooms include a handsome suit of parlors, three in 
number, all elegantly furnished, adjacent to which is a large and well 
appointed laboratory. Personally, Dr. Noland is a man of prepossess- 
ing presence, having a fine form, striking, manly features and a most 
agreeable address. On the 22d of October, 1874, he was married to 
Miss Mary E. Ennis, a refined and accomplished daughter of Joshua 
M. Ennis, Esq., present sheriff of Shelby county. Mrs. Noland is a 
graduate of the Shelbyville High School, in charge of Prof. ALdkinson, 
and is a lady of superior suavity and grace of manners, as well as 
extremely pleasant and instructive in conversation. Dr. Noland was 
not less fortunate in the selection of a wife in respect of her personal 
appearance than of her qualities of mind and heart. Three children 
are the fruits of this singularly appropriate and happy union, Ennis 
Dixon, Clare Agee, and a baby boy. Another, little Rossie A., an 
infant of remarkable beauty and promise, is deceased. 

'* A tiny bud, unblossoraed yet, 
The Virgin Mother blessed ; 
It fell on earth. She picked it up 
And pinned it on her breast." 

The Doctor and Mrs. Noland are members of the M. E. Church 
South, and the Eastern Star, and he is a member of the A. O. U. W. 
Dr. Noland early in life recognized in Masonry an institution of the 
highest moral worth, saving the Christian religion, and at the first 
opportunity after his majority petitioned Durham Lodge, No. 329, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 337 

A. F. & A. M., Illinois grand jurisdiction, and was made a 
M. M., January 6, A. L. 5856. The R. A. degree was conferred 
upon him by Monroe City Chapter No. 104, Missouri grand juris- 
diction, April 5, 1883. He was knighted by Parsifal Command- 
ery, No. 44, Missouri grand jurisdiction, March 15, 1884. Dr. 
Noland is a native of Illinois, born in Hancock county, October 
22, 1842. His parents were Thomas L. and Nancy D. (Dixon) 
Noland, his father originally from Maryland, but his mother from 
Alabama. They were married in Illinois, and the father died there in 
1851. The mother is still living. Dr. Noland was educated at the 
Iowa Academy of Denmark and subsequently had charge of the graded 
school at Mt. Sterling, Ohio. He then taught in the Carthage 
Academy of Illinois and was afterwards principal of the Dallas City 
public schools of that State for two years. He taught two years 
additionally, and studied dentistry during the last two years' teach- 
ing. He came to Missouri in 1870, and practiced the profession at 
Shelby ville until his removal to Monroe City in 1877. 

JOHN L. NOLEN 

(Farmer, Stock-raiser and Stock-dealer). 

Mr. Nolen settled on his present place, or rather a part of his pres- 
ent tract of land, in 1857, having secured the year before a piece of 80 
acres. He was then a young man 27 years of age and had been mar- 
ried less than two years. Brought up a ftirmer, however, and having 
a good practical education as well as being a young man of sterling 
intelligence, he went to work with courage and resolution and as time 
circled by steadily prospered. He has become and has been regarded 
for years one of the substantial, successful farmers of the township, 
as well as one of its best citizens. He has a place of 320 acres now, 
which is nearly all run in blue grass for stock-raising purposes. He 
also has his father's old family homestead, about a half a mile from 
his own family homestead. That is an excellent farm of 160 acres. 
Mr. Nolen devotes his attention principally to stock-raising and deal- 
ing in stock. He and J. P. Bush were in partnership for some years 
in buying and shipping stock and did a large business in that line, but 
Mr. Nolen is not trading a great deal at present. He has an excel- 
lent class of stock on his place and is improving his grade of stock 
continually. Mr. Nolen's home farm is exceptionally well improved, 
his building, fences, etc., all being of a superior class. His dwelling, 
was erected at a cost of $1,700. Mr. Nolen is a native of Kentucky, 
born in Hardin county, September 9, 1830. His parents were John 
and Mary (Miller) Nolen, his father originally of Maryland, They 
came to Missouri in 1852 and settled in the same neighborhood where 
John L. now lives. The mother died here in 1867 and the father two 
years afterwards. Of their family of nine children, five only are living; 
Nancy, the wife of Judge Duley ; Mary, the wife of Richard Hayden, 
now of Illinois ; William, now' in Texas ; Frances, now of Kansas, 
and John L. He came to Missouri with his parents in 1852, but lived 



338 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

with them after they came until 1855, when, on the 2d of October, he 
was married to Miss Emma J. Yowell, a daughter of Ephriam 
Yowell, one of the early settlers of Monroe county from Virginia. 

JOHN J. NORTON, M.D. 

(Physician and Surgeon) . 

Every old citizen of the Salt river country knew well and favor- 
ably the family of which the subject of the present sketch was 
a representative, the family of Judge Thomas P. Norton. 
Judge Norton was from South Carolina and went to Kentucky in 
the early days of the State. He there married Miss Rachel Robin- 
son, and came to Missouri with his family as early as 1812, stopping 
first in St. Charles county, and then settling on Salt river in 
Ralls county, where he became a well known and highly esteemed 
citizen, and, considering those days, a wealthy man, having a 
large landed estate and a number of slaves, as well as an abundance 
of other property. When he came to Missouri, like nearly all the 
pioneers, he was quite poor, in fact Lazarus wouldn't have jumped at 
the chance to swap fortunes with him. All he had was a horse and a 
rifle, with what wearing apparel he and his wife wore and faithful horse 
could carry in addition to the weight of Mrs. Norton, for in those days 
a man would not have been thought much of a man who cared to walk 
from Kentucky to Missouri. Dr. Norton was born in Ralls county. 
May 20, 1830, in the first brick house ever built in the county, where 
his father erected the pioneer brick building in the Salt river country. 
Jas. J. was reared on the farm in Ralls county, and early deciding to 
devote himself to the medical profession, he was educated with that 
object in view. When 19 years of age he began the study of medicine 
under Dr. McElroy, and after Dr. McElroy's death continued the 
study under G. E. Frazier, taking a regular course at medical college 
while still under Dr. Frazier. He was graduated from the Missouri 
Medical College of St. Louis in 1852, when but 22 years of age. He 
then located in Salem township, Ralls county, and engaged in the 
practice of his profession, and having a number of slaves, which feel- 
ings of humanity prevented him from selling like stock in the market, 
he also opened a farm in order to keep them employed and make them 
at least self-sustaining. He continued on his farm practicing medicine 
in that vicinity until the fall of 1883, when he removed to Monroe 
City, and engaged in the practice, where he has since resided. 
During all this time he has lost no time from the active practice, 
refusing to leave home during the war, although threatened with all 
sorts of cross-bone punishments. However, he attended medical 
college at Philadelphia in 1865, where he graduated in medicine, thus 
receiving a second diploma as an M. D. Dr. Norton has been twice 
married ; his first wife was formerly Miss Alice W. McElroy, a sister to 
Dr. McElroy, mentioned above. A few years after her death he was 
married to Miss Julia Alexander, his present wife. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 339 



JOHN C. PEIRSOL 

(Attorney at Law, Monroe City.) 

Mr. Peirsol, a successful and prominent lawyer of Monroe county, is 
one of those vigorous, active-minded men, of strong convictions and 
the courage to act upon them, aggressive in his notions of right and 
with no patience for temporizers ©r half-way measures when the right 
is to be upheld, who, by their positive character and absolute freedom 
from all dissimulation inevitably make some enemies, but always more 
friends, and the latter of the fearless, active kind. Such men not 
only invariably make a marked impression on the community and 
events with which they are identified, but they generally become suc- 
cessful leaders of men, and usually prosperous in the material affairs 
of life. The enmity that they incur frequently subjects them to severe 
criticism and reprobation by a few, who refuse to give them credit for 
the purit}'' of their motives. But on the other hand those who are not 
prejudiced only admire them the more for the openness, frankness and 
courageousness of their character. A strikingly representative char- 
acter of his class, Mr. Peirsol, although he has been a resident of the 
county for but comparatively a few years, has made his presence felt 
here to a marked degree, and to the great advantage to the commu- 
nity in which he lives, being not only one of the best known citizens 
of the county, but one of its most active and useful ones. He has 
contributed ver}^ materially to the upbuilding and prosperity of Monroe 
City, and has held with ability the office of prosecuting attorney of 
the county and for six years the position of mayor of the city, as well 
as taking a prominent part in other affairs, material and polftical, 
affecting the interests of the public. 

Mr. Peirsol comes of an old and highly creditable family of the 
country, tracing his lineage back through a line of ancestors who have 
brought no reproach on the name he bears, but have always held 
worthy positions in the communities in which they lived. The family 
has been settled in this country for nearly 200 years. His father's 
great-great-grandfather Peirsol was one of three brothers who came 
from England to America in 1683 and settled in Pennsylvania, whence 
the name has radiated into different States. Mr. Peirsol's great-grand- 
father, Peter Peirsol, was killed at Ft. Duquesne in 1753, when under 
the command of Washington, attthe time the English or Americans 
w^ere driven from that fort by the French and Indians. Peter Peirsol, 
Jr., was born after his father's death, and he became the father of Mr. 
Peirsol's father, Joel Peirsol. Joel Peirsol was bora in Berks county, 
Pennsylvania,. and after he grew up came West to Wayne county, 
Ohio, where he married Miss Catherine Emery. In 1836 they came 
to Fulton county, Illinois, where both parents lived until their deaths. 
The father became a leading and wealthy farmer of that county, and 
John C. was born there May 16, 1846. John C. Peirsol was one of a 
family of thirteen children, of whom seven, three sisters and four 



340 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

brothers are living. At tlie age of 15 John C. was sent to college at 
Washington, Iowa, and after attending one year he taught school one 
term. In 1864 he, with his elder brothers, Peter and Joel, went to 
California, where he spent three years. Returning in 1867, he sold 
some land which his father had given him and used a part of the pro- 
ceeds to attend college at Lewiston, 111. After a term there he came 
to Monroe City, where his brother Jacob had preceded him in 1866. 
It was his purpose to go on to Nebraska, but, his horses dying, he 
gave over the idea and concluded to attend Ann Arbor University. 
He spent a year at that famous institution and then bought land near 
Osborne, in Clinton county. Mo., where he was engaged in the stock 
business for about two years, living much of the time, however, at 
Plattsburg. He continued at Plattsburg until 1874 and while there 
he completed his course of law reading, and was admitted to the bar 
by Judge Lucas. He then came to Monroe City and having been 
ruined financially by troubles, and the panic of 1873, poor and broken 
in health, he had to teach a term of school here before he could get 
books necessary to engage in the practice of his profession, which 
practice he has since continued. He has been in partnership with 
different attornej^s at this place, but is now alone in the practice. In 
1876 Mr. Peirsol made the race for prosecuting attorney of the county, 
his opponent for that office being Hon. A. M. Alexander. This was 
one of the most animated and exciting political contests ever witnessed 
in the county. The two candidates held no less than 32 joint 
discussions, and the race was not less close than it was spirited. Out 
of a total vote of 4,100 Mr. Peirsol was elected by six majority. At 
the next election, however, he was defeated by Mr. Alexander by a 
smalT majority. Mr. Peirsol has also held the office of mayor for six 
years, and is still mayor of Monroe City. He and his brother, Jacob, 
have been dealing quite extensively in real estate for some years, and 
in 1882 they laid outPeirsol's addition to Monroe City, in which they 
have sold about 80 lots. They have about 60 acres in the addition, 
and over 1,000 acres of land besides in this and Ralls county. Mr. 
Peirsol has been twice married, first, August 19, 1870, and the second 
time, January 13, 1879. His present wife was previously Miss Lue 
H. Loomis, formerly of Emporia, Kan. Mr. Peirsol has one son, 
Robert C, now eleven years of age. Mrs. P. is a member of the 
Baptist Church, and he is a member of the Commaadery in the Masonic 
order. , 

JACOB A. PEIRSOL 

(Manager of the Monroe City Creamery). 

The superior excellence of properly made creamery butter is now 
conceded by all who from experience are capable of judging, and it 
is therefore rapidly coming into demand for general, not to say uni- 
versal use. In the East it has long had the ascendency in popularity 
over all other products of the dairy, and in the North it is in general 
use. In the last few years it has made steady inroads of popularity 



HISTORY or MONROE COUNTY. 341 

into Missouri, and will doubtless soon be demanded for general use 
fiere. But even ignoring the want of home consumption, the demands 
for it in the East are such that its manufacture cannot but be a profi- 
table branch of industry here. There, on account of the high prices 
of land and the heavy cost of stock feed, it cannot be made for much 
less than a third more than it can be produced here for. With our 
preseut system of rapid and comparatively cheap transportation, we 
of Missouri, by virtue of the cheapness of our land and the lightness 
of the cost of stock feed, can compete in the Eastern markets with 
the dairymen of that section, if we can not entirely drive them out of 
the market, as many of the best posted Eastern dairymen fear and be- 
lieve. We can make butter here for twenty-five cents a pound, an 
article which costs them thirty per cent more than that to produce in 
New York or the North Atlantic States. Hence we can command and 
get a better price for our butter than the one indicated above, thus 
making it a business of excellent profit. That it is so is shown by the 
rapidity with which creameries are springing up all over Missouri. 
The present creamery was established in the spring of 1883, with a 
capital of $6,500 and capacity of 2,000 pounds daily. This requires 
the milk yield of 2,000 cows. The building is 30x44 in dimensions, 
and has a ten-horse power engine with all other necessary machinery 
and conveniences on the most appproved plan, including an excllent 
ice-house. Mr. J. M. Procter is the president of the company and 
Mr. Peirsol its manager. The enterprise has made a gratifying start 
in business and has every promise of success even in excess of the 
hopes of those who established it. Mr. Peirsol, the manager, is thor- 
oughly qualified for his position, understanding the business well and 
being a man of good business qualifications and enterprise. He was 
born in Fulton county, 111., March 14, 1838, and was educated at the 
Burlington University of Iowa. He subsequently taught school for 
year or two and since then has been actively engaged in farming and 
raising and handling stock, in which he has achieved a marked degree 
of success. He came to Missouri in 1866 and resided in Ralls county 
until the winter of 1881-82. He has a fine farm of 300 acres, well 
stocked with farm animals, etc. He is also a pnmiinent property 
holder in other lands and town property. He is a brother to J. C. 
Peirsol, whose sketch precedes this, wherein a brief outline of the 
father's family has been given. December 5, 1861, he was married to 
Miss Elizabeth Clark, formerly of Jefferson county, N. Y. She was 
a daughter of Lucius and Debora (Guernsey; Clark. Mr. and Mrs. 
Peirsol have two children, Eva E. and Minnie L., two interesting and 
charming young ladies. Mr. Peirsol, personally, is a most afl"able and 
pleasant gentleman, and stands high in the esteem of all who know 
him. 

THOMAS PROCTOR, M.D. 

(Cashier of the Mouroe City Bank) . 

Dr. Proctor, a regular graduate of medicine and a physician of 15 
years' successful experience in the practice, has been identified with 



342 HISTORY or monroe county. 

the Monroe City Bank since 1881, at which time he became one of its 
prominent stockholders, and has since acted as its cashier. Dr. 
Proctor is also prominently identified with other important business 
enterprises, which will be spoken of hereafter. His father, Columbus 
Proctor, was one of the early settlers in Marion county. He came to 
that county when a young man, in about 1832, and was from Jessa- 
mine county, Ky. He was subsequently married, in Marion county, 
to Miss Eleanor G. Wood, a daughter of Hazzard Wood, an old 
pioneer of the county. He was a farmer by occupation, and became 
one of the well-to-do and highly respected citizens of the county. He 
died there, July 4, 1865, but his wife survived until the 14th of April, 
1876. There were five children, of whom Thomas was the third, the 
others being James M., Mattie, now Mrs. James Scott; David and 
George. Thomas Proctor was educated in the higher branches at St. 
Paul's College, in Palmyra, and at the State University, the former 
of which he attended three terms and the latter one term. He studied 
medicine under Dr. Tipton, of Marion county, and took his medical 
course in the Iowa University, at Keokuk, from which he graduated 
in 1864. He then began the practice at Monroe City, but in 1866 
returned to Marion county, and located about five miles west of 
Hannibal, where he practiced medicine for the succeeding 12 years, 
and also ran a grain and stock farm. Dr. Proctor was quite success- 
ful in the practice and secured a large clientele throughout the country 
around his place of practice. In 1879 he returned to Monroe City, 
and was occupied for a time in settling up his aifairs near Hannibal 
and preparing to engage in business at this place, for he had already 
formed a purpose to interest himself in Texas cattle raising and in 
other lines of business. In 1881 he became connected with the 
Monroe City Bank, of which he became cashier. Later along he 
became a large stockholder in and secretary and treasurer of the 
Monroe Cattle Company of Texas, which was organized with a capital 
stock of $500,000, since increased to $750,000, divided into shares of 
$100 each, three-fourths of which are owned by Dr. Proctor and five 
other citizens of Monroe county. The company owns 150,000 acres 
of land, all in one pasture in Shackleford county, Tex., which is 
stocked with Texas cattle. It is needless to say, for every one of 
general information knows, that this business is profitable, paying a 
better dividend than Standard Oil Company stock, whilst there is 
no smack of monopoly and rascality about it as there is in the famous 
oil enterprise. Dr. Proctor, being a man of superior education, 
genial manners and business enterprise, makes an efficient and popular 
bank cashier, and adds very materially to the patronage and success 
of the bank with which he is connected by the confidence and high 
esteem in which he is held as a citizen and business man. The 
Monroe City Bank is one of the conservative, safe and solid banking 
institutions of North Missouri, and is rated Al in banking circles, as it 
is in the estimation of the public at large doing business with it. The 
following is a statement of its resources and liabilities ©n the 1st of 
January, 1884: Resources — Cash on hand, $15,110.53; loans and 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 343 

discounts, $51,651.48; due from banks, $42,301.18; real estate, 
11,500.00; furniture and fixtures, $1,300.00; total, $111,863.19. 
Liabilities —Csi^\ti\\ stock, $20,000.00; deposits, $91,048.75; un- 
divided earnings, $814.44; total, $111,863.19. These figures make 
a gratifying exhibit of the condition of the bank, showing that it is 
conducted on sound business principles. It also has large deposits on 
hand, both time and call, which steadily increase from year to year. 
Dr. Proctor is a man of family, having married April 4', 1865. His 
wife was formerly Miss Mary T. (" Lutie") Bailey, eldest daughter 
of Dr. E. Bailey, of Marion county. Dr. and Mrs. Proctor have 
three children : Bailey, Frank and Thomas. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the Baptist Church. During the war he served six months in 
the State Guard, Southern service, participating during the time in 
the battle at Lexington. 

JAMES M. PROCTOR 

(Fanner, Stock-raiser and Stock-dealer, Post-offlce, Monroe City). 

An outline of the fjimily antecedents of Mr. Proctor has been given 
in the sketch of his brother, Dr. Thomas Proctor, which precedesthis. 
The father, as there remarked, became one of the well-to-do farmers 
of Marion county. In early life he was a tanner by trade, and 
commenced quite poor, but by industry and superior business manage- 
ment became a large property holder. He raised stock quite exten- 
sively and also grew tobacco in large quantities. He owned at his 
death over 1,400 acres of land. James M. was born near Phila- 
delphia, in Marion county, March 3, 1837, and was educated at the 
Baptist College at Palmyra. He subsequently taught school two 
terms and then resumed farming on the old family homestead, where 
he continued until 1866. Meanwhile he had married, and from the 
old Proctor homestead he came to Monroe. county and settled on his 
present farm, or rather a part of his present farm. He first had 360 
acres, but has since added until he now has 1,160 acres, 480 of which 
are in his home tract, and the balance only a half a mile distant. 
Although farming in a general way all the time, for a number of years 
he has made a specialty of raising and handling stock. His lands 
are largely run in blue grass for that purpose, having about 1,000 
acres in pasturage. He usually keeps from 100 to 150 head of cattle 
on hand on his home farm, quite or nearly all of high grade and 
thoroughbred stock. He now has 110 head of fine short-horn cows 
that he is crossing with Hereford stock for the Western trade. Mr. 
Proctor is also a leading stockholder in the Monroe City Bank, and 
in the Monroe Texas Cattle Company, in the former of which he is a 
director, and is vice-president of the latter. Mr. Proctor has one of 
the finest stock farms in Monroe county. His place is handsomely 
improved, including buildings, fences, pastures, water facilities, etc. 
His residence alone, a fine two-story brick, with a stone basement, 
containing eleven rooms and three largo halls, besides a commodious 
basement, all handsomelv constructed and elegantly furnished, cost 

17 



344 HISTOEY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

over $5,000. It is built on a beautiful coUado or eminence gradually 
rising from the public road about a quarter of a mile distant, and is 
approached by a handsome carriage-way. The site commands a fine 
view, not only of his own large pastures and fields, undulating and 
stretching away in the distance, but also of the surrounding country 
for miles. On the 7th of June, 1860, Mr. Proctor was married to 
Miss Ellen K. McPike, a daughter of Hon. James McPike, now 
deceased, of Marion county. Her father came to Pike county, Mo., 
from Henry county, Ky., in 1840, and was a brother to Aaron 
McPike, of Audrain county. Her mother was a Miss Mary Clinton. 
They removed to Marion county in about 1841. He was a leading 
farmer and stock man of Marion county and died there in the fall of 
1878. He represented that county in the Legislature, and was one of 
its most intelligent, progressive and public-spirited citizens. He was 
quite wealthy, and was said to be the finest judge of stock in the 
State. He was a man of the most generous impulses. He was never 
able to say no when applied to for help, although he was often imposed 
upon by those who were unworthy of assistance. His wife died in 
1873. His first wife died before his removal to Missouri. Mrs. Proc- 
tor has two brothers, Benjamin and Jefferson, the former of Marion 
and the latter of Knox county. She also has two half-brothers and 
a half-sister, Edward and William and Mary, the wife of E. D. Gul- 
lien, all of Marion county. Mr. and Mrs. Proctor are blessed with a 
family of eight children : Ellen M., now Mrs. James Randol ; Thomas 
J., Zack C, assistant cashier of the Monroe City Bank; Anna B., 
James M., Alma C, Mattie and David M. They had the misfortune 
to lose a little girl, Jennie Lee, at the age of four months. Both 
parents are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and he is a 
member of the A. F. and A. M., Chapter degree. Mr. Proctor is a 
man of marked natural intelligence and culture, and an agreeable, 
pleasant gentleman in bearing and conversation. 

JAMES S. RANDOL 

(Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Groceries, Provisions, Etc., Monroe City). 

Mr. Randol, one of the most enterprising young business men in 
Monroe county, carrying a stock of about $30,000 and doing a large 
retail and jobbing trade, the latter with dealers in small towns tribu- 
tary to Monroe City, is still three years less than thirty years of age, 
and began in mercantile business as a clerk at Clarence in 1877. 
Subsequently he attended school, taking a course at Monroe Institute, 
and in 1879 he came to Monroe City, where he formed a partnership 
with J. M. Johnson in the grocery and in the boot and shoe lines of 
trade. In June of the same year, however, they removed t© Cleora, 
Col., and conducted the same lines of business there for nearly 
two years. In the fall of 1882 they returned to Monroe City and 
resumed business at this place, which they carried on until the follow- 
ing August when Mr. Johnson retired from the firm, engaging in 
farming, where he still resides. Mr. Randol continued the business, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 345 

discontinuing later along, however, the boot and shoe line. Youno- 
enterprising and energetic, he has pushed his business with all the 
vigor that he possesses, and having superior business qualifications, as 
well as a marked natural taste and aptitude for business life, he has 
made it a most gratifying success. He does business on a cash prin- 
ciple, and although enterprising and always ready to stake his judo-ment 
on the future of supply and demand, he is still conservative and cautious, 
never making any risky adventures in trade. Besides his large business 
he owns the large business house he now occupies, and indeed, he has 
all his afiairs on a sound basis and in a safe, prosperous condition. On 
the 2d of May, 1883, Mr. Randol was married to Miss Ellen M. Proc- 
tor, a daughter of J. M. Proctor, of this place. They have a son, J A 
Randol, Jr., born March 26, 1884. She is a member of the Baptist 
Church, but Mr. E., himself, is a member of the M. E. Church 
South. He is also a member of the Triple Alliance. Mr. Randol 
is a son of John B. and Mary A. (Sharp) Randol, now of Colorado, 
and was born in Shelby county, near Clarence, October 28, 1857. 
Of the family but three are now in Missouri : James S., Ellen S., now 
Mrs. O. C. Perry, and John H. The father removed to Colorado for 
his health, where he and the balance of the family are now makino- 
their home. ° 

JOHN J. ROGERS 

(Dealer in Dry Goods, Clothing, Furnishing Goods, Eancy Goods, Hats and Caps, 
Boots and Shoes, etc.; also. Warehouseman and Dealer in Grain, Monroe City). 

In 1876 Mr. Rogers was engaged in clerking in a business house at 
this place, which he had followed for the two years previous. To-day 
he has one of the leading establishments in the lines mentioned above 
in Monroe county, and is also one of the principle grain merchants of 
the county, being not only one of the most prominent and successful 
business men of this place, but a man of ample means to carry on 
without embarassment his large business in the different branches in 
which he is engaged. During this time he has neither inherited nor 
married a fortune, but on the contrary has made every dollar he has 
by his own business acumen, enterprise and energy, and all by fair 
and honorable dealing. Such a record is not only creditable to the 
man himself, but to the community, and such a man is fairly entitled 
to be considered one of the best and most valuable citizens of the 
county in which he resides. It is to self-made men, men of character, 
intelligence and enterprise, those who have the ability and industry to 
achieve success whatever may be the circumstances in which they 
begin, that every community owes, to a very large measure, its pros- 
perity. Mr. Rogers is a native of Virginia," born in Fauquier county. 
Whilst he was yet in infancy his parents, Stephen and Cornelia F. 
( Jett) Rogers, came to Missouri, and settled in Marion county. Here 
the father engaged in farming and stock-raising and dealt largely in 
real estate for a number of years, and, indeed", until his retirement 
from all active business a few years ago. He now resides at Warren, 



346 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

in Marion county. John J. was brought up on the farm. At the age 
of 18 he went to Louisiana, Mo., where he was employed by 
an insurance firm for about a year. He then became a traveling 
agent for a Commercial Agency at Columbus, Ohio, and traveled prin- 
cipally in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky for about two years. In 1875 
he returned to Missouri and clerked in a business house at Monroe 
City until becoming a member of the firm of Sutton & Rogers. Mr. 
Sutton was succeeded by Mr. Purnell, and the firm became Rogers & 
Purnell. Mr. Purnell was a traveling man and Mr. Rogers had full 
charge of the business. Afterwards Mr. Rogers bought out Mr. Pur- 
nell's interest, and since that time he has been carrying on the busi- 
ness alone. In the meantime Rogers & Purnell had bought out the 
firm of Goetze & Byrd, merchant tailors and dealers in clothing and 
gents' furnishing: g-oods. All have since been combined in one store. 
Mr. Rogers has also had branch houses at Hunnewell and Warren. 
He has a large warehouse at this place, the only one in this part of the 
county, and he deals quite extensively in grain, seeds, wool, etc., 
shipping the principal part of the grain shipped from this point. He 
keeps from two to four hands employed. His store has an extensive 
trade and is one of the most popular houses at Monroe City. On the 
12th of September, 1878, he was married to Miss Lily Jones, a 
daughter of Mr. G. C. Jones, formerly of Wilmington, Del. Mr. 
and Mrs. Rogers are members of the Episcopal Church, and he is a 
member of the A. O. U. W. and of the Triple Alliance. 

A. K. RUTLEDGE 

(Dealer in Drugs, Medicines, etc., Monroe City, Mo). 

Mr. Rutledge, the proprietor of this popular and successful busi- 
ness firm, was reared a farmer, which he followed up to 1879, when 
he removed to Monroe City. But he also learned the plasterer's 
trade when a young man and worked at tliat when not occupied with 
his farm duties until he quit the farm, since which he has continued in 
the plasterer's trade, but for some years past principally as contractor. 
Mr. H. K. Anderson is his partner in the contracting business and 
they control the principal part of the plastering work done at this 
place and throughout the adjacent territory. Both being experienced 
plasterers and men of upright business principles, they see that no 
work is done under their firm that is not thoroughly and well done, 
and to the entire satisfaction of their patrons. This house of A. K. 
Rutledge was formed in 1878. Mr. Robinson had charge of the busi- 
ness up to a short time ago, since which A. K. Rutledge has taken 
charge of the entire business. He carries a full line of drugs and has 
a profitable and increasing trade. Mr. Rutledge was born in Giles 
county. West Va., October 28, 1843. His father, Trevis Rutledge, 
died when A. K. was about 11 years of age. Five years after- 
wards the mother, a Miss Charlotte Wingo before her marriage, 
came to Missouri with her family and finally settled near Clarence in 
Shelby county. There were originally nine children in the family, 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 347 

and seven are still livino^. A. K. Rutledije continued with his mother 
in Shelby county until his marriage, which was in 1868, Miss Mary S. 
Smith becoming his wife on the 5th of February, 1868. She was a 
daughter of Samuel C. and Elizabeth Smith, who settled in Shelby 
county in 1836. Her father died there in 1848, but her mother died 
at Mrs. Eutledge's home, in Monroe City, July 18, 1882. Mr. Rut- 
ledge lived on what is known as the Smith farm after his marriage up 
to 1879, when he came to Monroe City. Mr. and Mrs. R. have three 
children : William T., Etha Edna, and Shelby. Mrs. R. is a member 
of the Baptist Church. Her father was a blacksmith and started the 
first shop opened in Shelby county. She lost three brothers during 
the war who were identified with the South. 

John E. Robinson, a former partner of Mr. Rutledge, was born in Dor- 
cester county, Md., December 30, 1827. He learned the carpenter's 
trade as he grew up and came to Missouri in 1851, locating in Shelby 
county. He married in Shelby county Febiuarj' 22, 1857, Miss Sarem 
E. Smith then becoming his wife. She was a daughter of Samuel and 
Elizabeth Smith of the same county from which he came. He followed 
carpentering in Knox and Shelby counties for a number of years. He 
then engaged in the drug business at Newark, in Knox county. He was 
subsequently in the same business in Utica and California, Mo. , and then 
in the dry goods trade in Shelbina for about ten years. From Shelbina 
he came to Monroe City. Since that time he has been in the drug busi- 
ness for Mr. Rutledge. April 11, 1881, Mr. Robinson had the mis- 
fortune to lose his wife. She left him two daughters, both now 
young ladies, Miss Bessie and Miss Etha. The former presides over 
her father's pleasant home, and the latter is an accomplished and 
popular teacher of the county. Both are young ladies of superior 
refinement and culture, and of rare attractiveness of presence. Mr. 
Robinson is singularly fortunate in having two daughters so well cal- 
culated to make his home attractive and pleasant, both by their grace 
of manners and charm of conversation, as well as the faultlessness of 
their form and features and their singular gentleness, yet cheerfulness 
and brightness of dispositions. They not only ornament the society 
in which they move, but challenge admiration from all, admiration 
which it is a pleasure to feel. 

WILLIAM SCHOFIELD 

(Steamboat Master and Farmer, Monroe City). 

For 30 years continuously Capt. Schofield has been running the 
river, and now holds his twenty-ninth certificate as a first-class pilot 
and master. He was with the St. Louis and Keokuk Packet Company 
for 16 years, and since that time has run the river between St. Louis 
and St. Paul. He is still with the company. During last season he 
was pilot of the steamboat Keokuk. It is a gratifying fact that 
during all of Capt. Schofield' s long experience on the river he has 
never met with an accident of any serious consequence. In 1846 
he made a trip to the City of Mexico, and was there when peace was 



348 HISTORY OF MONRO:^ COUNTY. 

established between Mexico and the United States. In 1849 he went 
to Californit\.. But these are the only journeys he ever made off of 
the river of any considerable distance. For a number of years prior 
to 1870 he lived on West Ely prairie, in Marion county, where he 
owned a farm, and where he spent his time when not on the river. 
In 1870, however, he came to Monroe City, where he has since 
resided. Here he has a neat home in the suburbs of town and has 
an excellent farm of 160 acres adjoining town. Capt. Schofield is 
an Englishman by nativity, but was reared in this country. He 
was born in Yorkshire November 25, 1825, and when six years of 
age was brought to America by his parents, who first located at Pitts- 
burg, Pa. His father, James Schofield, died there, and his mother 
subsequently married John Cook, a carpenter by trade. In 1836 the 
family came to Missouri and settled at Marion City, which was then 
hardly more than laid out. There young Schofield learned the coop- 
er's trade and worked at it until he went on the river, in about 1854. 
Since then he has continued on the river, as stated above. Capt. Scho- 
field has been three times married. His first wife was a Miss Char- 
lotte Boyd. She lived seven years after her marriage, dying in 1859. 
In 1861 he was married to Miss Elizabeth Metcalfe. She survived 
her marriage but a short time. May 29, 1863, Capt. Schofield was 
married to his present wife. She was a Miss Martha Jones, of Lewis 
county. Of this union there are three children living: Harry, Fan- 
nie and Millie. One, James, is deceased. There were no children 
by his second marriage, but by his first wife there are four, namely: 
Rufus, now in Denver, Col.; Harriet E., now Mrs. Horace Kent; 
George W., of this [)lace ; and Miivy Laura, who was adopted by Mrs. R. 
F. Bartlett, of Keokuk, la., and by her christened Charlotte L. She is 
now the wife of Charles Pond, of Keokuk. Mrs. S. is a member of 
the Christian Church and the Royal Templars of Temperance, and the 
Captain is also a member of the Royal Templars of Temperance. 

CAPT. WILLIAM STYLES 

CFai'mer, Post-offlce, Hunnewell) . 

Capt. Styles was born in Kenawha county, W. Va., September 21, 
1816, and was a son of William F. and Margaret (Gibbs) Styles, his 
father from Albemarle count}', Va., hut his mother from Scotland. 
Capt. Styles was reared in Virginia and came to Missouri in 1843, set- 
tling in Monroe county. In the meantime his mother had died, and 
two of his sisters, Mary and Margaret G., made their homes with him 
in this county, they keeping house for him whilst he improved a farm. 
His brother, Samuel G.,had come out in 1840 and engaged in milling 
by water power at Clinton, now Somerset, but failed about the time 
Capt. William Styles came out to this State, so that Samuel G. joined 
him in his farming operations. The latter died here, however, in 
1845, at about the age of 32. Margaret G. married Hill Shaw, and 
both afterwards died in Franklin county. Mary died unmarried in 
1852.. Capt. Styles' father, having married the second time, also 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 349 

came to Missouri in 1843, coming a sliort time before the Captain, 
and settled near where the latter located. He and his second wife 
both died here, the latter preceding him a number of years. The 
father made his home with Capt. Styles some seven years after his 
second wife's death. Capt. Styles improved a good farm, and on the 
29th of November, 1849, he was married to Miss Nancy E. Kirkland, 
a daughter of Jacob Kirkland, of Clinton, formerly of Boonville, Mo. 
The Captain, besides being interested in farming, began milling as 
early as 1844, bringing his mill out from Cincinnati, which he ran for 
about eight years, it being a horse grist and saw mill. He also ran a 
blacksmith shop some eight years, and before and during the war had 
a two-horse power thresher and did threshing in this county and 
neighboring vicinities for some eight or ten years. He has a good 
farm of 160 acres and is comfortably situated on his place. Capt. 
and Mrs. Styles have three children, namely: Joshua F., now farm- 
ing in the county; Samuel G., who has charge of the home farm, 
an'tl Mary S., the wife of Daniel K. Yowell, of Monroe City. Captain 
and Mrs. Styles are members of the M. E. Church South. Capt. 
Styles is a practical and experienced surveyor who, in his time, was 
one of the best surveyors of North Missouri. Capt. Styles, himself, 
hos done a great deal of surveying in the county and kept it up until 
his eye failed, being a sufferer from weak eyes for a number of years 
past, which is believed to have been caused originally from a severe 
spell of measles, which he had back in 1852. Capt. Styles was com- 
missioned captain of militia by Gov. Price in 1846 or 1847 to drill the 
militia of this county in military tactics, of which he had made a study, 
and was considered an expert drill master. 

GEORGE W. TOMPKINS 

(Of Geo. W. Tompkins & Co., Dealers iu Dru^s, Medicines, etc., Monroe City). 

Mr. Tompkins is a professional druggist, as well as a thoroughly 
capable business man, having begun to learn the drug business when 
he was 17 years of age, in which he has since been continuously 
engaged, either as clerk or on his own account. When a youth he 
received a good education in the schools of Hunnewell, where he was 
principally reared, and in 1876 came to Monroe City and commenced 
as a clerk in the drug store of J. H. Grady. Subsequently he 
clerked for P. E. Crisp for over four years, and in 1882 he and Dr. 
George L. Turner, who is the other member of the firm, formed the 
partnership under which they are still doing business. They have a 
first-class stock of drugs, fresh and well selected, and Mr. Tompkins 
being a practical and experienced druggist, while his partner is a 
physician, it goes without saying that they form one of the safest and 
most capable drug firms in the county. Mr. Tompkins compounds 
prescriptions with special care, and both members of the firm use 
their best judgment in the selection of pure drugs and medicines of 
established re^putation for their trade. By doing a strictly first-class 
business, their house has secured an enviable reputation at Monroe 



350 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

City Jincl throughout the surrounding country, so that, as would be 
expected, it is more than ordinarily popular with the people, and 
commands a large trade. On the 19th of June, 1859, Mr. Tompkins 
was born at his father's homestead in Lewis county. While he was 
quite a youth the family removed to Hunnewell, where they still 
reside. His father, William Tompkins, was originally from Tennes- 
see, but his mother, whose maiden name was Eliza Clow, was from 
Kentucky. George W. remained at Hunnewell, as stated above, 
until he was 17 years of age, and then came to Monroe City. 
October 1, 1882, he was married to Miss Elizabeth F. Simpson, a 
daughter of J. H. Simpson, of this place. Mr. Tompkins is con- 
nected with the Triple Alliance. 

NATHAN S. TOPPING 

(Proprietor of the Gem Hotel and Monroe City Livery Stables . 

Mr. Topping is a hotel landlord of long experience, and has been 
conducting the Gem Hotel since the spring of 1881. He is a suc- 
cessor to R. M, Brown, who erected the hotel building in 1866, 
since which it has been run as a hotel. It contains 25 rooms and 
accommodates conveniently from 30 to 40 guests. Mr. Topping is 
the owner of the house, and also of the livery stable, and is doing a 
good business in both lines. He came to Monroe City from Shel- 
bina, where he had been running the Topping House for about nine 
years. Mr. Topping is originally from the old Empire State, called 
into life in Sullivan county, July 20, 1818. His parents, Abraham 
and Mary (Cook) Topping, Avere from Long Island, :ind removed to 
Sullivan county in 1812. Nathan S. was married in Sullivan county, 
September 23, 1847, to Miss Sarah Kinkendall. He followed farm- 
ing there until 1868, when he came to Missouri, and improved a farm 
near Hunnewell. From the farm he went to Shelbina in 1872. Mr. 
and Mrs. Topping have had four children: Emery A., who died at 
the age of 21, soon after coming to Missouri; Estella D., the wife 
of L. W. Arnold, of Monroe City, and two others, who died in 
New York. He and wife are members of the M. E. Church. Mr. 
Topping is a man of intelligence and general information, and in New 
York held numerous local official positions. He is well respected 
here. 

BENJAMIN H. H. TUCKER 

(Postmaster and Agent of tlie Pacific Express Company, Monroe City). 

Mr. Tucker was born June 17, 1818, in the city of New York, and 
became identified with North-east Missouri away back in the spring of 
1836, when he was a youth about 17 years of age, by having a scholar- 
ship presented to him in Marion College, of Marion county. Mo., by 
Gov. Haynes of New Jersey. That college was then one of the most 
eminent institutions of learning throughout the entire country, and 
was resorted to by young men of promise from nearly all the States. 
Mr. Tucker was a son of Benjamin Tucker, a leading young lawyer of 



HISTOKl OF MONROE COUNTY. 351 

New York City and of a promiueiit family of that State, but who iin- 
fortiuuitely died at the early age of 36. He was intimate with 
Hamilton and Burr, who greatly encouraged him to hope for a prom- 
ising future at the bar, and by whom he was regarded as a young man 
of the highest promise. At college he was a classmate with Martin 
Van Buren, afterwards President of the United States, and between 
them there was ever a warm friendship. He was also a friend and 
associate with most of the leading men of New York State. Mr. 
Tucker's mother (Benjamin H. H.'s) was a Miss Elizabeth Cutter, of 
the well known New Jersey family of that name, one of the best fam- 
ilies in the State, a history of which has heretofore been published by 
Dr. Cutter, of Connecticut. He is conceded to be one of the finest sur- 
geons in the State, and is also a representative of this family. Young 
Tucker came to Marion College, which he attended for about 18 
months, and until the college became disorganized on account of finan- 
cial and other troubles. He then located at Marion City, Marion 
county, and was engaged in the hotel business, Marion City at that 
time being a thriving town on the Mississippi 10 miles above Hanni- 
bal, and the shipping point for North-east Missouri. In February, 
1841, the hotel was burned. In the spring, by the solicitation of 
friends, he came to Monroe county and engaged in teaching school 
for some months on the farm of Joshua Gentry, boarding in the fam- 
ily of Aaron B. Combs during that time. Returning to Marion City 
in 1842, he taught for a time that year and soon engaged in clerking 
in a general store and commission business until the spring of 1843. 
The 6th day of April witnessed the crossing on the ice over the Mis- 
sissippi river of one yoke of oxen hitched to an ox-cart. The post- 
master at Marion City at that time failing to comply with all the 
requirements of the post-office department, Dr. Bower, of Paris, 
being member of congress from this district, was called upon to rec- 
ommend one to fill the position of jjostmaster in place of the incum- 
bent. Dr. Bower recommended Mr. Tucker who was duly 
commissioned under President Tyler, holding the office three years, 
when on account of poor health he was induced by his friends to try 
farming. On the 5th of February, 1846, he was married to Miss 
Martha H. McCormick, of Marion City. In 1849 he began farming nea. 
West Ely, and subsequently farmed in Marion, Ralls and Lewis 
counties up to 1865, when he came to Monroe City, and engaged in 
clerking one year, returning to his farm in Lewis county in the spring 
of 1866. There he stayed until October 1869, when he again returned 
to Monroe City. On the 16th of April, 1869, he took charge of the 
post-office at this place, and has since discharged the duties of this 
office, having been re-commissioned a few months ago for a term of 
four years. In 1871 he was appointed U. S. Express agent and in 
1881, Pacific Express agent. Up to 1874 he was also engaged in the 
grocery business. Mr. Tucker makes an efficient and popular post- 
master, and his official record, as is the case with his private life, is 
without a shadow of reproach. Mr. and Mrs. Tucker have five chil- 
dren : Elizabeth, now Mrs. Thomas L. Courtne3' ; Benjamin Franklin 



352 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

Green , Charles Edward , George Washington and Carrie Esther. 
Mr. and Mrs. Tucker are members of the M. E. Church South. He 
is also prominently identified with the temperance cause.. In April, 
1881, Mr. Tucker had the misfortune to break his left hip bone, which 
prostrated him for nearly three months. However, he has recovered 
the full use of his leg, although it is a little shorter than his right 
leg. During the War of the Rebellion Mr. Tucker, not fit for military 
duty, remained on his farm in Lewis county, doing whatever was in his 
power for the cause of the government, ever faithful to the flag of his 
country. 

GEORGE L. TURNER, M. D. 

(Physician and Surgeon, Monroe City, Mo.). 

The parents of Rev. Able Turner, the father of Dr. George L., 
were earl}^ settlers of North-east Missouri, settling near Hannibal, in 
Marion county. There Rev. Able Turner was reared, and in young 
manhood was married to Miss Mary E. Wilson, formerly of Loudoun 
county, Va., who came to Shelby county. North-east Mo., with her 
parents before reaching womanhood. Later along Dr. Turner's father 
removed to Shelby county, where he was married and where the Doc- 
tor was born on the 26th of March, 1854. His father was a minister 
of the regular Baptist Church, and continued pulpit work until his 
death, which occurred April 24, 1882. Dr. George L. Turner was the 
fifth of the nine children of his parents now living, the others being 
Charles C. of Carthage, Enoch T., John M., Frank S., Frances A. 
now Mrs. F. M. Farr ; Belle, now Mrs. Arthur Carmichael ; Martha 
G., now Mrs. Edward Carmichael, and Ida M., who is still at home, 
all except Charles C. and George L, being residents of Shelby county. 
George L. (the doctor) completed his education at the State Univer- 
sity, where he studied two years. He then taught school two years 
and during the same time studied medicine under Dr. Chenvrout, of 
Bethel, in Shelby county. He then entered the Rush Medical College 
at Chicago, where he took a regular course of two terms, graduating 
in 1880. Dr. Turner at once located at Monroe City, in the practice 
of his profession, where he has since resided. He formed a partner- 
ship with Dr. Asbury which continued up to a short time ago. Dr. 
Turner is a partner with Mr. George W. Tompkins in the drug busi- 
ness, and is still a member of the firm of George W. Tompkins & 
Co. Dr. Turner was married in Shelby county, September 7, 1880, 
to Miss Charlotte Pickette, daughter of Hiram Pickette. They have 
two children : Myrtie G., and an infant son,Lytle Rush. Mrs. Tur- 
ner is a member of theM.E. Church and the Farmers' and Mechanics' 
Mutual Aid Association, and the Doctor is a member of the I. O. O. 
F. and the Triple Alliance, and the Farmers' and Mechanics' Mutual 
Aid Association. He is also a member of the Monroe County Medi- 
cal Society. Dr. Turner has shown by his success in the practice as 
well as by his popularity as a physician, that he is a practitioner of 
thorough qualifications and superior skill. He has a marked natural 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 353 

aptitude as well as special taste for surgery, and has performed some 
very difficult and bighly successful and creditable operations in that 
department of the practice. Still, he very much likes ail branches of 
the practice and is a more than ordinarily capable physician in the 
treatment of the general curriculum of cases usually met with in this 
part of the country. 

JUDGE ALFRED WARNER 

(Deceased) . 

In the " History of Monroe County " there is no one mentioned the 
events of whose life reflect greater credit upon the subject himself and 
upon all connected with him, as well as upon the county, than does the 
career of the subject of the present sketch. A man of great force and 
purity of character, he acquitted himself without reproach of his duties 
in every relation in which he was placed — in his family, in the church, 
in business affiiirs and to the public. Possessed of a high order of in- 
telligence, and energetic and enterprising almost to a fault, his activ- 
ities in business aff'airs were eminently successful, and he died the 
possessor of a comfortable fortune, an estate he accumulated himself 
and enjoyed for many years. He was a man of retiring and modest 
disposition, wonderfully attached to home and family, and with no 
desire, whatever, for public life or for cutting a conspicuous figure in 
the world. With his talents and great personal worth, if he had been 
ambitious of political promotion or other official advancement, there 
are no offices in the gift of the people to which he might not have 
reasonably aspired and probably have obtained. But his greatest 
happiness was found in the private walks of life, making himself use- 
ful to those around him and enjoying the society of his loved ones at 
home and of his friends. There, it is gratifying to remember, most 
of his days were spent, and while it was more congenial to his own 
tastes that it was so, if, when the end came, his loss was not as widely 
deplored because he was not as widely known as some, it is but the 
expression of a plain and simple truth to say that it was more deeply 
and sincerely mourned than is the loss of many. As a business man, 
merchant and manufacturer, he was early and eminently successful ; 
as an agriculturist later, farmer and stockman, his career was not less 
creditable ; and as a friend of popular education, an active worker in, 
and liberal supporter of the church, as a public-spirited citizen and a 
representative in official life — in every position and sphere of activity, 
he was an ornament and of great value. When such a man dies not 
only is a loss sustained by his family and those to whom he is imme- 
diately near and dear, but by the community in all its interests, a loss 
which is fittingly evidenced by the general bereavement shown by the 
people, as in the case of the imposing performance of the last sad rites 
attending the deceased. Alfred Warner was a native of Massa- 
chusetts, born near Pittsfield, April 2, 1798. When he was about 12 
years of age, he was taken by his parents to the Western Reserve of 
Ohio, where the familv settled in 1810. There, in that then wilder- 



354 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

iiess, he grew up amid the pioneer scenes and incidents of frontier life. 
Possessed of a natural taste for mental culture, notwithstanding his 
unfavorable surroundings, he succeeded in acquiring, by application 
to his books at home, a good practical education. When a young 
man, 24 years of age, he went to Lexington, Ky., where a brother, 
Elijah, had preceded him and was in business. He also engaged in 
merchandising there and soon became, in addition, largely interested 
in manufacturers, both at Lexington and at Havensville. He owned 
extensive bagging and rope factories, and also large jeans and woolen 
mills. Besides these he conducted a heavy pork packing business, 
and altogether accumulated a handsome fortune for those days. He 
owned quite a number of slaves. Li 1848, however, he sold out in 
Kentucky and came to Missouri, stopping for a short time on the way 
at Alton, 111., then one of the leading points of the West, where he 
owned valuable city property. Arriving in this State, he settled in 
Marion county, where he bought a tract of 600 acres of laud, and im- 
proved a fine farm. Desiring to increase his facilities for stock-rais- 
ing, he bought an additional tract of 600 acres in Monroe county about 
1855, to which he removed about 1856 or 1857, and soon took rank 
as one of the principal stockmen of North Missouri. He was one of 
the first, if not the very first, to introduce the breeding and raising 
of fine short-horn cattle. He raised fine stock of different kinds, and, 
indeed, was never content to handle low grade animals of any kind. 
His cattle and horses were especially remarked for their superior 
quality and value. In this way he did a great service to the county 
by encouraging and assisting in the improvement of its stock.. He 
was a leading and active member of the Masonic order, and his inter- 
ment with the honors of that order is said to have been the most 
impressive and considerable funeral of the kind ever witnessed in the 
county. He was also a prominent and time-honored member of the 
Episcopal Church, and was for years a Lay Delegate for this Diocese 
to the General Convention of that Church. He took an active 
part in organizing the parish in Monroe City and building its 
house of worship ; and was also highly influential in establish- 
ing the Monroe City Institute, giving both the church and the 
institute the benefit of his active exertions of liberal donations. 
His public spirit manifested itself in assisting materially in the 
upbuilding of Monroe City. He bought numerous lots there and 
erected several valuable business houses and dwellings, and at all times 
showed a disposition to aid in any movement designed for the general 
good of the place. During the war Judge Warner, although an ex- 
tremely liberal-minded and conservative man, was decidedly Union in his 
sentiments, notwithstanding he was a slave-holder and much attached 
to the Southern people, both in interest and sympathy. He took no 
active part in the struggle, however, and remained quietly at home, 
except while engaged in the discharge of official duties, to the per- 
formance of which he was called by the general voice of the people. 
He was presiding member of the county court of Monroe county, 
which court had probate jurisdiction, a position he held for two terms 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 355 

of four years each. This office was accepted with great reluctance on 
his part, and at last only from a sense of public duty. He acquitted 
himself in it as was to have been expected, with great credit and to the 
universal satisfaction of the public. He was one of the few Union men 
of Monroe county who, though always loyal to the government, so 
conducted himself that he was without an enemy at the close of the 
war among the Southern people, being respected and esteemed for his 
honesty and sincerity by those opposed to him, as his loyalty was 
honored and unquestioned on the Union side. He died at his home 
in this county on the 24th of September, 1867, and his remains were 
interred with every manifestation of public sorrow and of individual 
grief among his personal friends and acquaintances, as well as in his 
own family, in the cemetery at Monroe City, where they now sleep 
peacefully awaiting the dawn of the resurrection morn. He was a 
man of striking personal appearance, full six feet in height, with an 
excellent form and a manly countenance, always lighted up by a 
genial and pleasant expression. He was eminently social and affable 
in his intercourse with those around him, and the farthest from an 
opinionated man, being unassuming and respectfully considerate of 
thoughts and the feelings of others. Judge Warner was twice mar- 
ried. To his first wife, whose maiden name was Miss Jane Shekleford, 
he was married April 24, 1832. She survived her marriage, however, 
but a short time. On the 29th of September, 1846, he was married 
to the partner of the subsequent years of his long and useful life, and 
who still survives him, one of the most highly respected and beloved 
ladies in the community where she has so long lived. The widow of 
Judge Warner was, before her marriage to him, a Mrs. Harriett L. 
McLean, relict of Prof. McLean, an accomplished artist, who, although 
dying at the early age of 36, had already attained considerable fame 
as a talented and gifted portrait painter. She had been a widow nearly 
three years at the time of her marriage to Judge Warner. She was 
a Miss Patterson originally, of Camden, Maine, but was reared at 
Cambridge, Mass. She is now in her seventy-first year, but is still a 
lady of fine personal appearance, remarkably well preserved in body 
and mind. Judge and Mrs. Warner reared but one child, a sou, 
Alfred B., born January 4, 1852, and still unmarried. He has charge 
of all the property of the family, and is a leading agriculturist and 
business man. He was educated at Monroe Institute, and Racine 
College, Wis., taking, besides a general course, a thorough course in 
Latin, Greek and German. He is a young man of bright promise, 
and occupies an enviable position in the community. 

WESTHOFF BROTHERS 

(General Blacksmiths, and Manufacturers of Road Wagons, Spring Wagons, Buggies, 

etc., Monroe City). 

These gentlemen, who have about $3,000 invested in their present 
business, and work constantly from eight to twelve hands besides them- 
selves, manufacturing annually a large number of road wagons and spring 



356 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

wagons, and a number of carriages, buggies, etc., beigan in business 
together at Monroe City in 1876, and have since conducted it as part- 
ners with gratifying success. They build from 16 to 18 road wagons 
a year and more than half as many spring wagons, as well as numer- 
ous other vehicles, besides doing a large blacksmithing business and 
attending to an extensive custom in the repair line. They are ener- 
getic, thorough-going mechanics and business men, and are fully 
worthy of the gratifying success they have achieved. 

The senior member of the firm, Francis Westhoff, was born in 
Hancock county. 111., October 4, 1839, and learned his trade under 
his fiither in Schuyler county. Mo. Subsequently he worked for about 
seven years near Bloomfield, Iowa, and then came to Monroe City in 
1872, and engaged in his present business. Meanwhile he had mar- 
ried, March 20, 1866, when Miss Martena Riney became his wife. 
She Avas a daughter of William Riney, of Scotland county, Mo. Mr. 
and Mrs. Westhoff have three children : William F., Elizabeth A. and 
James Leo. Both parents are members of the Catholic Church. Dur- 
ing the war Mr. Westhoff served for a time in the Schuyler county 
militia. 

Adolphus Westhoff Avas born in Schuyler county. Mo., March 1, 
1848, and is therefore nine years younger than his brother. He learned 
his trade under his father and worked in Davis county, Iowa, and for 
a time ran the shop with his brother. In 1872 he began work with 
his father and came to Monroe City in 1876, where he has since been 
a partner with his brother Francis. He has charge of the wood work 
department of the business. In the winter of 1877-78 he was married 
to Miss Maggie Ryan. They have four children : Johnnie, Frank, 
Anna and Angle, the last two twins. He and wife are also members 
of the Catholic Church. 

Francis and Adolphus Westhoff were the sons of John and Elizabeth 
(Campbell) Westloff, formerly of Illinois, but who came to Schuyler 
county, Mo., as early as 1844. The father was a farmer and black- 
smith and wagon-maker, and followed these callings until his death, 
which occurred in the summer of 1883. He worked here with his sons 
the summer preceding his death, or rather in the summer of 1882. He 
returned home the succeeding fall and soon died, as stated above. 

F. M. WILSON 

(Dealer in Furniture and Undertaker, Monroe City) . 

Mr. Wilson, born and reared in Ralls county, continued to reside 
there after he grew up and was married, engaged principally in 
farming, but a part of the time in milling, until 1877, when he 
came to Monroe City and bought an interest with Samuel Megown 
in the mill at this place, with whom he was connected in the 
milling business for about 18 months. Selling out then, he bought 
an interest, with Virgil Evans, in the furniture and undertaking 
business, and soon afterwards bought Mr. Evans' interest, becoming 
sole proprietor of the business. Meeting with good success, in 1880 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 357 

he erected a new business house and appreciably increased his stock. 
He has recently sold the building he erected in 1883, however, and 
has just completed a handsome, commodious, two-story brick busi- 
ness house, which he now occupies. On the 15th of October, 1857, 
Mr. Wilson was married to Miss Gubriella Shulse, a daughter of 
Marcus Shulse, of Ralls county. The fruits of this union are two 
children, both now grown to maturity, namely: Annie M. and Will- 
iam H., the former the widow of Norton F. Spalding, late deputy 
county clerk of Ralls county, and the latter in the business house of 
Durrant & Jackson. Annie M., the daughter, was married to young 
Spalding in 1881. But with less than two years of happy married 
life the angel of death came and bore the spirit of her beloved and 
devoted husband to his home bej^ond the skies. His remains now 
sleep peacefully in the cemetery on the old Norton place, where the 
flowers shall bloom above all that is mortal of him, the cherished 
memory of whom is nearer and dearer to her than all else on earth, 
until the morn of the resurrection shall dawn : — 

" Only a shadow that falls at eve 
Darkening the face of the sun ; 
Only a beautiful light gone out 
From a fair young life that is done. 
• 

*' Sorrow is ours, but the darkened life 
Gleams on the farther shore, 
And the ra,diant soul like a guiding star 
Shineth — forevermore. 

"Broken in twain, is the precious chain, 
Sundered so far and wide ; 
But, the Father hath love that will make it whole, 
On the beautiful other side." 

One little flower, the fruit of this happy union, destined to be sun- 
dered so soon, is left to cheer the mother's heart under the shadow 
of her sad widowhood: Robert Marion, a bright little boy now one 
year of age. Mr, Wilson, the subject of this sketch, is a representa- 
tive of an old Missouri family, his father, Hedgman Wilson, having 
come to this State away back in 1827. Mr. Wilson's mother was a 
Miss Levina Fuqua. They came from Kentucky and the father, a 
miller by occupation and a farmer, lived in Ralls county until his 
death, which occurred in 1869. 

BENJAMIN O. WOOD 

(Dealer iu Drugs, Medicines, Paints, Oils, Scliool Books, etc., Monroe City). 

Mr. Wood is a representative of the old Pennsylvania Quaker fam- 
ily whose name he bears, the most prominent member of which, in 
recent years, was the Hon. Fernando Wood, of New York, three 
times mayor of that city and who commenced his service in Congress 
as far back as 1841, dying two years ago, while still representing New 
York City in the National Legislature. Mr. Wood's father. Dr. 
Adolphus E. Wood, and the late ex-Mayor Wood were brothers, the 



358 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

latter born in Philadelphia, but the former in Baltimore. There were 
two other brother, Henry and Benjamin, both of wliom reside in New 
York. Dr. Wood was a man of fine education and culture, and grad- 
uated in medicine with eminent distinction. He was married in 
Havana, Cuba, to Mrs. Caroline Clunette, of Spanish parentage, 
being then a widow lady, her first husband of French nationality. 
She had two children by her first husband. Dr. Wood was largely 
interested in the tobacco trade of Cuba at that time. Deciding, how- 
ever, to come West, as early as 1831 he removed to Missouri, locating in 
Shelby county, then on the very frontier of civilization. He lived in that 
county until his death. He was a leading citizen of the county and 
the foremost physician of North Missouri. He served as county 
judge for some years, and was a man of great force of character, 
sterling virtue and eminently influential. His wife (Benjamin O.'s 
mother) is still living, a lady of rare dignity of manners and fine 
accomplishments, having received an advanced education early in life 
and always been a student of the best literature. She has reared a 
large family of children, and those living all occupy enviable posi- 
tions in the communities where they reside. Benjamin O. Wood was 
born at Oakdale, in Shelby county, December 29, 1836, and was 
reared at that place. He was principally educated by his parents, 
who took great care for the mental culture of their children. As 
early as 1863 he began as a clerk in a drug store in Quincy, III., and 
from that time to the present, with no appreciable intermission, he 
has been continuously in the drug business — a period now of over 20 
years. He came to Monroe City in 1868 and has since been in busi- 
ness at this place. He carries one of the best stocks of drugs, as it is 
one of the largest and most complete, in the county, and keeps con- 
stantly employed two gentlemanly, eificient salesmen, Messrs. R. E. 
Lear and John M. Riley, gentlemen whose good looks are only exceeded 
by their pleasant manners and fine business qualifications. Mr. Wood 
also gives his undivided attention to his business. His house has an 
enviable reputation for reliability and efficiency in the preparation of 
prescriptions, of which it makes a specialty. On the 12th of Decem- 
ber, 1872, Mr. Wood was married to Miss Allie B. Smith, a daughter 
of Mr. A. Smith, of Ralls county. They have one child, Myrtle I. 
They have lost their child, a boy of 14 months, of great promise. Mr. 
Wood is a member of the Masonic order, the A. O. U. W., and he 
has also served in the city council for several terms. 

THOMAS J. YATES 

(Of T. J. Yates & Brother, Proprietors of the Monroe City Livery, Feed and Sale 
Stables; also, Farmer, Stock-raiser and Stock-dealer). 

Mr. Yates was born on his father's homestead in this county, 
August 18, 1845, and was reared to the occupation of a farmer. In 
1864, then in his nineteenth year, he enlisted in the Confederate 
service under Col. McDaniel, and joined Gen. Price's army on the 
retreat from Missouri. He was with Price for a short time, then 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 359 

became a member of Gen. Joe Shelby's command, under whom he 
served until the close of the war, surrendering at Slireveport, La., ia 
June, 1865. Returning home, he then went to work again on the 
farm and followed farming continuously and raising and handling 
stock from that time up to about 1875. He then came to Monroe 
City and engaged in the livery business ; later along he was also in the 
hardware business at this place, being in partnership with G. W. Dur- 
rant, under the firm name of T. J. Yates & Co., for about two years. 
Excepting this and about 18 months spent on his farm, he has been 
in the livery business continuously since 1875. Some two years 
ago his brother, William R., joined him in the livery business, since 
which they have carried it on under the name of T. J. Yates & 
Brother. This is one of the leading livery establishments in Monroe 
county, if not the leading one. They have about $10,000 invested ia 
their business, and have a large and commodious building, well 
arranged for caring for stock, vehicles and feed, such as are required 
in their business. They keep from 20 to 30 head of horses, a 
large number of bug-o-ies, two hearses and various other kinds of 
vehicles needed to accommodate their custom. They also run busses 
to all the trains on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Road at this point. 
Their stables are justly popular in the livery line and liberally patron- 
ized by the traveling and local public, and particularly the commercial 
men, who have found by experience that they can get better accommo- 
dations for the prices charged than at any other livery establishment 
in the surrounding countr3^ They also do a general stock business 
in the line of horses and mules, and buy and sell quite extensively. 
Mr. Yates has a good farm near Monroe City, of 320 acres, which is 
devoted mainly to stock, and there he raises and feeds cattle for the 
wholesale markets. He now has on hand about 50 head of good cattle. 
He has been handling stock, principally cattle and mules, since 1875, 
and with excellent success. On the 6th of April, 1869, he was married 
to Miss Maggie Beck, formerly of Ohio. They have had six children : 
Eddie, Wilfred, Victor, Belmer, Lee, James A. Mr. and Mrs. Yates 
are members of the Catholic Church. His parents were Thomas and 
Eliza (Pearceal) Yates, early settlers of this county, coming here as 
early as 1832. His father is still living, but the mother died in 
August. 1882. 



SOUTH FORK TOWN^SHIP. 



WASHINGTON C. BATES. 

(Farmer, Stock-raiser and Stock-dealer, Post-office Santa Fe) . 

Mr. Bates is one of those sterling old Virginians, so many of whom 
we are favored with in this State, who possess the qualities of industry 
and clear, vigorous intelligence that make them successful men almost 

18 



360 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

without exception wlierever their lots are cast, and who contribute an 
important measure to the building up and developing of the respective 
communities in which they reside. Mr. Bates was born near Marion, 
Va., in 1818. His parents, Thomas and Nancy (McCarty) Bates, 
had nine children, of whom he was the fifth. His father died in 1835 
whilst Washington C. was a youth 17 years of age, and two years 
later the mother with her family, including Washington C, came to 
Missouri and settled in Platte county. They were among the early 
settlers of that county and opened one of the pioneer farms in its 
wilderness. The mother died, however, in 1838, and Washington C. 
then went to Buchanan county where he bought a quarter of a section 
of land and improved a farm. There he lived for nearly 30 years 
and in the meantime was twice man-ied. He came to Monroe county 
in 1866 and bought a part of the land on which he now resides. Here 
he has since been engaged in farmino- and hand lino- stock, which he 
had previously followed in Buchanan county. His career has been one 
of continued success and he now has a fine place of nearl}'^ a section of 
land, all substantially and comfortably improved. He started in the 
world for himself with but little or nothing to begin on and he is, 
therefore, what may be fairly termed a self-made man. He has made 
most of what he has in the stock business, dealing in cattle, mules, 
etc., and has been a very successful stock shipper, a business he still 
follows to some extent. He was absent for several years during the 
war, a part of the time in the Southern service and the balance 
engaged in freighting on the plains. He was in the fights at Blue 
Mill and Lexington and several other less eno-ao-ements. While on the 
plains he ran several teams from Nebraska City to Denver, and made 
some money in that business. Mr. Bates was married the first time 
in 1841 to Miss Caroline Blue, of Audrain county, who survived her 
marriage only two years. There is only one child by this union, 
Almira, now the wife of Charles McCarty. To his present wife he 
was married in 1844. She was a Miss Nancy Kerr, a daughter of 
John and Susan (Hannah) Kerr, formerly of Virginia. The}^ have 
nine children: Susan S., John W., Thomas M., Emma, Eleanor, 
Robert A., James B., Jefferson Davis and Katie A. He and wife are 
members of the M. E. Church South and he has been a member of the 
I. O. O. F. for 30 years. He has been a school director for a number 
of years and still holds that position. 

THOMAS M. BATES 

(Dealer in Drugs and Groceries, Santa Fe). 

Mr. Bates is the third son of Washington C. Bates, the worthy old 
citizen of Monroe county whose sketch precedes this. Thomas M. 
was born in Platte county in 1848 but was reared in Buchanan 
county, where his father resided up to 1866. He received a good 
common school education, and remained with his father on the farm 
after the latter's removal to this county, until 1871. He then 
ngaged in the saw mill business, which he followed with great success 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 361 

for about 12 years. Selling out his small interests, be now came to 
Santa Fe and began as a druggist and grocer, lines of trade he has 
since followed. He has a neat stock of both these lines, and by his 
well-known integrity and his accommodating spirit has won a o-ood 
patronage for his house. His trade is gradually increasing, and^'it is 
his intention to increase his stock as rapidly as his business justifies. 
In 1872, Mr. Bates was married to Miss OUie Hagar, a daughter of 
Dr. Hager, of Monroe county. Mr. and Mrs. B. have two children 
Nannie B. and Fulton D. Mrs. Bates is a member of the Presbyl 
terian Church, and he is a member of the I. O. O. F. He has a 
handsome property in Santa Fe, and a good start in life. His future 
as a business man seems one of promise. 

FRANCIS M. BRASHEARS 

(Farmer and Blacksmith, Post-offlce, Santa Fe). 
Mr. Brashears was one of a family of 15 sons of Solomon and 
Jemima (Pittit) Brashears, of South Carolina, and subsequently pio- 
neer settlers of Ralls county. Mo., removing to that county from the 
Palmetto State as early as 1831. Francis M., the subject of this 
sketch, was four years of age when the family came to Missouri, hav- 
ing been born in Spartanburgh district, S. C., May 28, 1827 ' His 
mother died in Ralls county, and in 1854 his father removed to Adair 
county, where he died two years later. He was reared in Ralls county 
and was brought up to be a farmer and blacksmith, both of which 
occupations his father followed. He remained with his father until he 
was 27 years of age, and, indeed, went to Adair county with him, 
where he was married on the 30th of December, 1858, to Miss Sarah 
J. McCoy, formerly of Indiana. Suljsequently he removed to Monroe 
county, and in 1879 settled on the place where he now resides. He 
has a place of 200 acres, all improved except a small piece of timber, 
and he still follows blacksmithing, to which he was brought up, as well 
as forming. A man of unflagging industry and of strong intelligence, 
ills life has been one of success, and now he can contemplate approach- 
ing old age with the easy assurance that the later years of his life are 
well provided for, so far as necessities and comforts are concerned. 
He and his good wife have had 11 children: Edward T., Fannie 
D., Francis M., Robert L., Benjamin H., Lewis A., Nina J., Alva H., 
and Myra E. The other two are deceased, Amos and Mary Elizabeth,' 
both having died in infancy. He and wife are members of the Bap- 
tist Church, but one of his sons is a member of the Christian Church. 

JAMES BLEDSOE 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Santa Fe ) . 

One of the most influential and public spirited citizens of the town- 
ship IS he whose name heads this sketch. Owning a mao-nificent farm 
of 400 acres, all under fence and with every improvenVent and con- 
venience, Mr. Bledsoe conducts his business according to the most 



o62 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

enterprising and enlightened method. He is one of the most intelli- 
gent farmers in the county, and deals also extensively in stock. He 
is raising mules for the market as well as hogs and cattle. He keeps 
only the highest grade of short-horn cattle. Mr. Bledsoe takes a lively 
interest in public affairs, and is one of the strongest advocates of pub- 
lic schools. He is the son of Willis and Jane Bledsoe, both natives 
of Kentucky, and was born January 17, 1839, in the Blue Grass State. 
His father came to Missouri April 6, 1846, and settled on the farm 
where James now lives, and where his own days drew to a peaceful 
close on the 21st of October, 1881, his wife having died 12 years 
before. He was a farmer and stock-raiser, and will further be remem- 
bered as a man of the highest moral character. He was never heard 
to use an oath in his life, and was ever a consistent and pure Christ- 
ian. In his early life he was a member of the Baptist Church, but 
after coming to Missouri adopted the faith of the Universalists. 
James was educated in the common schools, and, coming of age, began 
working for himself. He, however, still remained on the old home- 
stead, and in 1873 bought the place, affording a comfortable home for 
his parents until their demise. November 28, 1878, James married 
Miss Ella Powell, a native of Kentucky, by whom he has two beauti- 
ful and attractive children, John and Bertie. Mr. Bledsoe is a charter 
member of the Masonic Lodge at Santa Fe. 

CHARLES F. BROWNING 

(Farmer and Stock-dealer, Post-office, Long Branch). 

Mr. Browning's parents, Charles W. and Catherine A, (Hines) 
Browning, were early settlers in Monroe county, where they bought 
the Maddox farm, on which they resided for over 20 years. In 1864, 
after Charles F. had grown up, the family removed to Audrain 
county, where they made their home. The father died there in 1870 ; 
the mother is still living, an old lady of advanced years, but still in 
comparatively good health and active considering her age. When 
they came to Monroe county they had to rely on deer and turkeys 
for meat and corn meal for bread, which was ground at the old- 
fashioned horse-mill. Preachins; was held at the house of neio-hbors : 
schools were something of a novelty. Their trading point was Hanni- 
bal. They were blessed with a family, however, of 13 children, most 
of whom have grown up and become parents themselves and some of 
them grandparents. Mrs. Browning, the good old mother, has had, 
as already said, 13 children. She also has 13 grandchildren, and 13 
great-grandchildren, the odd number seeming, as usual, to be a lucky 
one. Charles F. Browning, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Culpeper county, Va., on the 26th day of July, 1841, and was reared 
on a farm after the family came to Missouri, in Monroe county. In 
1862 he, in company with John Wood and William Wilson, started to 
join Price's army, but were captured on the way, and confined in 
prison at St. Louis for about four months. On taking the double, 
back action, iron-clad oath of loyalty, he was released, and remained 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 363 

at home until 1864, when, being drafted into the Union service, he 
quietly drafted himself out of it by crossing the draft of the Missis- 
sippi into Illinois, where he laid low until the close of the war. After 
a sojourn in Illinois for some 18 months, he went to Texas, and then 
visited several other Southern States, finally locating in the Indian 
Territory in 1876, from which he shipped cattle, mainly, to Tennessee. 
Some 12 months afterwards he cjime back to Missouri, and in 1882 
bought the Baker farm, a half mile ofi" the place where he was reared 
in Monroe county, where he now resides. He has continued to deal 
in stock and has had satisfactory success. October 3, 1882, he was 
married to Miss Hattie Rayl, of Pulaski county, this State, but 
formerly of Tennessee. Mr. Browning is one of the well respected 
citizens of his community, and is a thorough-going, enterprisino- 
farmer and stock-raiser. 

JOHN F. BUCKLES. 

(Farmer, Section 6). 

Mr. Buckles is the son of George and Betty (Wakley) Buckles, of 
Ohio, and was born December 27, 1852. His father came to Missouri 
in 1859 and settled in Shelbyville, Shelby county. When the war 
came on he joined the Federal forces and after a year's service, he'mo- 
wounded, was honorably discharged. He was then for some time in 
the militia, and has ever since been working at his trade of miller, 
both in this county and Montgomery. He had a family of 13 children, 
of whom six are living. John grew up on the farm and attended the 
common schools of the county. He worked for a year on the Hanni- 
bal Courier, then losing his heart to Miss Betty A.", daughter of Simon 
and Emily (Rudder) Finks, formerly of Vermont, he married her in 
1873, and settling down became a farmer. He is an honest and 
industrious citizen and bids fair, though now quite a young man, to 
become one of the leading men of the township. Mr. and Mrs. 
Buckles have four children, bright and charming as fresh roses in the 
morning sun. Their names are respectively: Netta A., Stella S., 
John R. and Charles T. 

GEORGE W. BYBEE 

(Farmer and Stock-dealer, Section 7). 

Mr. Bybee was born May 19, 1838, of John S. and Jennetta 
(Creed) By bee. His parents came to Missouri among the earliest 
settlers, and so few facilities were there at that time for housekeep- 
ing that they were compelled to do their marketing in Hannibal. Mr. 
B. improved a farm one and one-half miles north-west of Santa Fe, 
and raised principally hemp and corn. George attended school, help- 
ing his fother meanwhile with the farm until he was 17. He then 
worked for a year with an uncle in Fulton county. 111., two years with 
his brother in Audrain county, and the war coming on, he went into 
the Confederate army with "Capt. Murry. After six months' service 



364 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

he was discharo:ecl at Pea Rido-e and worked on a farm in the Indian 
Nation. Returning to Illinois, he married January 25, 1864, Miss 
Mary J. Powell, a native of Missouri, and farmed there until 1865, 
when he again took up his residence in Monroe. The following year 
he bought the home farm where he still lives. He is an energetic and 
capable farmer and stock-raiser. He deals in cattle, hogs and sheep. 
Mr. Bybee owns 223 acres of land, upon which he has just erected a 
new residence, barn, etc., causing it to present a very tidy and attrac- 
tive appearance. He has a family of eight children, Isadore, Anna, 
Celia, Harris, Emma, Wallace, Leon and Charles. Mrs. Bybee is a 
member of the Christian Church. 

JAMES CAMPLIN 

(Farmer, Section 18). 

The parents of James Camplin were natives of Kentucky, and there 
his father, James Camplin, died. His mother, Jane Penn Camplin, 
then moved with her children to Missouri and located in Monroe 
county. Her sons carried on the farm for her until 1845, when she 
accepted as a second husband Benjamin McCarty, a Virginia gentle- 
man, who had emigrated to the count3^ She died in 1869. James 
Camplin finding himself, on account of his father's death, called on to 
assume much of the responsibility of the family support, naturally 
was deprived of many advantages in education which had otherwise 
been his. He made the most, however, of his limited opportunities, 
and if his acquirements were not so extensive as those of most young 
men, he had the satisfaction of knowing that they were sacrificed in a 
holy cause, and that he had been a good son to a widowed mother. 
At the ao-e of 24 he married Miss Marinda Cri2:ler, daughter of Lovel 
and Mary (Oats) Crigler, and one of a family of 14 children. Her 
father moved from Virginia to Missouri in 1836. By this marriage 
there were six children: Mary J., wife of J. Fleming; William R., 
a farmer ; Susan G., Allie E., wife of F. Vaughn ; James, and Cyn- 
thia, who died at the most interesting age of four years, just as the 
aff"ections of her parents had become so closely twined about her that 
to tear them away was almost to destroy the root of life. Mr. Camp- 
lin, a progressive and energetic farmer, owns 105 acres of land all 
under fence, and well improved. He devotes much attention to the 
raising of stock for sale, and it may be said without exaggeration, 
that those wishing to purchase can nowhere receive more value for 
their money. Mr. C.'s stock are of the best grades, and will com- 
pare favorably with any in the county. His courteous and obliging 
manners make it a pleasure to deal with him. Mr. and Mrs. Camplin 
are members of the Christian Church in Santa Fe. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 365 

BENJAMIN E. COWHERD 

(Farmer aad Stock-raiser, Post-office, Florida). 

Mr. Cowherd's fiither, William Cowherd, was one of those sterling, 
enterprising farmers of the early days of the country who had the 
industry and intelligence to make a success of agriculture, and who, 
as a neighbor and citizen, was highly thought of for his high character 
and neighborly disposition. He was a large land owner and owned 
quite a number of slaves. He died in this county in 1853. He and 
his family were from Kentucky, and his wife, before her marriage was 
a Miss Celia Estes. She died here in 1867. They had seven chil- 
dren, namely: Mary, Emily, Elmira, Sarah A., David, Susan and 
Benjamin E., the subject of this sketch. Benjamin E. was born in 
Shelby county Ky., in 1817, and was well advanced in youth 
when the family came to Missouri. He remained with his father on 
the farm, however, until 1842. He then began farming for himself on 
a farm of 200 acres which his father gave him, or rather he beo^an the 
improvement of a farm on the raw land given him by his father. Two 
years later, like the early birds in the springtime, though not as 
quickly of course, he had succeeded in making himself a comfortable 
home, and then — he was married. Miss Elizabeth McNutt became 
his wife on happy Christmas Eve, Anno Domini 1844. Bringing his 
young wife to their new home, he went to work with renewed indus- 
try and resolution, as a ftirmer of the county. He also soon turned 
his attention to raising stock and has steadily accumulated the sub- 
stantial evidences of prosperity as the years have rolled awav, even up 
to the present time. During the war he sustained some heavy losses, 
both in slaves and other property, having nine negroes taken from 
him by a single stroke of Mr. Lincoln's pen, and some valuable horses 
and other goods and chattels by several strokes of the militia. How- 
ever, he is still in comfortable circumstances and has in his home- 
stead tract of land 440 acres, his place being one of the choice stock 
farms of the township. Mr. Cowherd raises and deals in all sorts of 
farm stock, and is one of the successful, enterprising stock men of the 
community. Mr. and Mrs. C. have two children: John M. and Will- 
iam. John M. is working on the farm in partnership with his father, 
but William is married and farming in the vicinity. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cowherd are members of the Presbyterian Church. 

JACOB COX 

(Farmer, section 1). 

Mr. Cox deserves more than most residents of the county a place in 
these pages, for without his public spirit and generosity the county 
would not now have cause to glow with pride in the possession of the 
Prairie High School, one of the finest institutions of learning in the 
land, whose existence is due almost entirely to the noble efforts of the 
subject of this sketch. He and Mr. John Forsythe were the first to 



366 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

advance the project and Mr. Cox was one of eleven who organized 
the school and of their private means erected the first building, cost- 
ing about $300. In order to induce children to attend the school, thej 
boarded them for the nominal sum of seventy-five cents a week. It 
may be remarked that the Prairie High School has showered upon the 
world, from the inexhaustible fountain of its learning, a larger number 
of professional men than any similar institution in the country. Mr. 
Cox was born in 1810, in Franklin county, Ky. His father, Thomas 
Cox, was a farmer and miller by occupation, and was a native of Ken- 
tucky. He married Miss Jane Smith of the same State, and died in 
1825, his wife having one year before crossed to the dark Plutonian 
shore. Jacob, one of a family of nine children, received a good edu- 
cation and worked on the farm until he was of age; then, after a trip 
by river to New Orleans, and a sunmier's work on the turnpike in 
Ohio, he returned to Kentucky, and learned the stone mason's trade. 
He worked at this, farming at the same time, until 1836, when he 
moved to Monroe county and settled near Florida. In a few years 
he changed his residence to his present farm. He first bought 80 acres 
of land upon which was only a little log cabin. His grinding was 
done with horse mills and in order to sell his wheat and produce and 
purchase supplies he went to Hannibal. The country abounded in 
game and though in those days living was simple, it is a question 
whether the world was not better off then than in this progressive 
and artificial age. Mr. Cox married January 14, 1834, Miss Cassan- 
der Talbott. There were born nine children: Francis J., Elizabeth, 
Martha A., John T., James, Emeline, Cassy, Nellie, and one who, start- 
led by one glimpse of this sin-sick world, fled in affi'ighted haste back to 
its native heaven. The eldest son, John T. , a young man of whom any 
parent might justly be proud, is a graduate of the Marion Medical 
College, at Cincinnati, and is now a practicing physician at Moberly. 
Mr. Cox's farm now consists of 160 acres where he and his worthy 
wife, faithful sharer of his early struggles and later success, bask in the 
sunshine of prosperity, after weathering triumphantly the fitful gales 
attending the voyage of life. They are among the most highly 
esteemed residents of the township. All the family belong to the 
Christian Church in Santa Fe. 

LOCKHART A. CREIGH 

(Farmer and Stock-dealer, Post-Offlce Santa Fe). 

Mr. Creigh is^a native of the Old Dominion, West Virginia, born in 
Greenbrier county, September 15, 1855. He was a son of David S. 
and Emily (Arbuckle) Creigh, of old and respected families of Green- 
brier county. The father in early life was a merchant, but later along 
engaged in farming near Lewisburg, W. Va. He was successfully fol- 
lowing that business when the war broke out, and although his sym- 
pathies were naturally with the South, he took no part whatever in the 
struggle. During the progress of the war, however, his house was 
visited by a ruffian Union soldier, and Mr. Creigh on going into his 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 367 

own house found the plunderer just about to enter the room of an 
invalid daughter when he told hira not to go in the room, upon which 
the robber placed his revolver in Mr. Creigh's face and demanded all 
of his keys. At this junction Mr. Creigh drew a small derringer pistol, 
which failed to fire, and then he grasped the robber's pistol and in the 
struggle killed hira with his own weapon. Afterwards, in retaliation 
for this, he was taken out by a party of soldiers and hung without 
judge or jury, or semblence of trial or defense. This was one of the 
many sad and unhappy events of that most unfortunate and unnatural 
war. His family remained in Virginia until 1871, when his wife, still 
a widow, removed to Missouri with her family of children and settled, 
on a place in this township. Here they improved a farm and lived on 
the place they improved until 18 — , when they sold their place to 
advantage and bought their present place, on which they have since 
resided. Mrs. Creigh, the mother, has been blessed with 11 children, 
and three of her sons, including the subject of the present sketch, 
Lockhart A., are engaged in running the farm. Their place contains 
480 acres and is one of the choice farms of the township. They are 
quite extensively engaged in raising stock and also deal in stock to a 
considerable extent, in all of which they have been very successful. 
One of Mr. Creigh's brothers, C. A. Creigh, is a prominent citizen of 
Paris, Mo., and the present circuit clerk of Monroe county. Mr. C. 
is a member of the Masonic order at Santa Fe. 

JAMES B. DAVIS 

(Farmer, Stock-raiser aud Stock-dealer, Post-office, Santa Fe). 

Among the prominent men and better class of citizens of the south- 
eastern part of the county Mr. Davis occupies a concededly and 
deservedly leading position. His farm is recognized as one of the best 
and the finest improved in South Fork township, and on account of 
his success as a farmer and stock man and of .his sterling intelligence 
and generous public spirit, he wields a marked influence in the aflairs 
of this part of the county, though he is a plain, unassuming man, 
without any pretensions whatever, but this perhaps is an additional 
reason why he is esteemed so highly. Mr. Davis has been repeatedly 
requested to become a candidate for county judge, and his consent to 
a candidacy would inevitably result in his election, but he has persist- 
ently declined, desiring no public office and preferring to remain at 
home in his own family and among his neighbors and acquaintances. 
Mr. Davis was born on his father's homestead in this county, in 
August, 1841, and was the eldest in the family of children of which he 
was a member. He received a good practical, common school educa- 
tion, all that is necessary if properly used, and he was of course 
brought up to a farm life, which he has always preferred to follow. 
In 1861 he joined Co. B, First Missouri State Guard, Southern 
service, under Capt. Murray, and served for six months, participating 
in the battles of Lexington, Pea Ridge, etc. He then came home on 
a visit with the intention of rejoining the army, but was captured by 



368 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

the Federals and taken to Mexico as a prisoner, where he was kept in 
confinement for a short while. He was then paroled and came home, 
where he has since been farming and handling stock, that is since 1863. 
On the 15th of November, 1863, he was married to Miss Lon Stnart, 
a daughter of William Stuart, president of the Savings Bank at Mexico. 
As has been intimated, Mr. Davis' career as an agriculturist has been 
one of abundant success. His farm, known as Evergreen Lodge 
Farm, contains 640 acres, and is one of exceptional beauty and value. 
The residence is the finest one in the township, a handsome two-story 
building, substantially and tastily constructed, containing 10 rooms, 
not including the halls, and is a remarkably conveniently arranged 
dwelling. Mr. Davis is entitled to the principal credit for the archi- 
tectural skill and taste displayed in its arrangement, plan, trimming 
and finish, for his house was built mainly from his own design. His 
large farm is fenced on the outside with fine hedge fencing almost 
exclusively, and it is literally check-worked with cross fencing, the same 
excellent judgment being shown in the arrangement of his fields and 
pastures, and meadows, etc., that is shown in the plan of his dwelling. 
He also has handsome and commodious barns and other buildings and 
improvements to correspond in utility and style with those mentioned. 
Mr. Davis has had his principal success in handling and raising stock, 
of which he has on hand constantly large numbers. He sells a num- 
ber of cattle and hogs every year, which bring him in a substantial 
income. He was one of the three citizens of this vicinity who took the 
personal responsibility to keep a school going for the education of the 
children of the neighborhood before the public schools had reached 
their present state of efficiency. They kept the school going for two 
years, and paid the teacher out of their private means. He has always 
been actively identified with the public schools since their revival. He 
gave the land for the school house site and also contributed $100 to its 
erection. Mr. and Mrs. Davis have three children: Elizabeth E., a 
graduate of Hardin College, now at home; Franklin S., now taking 
his educational course, and James F., who has entered school. Mr. 
and Mrs. Davis are members of the Christian Church, and he has been 
a member of the Masonic order for nearly twenty years. 

CHARLES C. DAVIS 

(Fai'mer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Santa Fe). 

Mr. Davis was born April 1, 1849, in Monroe county, of Benja- 
min and Eleanor (McCarty) Davis, both of Virginia. Charles was 
given every educational advantage, and in his leisure moments 
assisted on the farm, thus familiarizing himself with the routine of a 
life which he expected to embrace., September 15, 1870, at the age 
of twenty-one, he married Miss Mary E., daughter of John Heiger, 
and settled on the farm where he lives. It is a fine place of 400 
acres, all prairie land, and under cultivation. His improvements will 
compare favorably with any in the county, and his stock, the raising 
of which is his principal occupation, are as fine as can be found any- 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 369 

where in the country around. He does much for the advancement 
of this branch of farming, and has met with the most flattering suc- 
cess in his ventures. He raises catttle and hogs. Mr. Davis is a man 
respected in every rank of life, and both in his family and in the rela- 
tions he sustains towards the public richly deserves the regard mani- 
fested towards him. He has a charming family of five children: 
Mamie B., Jos.eph C, Jesse L., John H. and Nannie E. Mr. D. is 
a member of the Christian Church, while his wife belongs to the 
Presbyterian Church at South Fork. He is senior warden of the 
Masonic order at Santa Fe. 

JOHN M. DAVIS 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 27). 

Mr. Davis is a son of one of the first settlers of the county. His 
parents, Benjamin and Eleanor (McCarty) Davis, came from Virgin ia" 
to Missouri in 1836, settling near Santa Fe. The first residence ^a 
which Mr. Davis went to housekeeping on his arrival was a pen used 
originally for sheep, and the first bedstead upon which he rested his 
wearied limbs after the day's honest toil, was made with his own indus- 
trious hands, of rails. His marketing was done in Hannibal, whither he 
drove his hogs, dressed them and sold at two and a half cents a pound. 
Mr. D. purchased a farm of 160 acres, upon which he lived for seventeen 
years, then moved to the one his son now owns, where a useful life 
drew to a peaceful close in 1877. John M. was born in the golden- 
clad October, in the year 1853. His youth was passed in the health- 
ful interests and sturdy sports of a farm, to whose cultivation his 
vigorous arm materially contributed. He obtained, meanwhile, a 
good education. At the age of seventeen he went for two years to 
the Christian University for the completion of his studies. Upon his 
return he was married almost immediately to Miss Sudie Judy, a 
native of Kentucky, but resident of Audrain county. Mo. Mr. Davis 
then settled down on the old iiomestead, where he is now largely 
engaged in stock dealing. He makes a specialty of raising short- 
horn cattle, and owns twenty-two thoroughbred, and twenty graded 
cattle. He raises hogs, chiefly of the Poland-China breed, and also 
handles horses. His farm consists of 400 acres in Monroe county, 
and he owns, besides, 115 acres in Audrain county, all well improved 
and under fence. Mr. D. is one of the most active business men in the 
community, and is successful in everything he undertakes. Intelli- 
gent, industrious, and of fine executive capacity, there is no man in 
the county who commands more respect. He has two interesting 
children, David C. and Bessie B. Mr. Davis and his wife belong to 
the Christian Church. 

JOHN S. DRAKE, M. D. 

(Physician and Surgeon, Santa Fe) . 

Dr. Drake, a leading physician of the south-eastern part of th 
county, though born in Shelby county, Ky., February 1, 1841, wa^^ 



370 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

reared in Monroe county, Mo., his father, Hon. Samuel Drake, having 
removed to this county in an early day. Samuel Drake was one of the 
leading men of this part of North Missouri in the early days of the 
country, and represented this district in the State Senate for some 
years. He was a prominent Whig, and ran against Col. Horse Allen, 
of Palmyra, the Democratic candidate for the senate, beating him by 
an overwhelming majority, although the district then was very close 
between the two parties. He received every vote in Santa Fe town- 
ship except two. In 1852 he was elected representative of Monroe 
county in the Legislature. He was a man of moderate means, high 
character, superior education and fine intelligence, and was eminently 
public-spirited in all affjiirs affecting the interests of the people. He 
was especially active and influential in politics, and was one of the 
leading men of the county. He died early in 1867, in the sixty-seventh 
year of his age. His wife died in June, 1880. She was a Miss Mar- 
garet South before her marriage, and of one of the best families of 
Kentucky, a daughter of Col. John South, for many years State 
treasurer of the Blue Grass State. Dr. Drake, reared in this county, 
received a good English education as he grew up. He was 20 years 
of age when the war broke out, and coming of a Southern ftimily, and 
being himself of Southern principles and sympathies, he promptly 
identified himself with the struo-gle for the maintenance of Southern 
rights and institutions. He joined Col. Porter's command, and was 
with that officer until captured by the Federals. He was then taken 
to Alton 111., where he was confined for some time, and afterwards 
banished to remain out of Missouri until the close of the war and take 
no further part for the South in the struggle. Returning to Monroe 
county after the war, he soon began the study of medicine, and in 
1868 entered the Miami Medical College of Cincinnati, O., in which 
he continued until his graduation in the spring of 1871. He then 
located at Santa Fe, in this county, where he has since been engaged 
in the practice. Dr. Drake is a thoroughly capable and skillful 
physician, and has built up a large practice in this vicinity. Highly 
esteemed as a man, his personal popularity contributes only less than 
his professional success to his reputation as a physician. On the 6th 
of May, 1874, Dr. Drake was married to Miss Pattie Capps, formerly 
of Clark county, Ky. They have had three children, one of whom 
died in infancy. The other two are Effie Bowen and Ewell Travis. 
Dr. Drake is Master of Santa Fe lodge No. 462, A. F. and A. 
M., and also a prominent member of the I. O. O. F. He and wife 
are both church members, he of the South Fork Presbyterian, of 
which he is an elder, and she of the Missionary Baptist. Mrs. Drake 
is a lady of superior mental endowments and fine culture. She is at 
the same time companionable and gentle of heart and manners, a 
veritable good ang-el in her own home, and indeed wherever her gentle 
presence is met with. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 371 

BENJAMIN C. DRAKE 

(Deceased, late Farmer, Section 28) . 

Surrounded by a loving wife and dutiful children, possessed of a 
delio-htful home and with every personal qualification necessary to 
o-ive happiness to himself and those around him, in the flush and vigor 
of a more than ordinarily useful manhood, Benjamin C. Drake was 
transfixed by the swift and pitiless arrow of Death. As the stateliest 
forest tree is chosen by the woodsman, thus was he a shining mark for 
the insatiate Archer. But conscious of the purity and blamelessness 
of his life, he felt no fears. A Christian's armor enveloped him so 
closely that the dangers of the dread journey were powerless to terrify 
him, and from the bosom of his God, his sainted spirit still watches 
over his loved ones on earth. Born November 25, 1829, near Frank- 
fort, Ky., the son of Samuel and Adelia Drake, Benjamin C. came to 
Missouri when a child. He grew up on his father's farm, and at the 
age when most young men are just beginning to leave their boyish 
follies behind them, he was filled with the steady resolves and un- 
flinching purpose of a man. At the age of 21 he took to himself a 
Avife, Miss Louesa J. Davis, daughter of Benjamin F. Davis, being the 
happy bride. The knot was tied in August, 1850. Eleven times 

Time put his siclsle in among tlie days, 
Tlie rose burned out, red autumn lit the woods. 
The last snows, melting, changed to snowy clouds, 
And spring once more with incantations came 
To wake the buried year. 

Then this dream of bliss was over and with a grief 

Too deep for tears, too constant for complaint, 

the bereaved widow found herself left to untangle alone for herself 
and her fatherless little ones the snarled thread of Fate. Developing 
that hitherto dormant energy and self-reliance which so often is born 
of sudden trial to a timid and dependant woman, Mrs. Drake has 
nobly guided herself. She has purchased 80 acres of land, erected 
upon them a comfortable residence, and other improvements, and has 
as cosy and attractive a home as heart could wish. Her womanly 
strength and independence, and the heroic fortitude and bravery 
which she has brought to bear upon life's manifold knocks and blows, 
have forced from an admiring community the most enthusiastic ex- 
pressions of commendation. Mrs. Drake has five living children: 
Adelia, wife of James Carter; Alice A., wife of John Cowherd; 
Mary, Walter D., now carrying on the farm, and Benjamin. Emma, 
wife of J. Stevenson, died in 1872, leaving two daughters, and Lilian, 
pure as her name, was taken at the age of six years, to join that 
celestial throng, eternally chanting seraphic songs around the throne. 
Mrs. Drake is a consistent member of the Christian Church at 
Santa Fe. 



372 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

' LEWIS FLEMING 

(Supervisor of Koads, Santa Fe) . 

It was on the 16th of January, 1842, and in the State of West Vir- 
ginia, that the subject of this sketch was born. He was the third son 
in a family of seven children of Weightnian and Mary (Lough) 
Fleming, both also natives of Virginia. The others of the children 
were David, Nathan, Joseph, Andrew and Bettie. When Lewis was 
twelve years of age, in 1854, the family removed to Missouri, and 
settled in Monroe county, where the father engaged in farming which 
he had previously followed in West Virginia. Lewis was brought up 
to farm life and remained at home on the farm until the outbreak of 
the war, in 1861. He and his father and several of his brothers 
joined the Southern army, becoming members of Co. C, of the 
Ninth Missouri. Their first eno-aofement was at Elk Fork, in Monroe 
county, where the father paid the tribute of his life to the Southern 
cause, being killed during the progress of the fight. Lewis continued 
true to the cause consecrated by the blood of his father and by the 
lives of thousands of brave men all over the South, and bravely did 
his duty in many a hard fought field until near the close of the war 
when he was taken prisoner. Among other engagements he was in 
those at Moore's Mill, Kirksville, Cane Hill, Cypress Bend and others. 
While participating in the Arkansas campaign he was captured by the 
Federals, and taken to Springfield, Mo., and thence to St. Louis, 
where he languished in duress vile until he was paroled in the spring 
of 1864. He then returned home, greatly broken in health from the 
hardships he endured during active service and from long and close 
confinement in prison. As soon as he was able for work he resumed 
farming and on the 14th of January, 1869, he was married to Miss 
Eliza Farebaien, a daughter of John B. and Catherine (Hoover) Fare- 
baien, formerly of Virginia. Mr. Fleming has a handsome homestead 
property in Santa Fe and is one of the well respected citizens of the 
place. He is now serving his eighth year as supervisor of roads, and 
so well and faithfull}' has he performed his duties that the excellence 
of the roads around Santa Fe are the boast of all the county and the 
especial delight of the people of this vicinity. He and wife are worthy 
members of the Presbyterian Church, and he is an active and useful 
member of the I. O. O. F. 

WILLIAM H. FOREE 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Santa Fe). 

The Force family, as all old Kentuckians know, is one of the influ- 
ential and highly respected families of that State. Dr. Force, of 
Louisville, now deceased, who was a distant relative of the subject of 
the present sketch, was one of the really great physicians of the coun- 
try. He was employed far and wide in all important surgical opera- 
tions of special difficulty or danger, where his services could be had. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 373 

Others of the family are equally as well known. Mr. Foree is, himself, 
a native of the Blue Grass State, born in Henry county, December 
22, 1838. However, when he was 10 years of age, in 1848, his 
parents, Joseph and Caroline (Shrader) Foree, removed to Missouri 
and settled in Monroe county, where William H. was reared. He 
remained with his parents until he was 23 years old, assisting on the 
farm, but in January, 1861, was married to Miss Elizabeth Jackson, 
a daughter of James and Anna M. (Mathis) Jackson, who came here 
from North Carolina in 1832. Both her parents are now deceased. 
Mr. Force's parents had a family of 15 children, and his wife was one 
of 13 children. One of her brothers, Rev. William Jackson, is the 
well known Methodist minister at Pueblo, Col. After his marriage 
young Mr. Foree continued farming, to which he had been brought 
up, and in the spring of 1875 was able to buy a tract of land. He 
bought 150 acres where he now resides, to which he has since added, 
until he now has nearly 200 acres. His place he has mainly improved 
himself, and it is one of the best improved farm» of the township. 
He has a handsome new residence and a commodious, tastily built 
barn with other improvements to correspond. He and wife have five 
children, Mary L., Emmett, Anna, Eva and Susan. The two eldest 
are members of the M. E. Church South, and he and wife are also 
both members of that denomination. Mr. Foree is what may be fairly 
termed a farmer in the broad and better sense of that word, for he is 
industrious, energetic, and a good manager, and understands the prac- 
tical work of farming thoroughly. 

WILLIAM S. FORSYTH 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Strother). 

Mr. Forsyth is well known as one of the prominent agriculturisti 
and leading, influential citizens of the county. He has a fine stock 
farm of 610 acres in South Fork township, well improved and stocked 
with good grades of cattle, hogs, horses, etc. In 1876 his friends 
ran him for the nomination for county judge, but he took little or no 
personal interest in the contest and was defeated by Judge Dooley for 
the nomination. Nevertheless, it is generally conceded that if he had 
made the efi'orts usually put forth in a canvass, he would have been 
successful, notwithstanding Judge Dooley is regarded as one of the 
most popular men of the county. Mr. Forsyth, like many and per- 
haps most of the substantial citizens of Monroe county, is a native of 
Kentucky and was born in Mercer county, October 20, 1837. He was 
the third in a family of eight children, being a twin with a brother 
who still lives in Mercer county, Ky. — the children of Andrew and 
Narcissa (McAfee) Forsyth. His mother died in April, 1875. The 
father is still living on his farm in Mercer county, Ky., hale and 
hearty, at the advanced age of 87 years. William was adopted into 
the family of his uncle, John Forsj'th, and was brought to Missouri 
by them when about 10 years of age. His uncle settled in Monroe 
county, where he became a prominent and well-to-do farmer, and died 



374 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

here in 1870. He was a man of much public spirit and took a deep 
interest particularly in education. In 1855 he, with his neighbors, 
Jacob Cox, William Bridgeford and Joseph Sproul, determined to 
have a public school carried on regularly in their neighborhood, and, 
if the public funds were not sufficient, to supply the deficiency out of 
their own means. This school was kept open regularly for a number 
of years and until it was merged into Prof. French Strother's present 
popular and successful private academy. Mr. Forsyth (the uncle) 
contributed regularly from $50 to $75 annually for the support 
of the school and threw open his house for pupils at a distance 
to board at a merely nominal cost while attending the school. A 
first-class teacher was secured and the school soon obtained a wide 
and enviable reputation for efficiency and thoroughness. After his 
uncle's death, which occurred August 22, 1870, Mr. Stockwell For- 
syth, the subject of this sketch, took the former's place in the sup- 
port and directory of the school, and has continued to fill it in a 
manner entirely creditable to the record his uncle made. His uncle 
had previously been school director, and Mr. Forsyth has been con- 
tinuously elected, except two years, to the same position, in which he 
is still serving. In 1877 Mr. Forsyth, and the neighbors associated 
with him in the support and management of the school, secured the 
services of Prof. French Strother, an accomplished and successful 
teacher, and he was continued in the charge of it for about five years, 
when he resigned in order to build up his present private academy. 
Mr. Forsyth, with characteristic liberality and zeal for the educa- 
tional interests of the community, kindly told Prof. French Strother 
to draw on him for all the funds necessary, which was done with 
becoming modesty and appreciation by the latter, only to the amount 
actually needed. This is now conceded to be one of the best private 
schools in the State, for which Mr. Forsyth is entitled to the credit, 
second only to Prof. French Strother himself. On May 18, 1871, 
Mr. Forsyth was married to Miss Anna M. Fulton, a daughter of 
John M. Fulton, who came to Missouri from South Carolina in 1868 
and settled in Monroe county, where he and fiimily still reside. Mr. 
and Mrs. F. have two children, James Fulton and Mary J. Two 
others died in infancy. For a short time Mr. Forsyth was in the 
Confederate army during the war, but on being taken prisoner and 
sworn not to take up arms again, took no further part in the war. He 
is one of the most highly respected citizens of the county. For the 
last three years he has been county correspondent to the Commissioner 
of Agriculture, having- been recommended by the Hon. A. H. Buck- 
ner, M. C. For a number of years he has been a ruling elder in the 
O. S. Presbyterian Church and has repeatedly been sent as delegate 
to her judicatories. Four years ago he was a delegate to the General 
Assembly which met at Charleston, S. C. Mr. F. has paid but little 
attention to politics, but has used with commendable liberality his 
money, time and talent to everything that has tended to the mental 
and moral elevation of his community. 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 375 

DR. WILLIAM M. HOUSTON 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Santa Fe). 

There was once a party in this country known as the "Barn- 
burners," which, however, has long since passed away. But there 
is and has always been since the colony of Pennsylvania was founded 
a distinctive and pre-eminent class of ham builders, and these 
are the Pennsylvanians themselves. No less a personage than 
Horace Greeley once said that he could always tell a Pennsyl- 
vanian by the size, comfort, convenience and finish of the barn 
on his farm, whether in the East, West, North or South. And 
so it is that wherever you find a Pennsylvanian, one of the better 
class, at least, engaged in farming, you find him with a big barn, 
whatever his other improvements may be, and generally they are 
good, substantial and comfortable. Dr. Houston is of Pennsylvania 
parentage and a farmer, thrifty, well educated and energetic, and his 
farm forms no exception to those of the generality of Pennsylva- 
nians. He has a place of 540 acres, all under fence except 60 
acres of timber, and his place has substantial, durable and com- 
fortable improvements on it, from the dwelling down to the pig-sty 
in the barn yard. He has an exceptionally large and well built 
barn, one of the best in the entire community, adequate for all 
stock-farm purposes, and comfortably and conveniently arranged 
for sheltering and caring for stock, for storing grain, and for 
protecting farm machinery and implements from the weather. Dr. 
Houston is a man of sterling character, possessing strong con- 
victions, ready at all times to stand by them, but at the same 
time a kind-hearted man, generous and liberal in all his impulses, 
a good neighbor and a worthy, valuable citizen. Dr. Houston was a 
son of David and Margaret (Cowden) Houston, both born and reared 
in Pennsylvania. His father was the second son of William Houston, 
of Lancaster county, Pa., a soldier of the Revolutionary War and in 
after years an intrepid and exemplary soldier of the Cross. His 
father being a man of great pith and enterprise, accumulated a hand- 
some estate, represented his county in the Legislature of Ohio, par- 
ticipated in the War of 1812, and was all his life a Democrat. His 
mother was a daughter of Joseph and Mary Cowden, an old and 
respected family of that State. Both parents were Presbyterians, 
born and reared in the faith and of uncommon faith and piety. 
There were 11 children in the family of Dr. Houston's father, 
namely : WiUiam M., Joseph C, Amy J., Esther C, Mary Ann, John 
P., Martha S., Andrew D., Jemima, Margaret and Lillie. His grand- 
father and family removed to Ohio and settled in Mahoning county, 
where his father married and where William M. (the Doctor) was 
born (in Poland), July 6, 1819. His father was in comparatively 
easy circumstances, and after passing through the schools of Mahon- 
ing county, William M., at the age of 17, was sent to Pennsylvania 

19 



376 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

to complete his education. He matriculated at the Jefferson College of 
Pennsylvania, and continued in that ancient and famous institution of 
learning until his graduation in 1843. He then began the study of 
medicine, which he prosecuted for two years. In 1845, having com- 
pleted his studies in the medical profession, young Dr. Houston came 
to Missouri and located at Santa Fe, where he entered upon the prac- 
tice and pursued it with success for some 16 years, or until the outbreak 
of the war. A Northern man by birth and ancestry, his family having 
lived for generations almost within the sound of Liberty Bell, in Phil- 
adel})hia, that pealed forth for the first time the glad tidings of the 
Declaration of Independence, in 1776, he of course sympathized with 
the Union cause in the struggle of the Civil War, and, indeed, was a 
stalwart, out-spoken Union man. Soon after the beginning of the 
war he was appointed Provost-Marshal of Monroe county, and later 
along he enrolled the county under the enrollment law of the State. 
Since then he has held numerous other positions, of a local nature, 
however, and has been clerk and director of the school board for a 
number of years. He has always taken a commendable interest in 
the schools and has contributed a great deal to their success in his 
vicinity. In Maj^, 1849, Dr. Houston was married to Miss Maria F. 
Davis, daughter of Capt. Benjamin F. Davis, both born in Wythe 
county, Va., but emigrating to Missouri, when the former was a little 
girl. The Captain was a man of tireless energy, unswerving religious 
faith (long an elder in the Christian Church), the builder of an 
ample fortune, a legacy to his family when he died in 1877. His 
wife, Eleanor B. Davis, survives him, a lady of the old Virginia pat- 
tern, the kind and affectionate mother of a numerous family, a 
woman unshaken in the faith and hope of a better life, but of serene 
contentment in this. The Doctor and wife have had 11 children, 
namely: William, who died in infancy; Algernon Sidney, now in the 
lumber trade at Mexico; Louisa E., wife of Douglas Mcllhaney ; 
Frederick, who died at the age of five years ; May, who died at the 
age of four years; Mary V., who is now a public school teacher; Amy, 
who died in infancy ; Katie W., at home ; Mariana E., also at home ; 
Decima, who died at the age of four years, and Tiny Coralie, now at 
home. On the 19th of October, 1882, Dr. Houston had the misfor- 
tune to lose his wife. She passed quietly away, sustained in the last 
hour by the grace of Christian faith, with which she had been 
blessed from early life. For 33 years she had stood by her husband's 
side, the faithful and devoted sharer of his joys and sorrows, and 
throughout she was a wife and mother whose single object seemed to 
be to nlake home happy to her loved ones. Her death left a void in 
her home and in the community which is sadly felt, for she was loved 
in her own family and by her neighbors and acquaintances with the 
depth and sincerity rarely shown for any one. Dr. Houston and all 
his children, save the youngest, are members of the Christian Church. 
He himself has, for many years, been a zealous and efficient officer and 
teacher in the church and Sunday-school. Not only in the church, 
but by his walk in the world, as well as by the religious training of his 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 377 

family, he endeavors to show forth the life of a humble and watchful 
follower of him who died on Calvary. In politics, he is now and always 
was a Democrat and empatically " anti-protection." While distinctly a 
farmer and stock-grower, yet by taste and predilection, he is much 
given to fruit raising, to agriculture, and especially to forestry. Tree 
culture may be called his hobby, but is his chief delight. 

WILFKED HAYS (deceased) 

(Late Farmer, Section 7). 

Though always an essentially peaceable and law abiding citizen, and 
taking no part in the late Civil War, by which the country was so 
recently distracted, Mr. Hays died a victim to the terrible state of 
affairs inseparable from such a war. In 1862, going to Florida to 
mill, information which he could not give was demanded of him by 
the advance guard of Col. Smart's regiment. Incensed by his per- 
sistent refusal to tell what he really did not know, they jSrst subjected 
him to many abuses, and then with the most cowardly malignity shot 
him four times. He lived until the next day and then expired, an 
ujiright, conscientious citizen, as foully and cruelly murdered as any 
whose dark fate stains the annals of history. Imagine the poor grief- 
stricken woman who was left thus suddenly a helpless widow, with 
eight children dependent on her. She has remained always faithful 
to his memory, and has devoted her life to those little ones who alone 
remain of their love, raising six of them to man and womanhood. 
Mr. Hays was the son of William and Susan (Hayden) Hays, and 
came to Missouri in 1855, settling in Marion county. In 1860 he 
moved to Monroe and bought a farm near Elizabethtown, where he 
lived until his death. Mrs. Hays was formerly Miss Ann C. Janes, 
daughter of Benjamin and Mary (Gibbs) Janes, natives of Kentucky. 
There were eight children: John H., Charles T., Eliza C, William, 
Martha T., Robert, and two, Benjamin and Susan, deceased. 

JOSEPH HEIZER 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office Santa Fe) . 

This venerable and highly esteemed old post-octogenarian citizen of 
South Fork township, still vigorous minded and quite active consider- 
ing his advanced age, is a native of the Old Dominion, born only a few 
weeks after the beginning of the present century, away back in 1801, 
on the 6th of February. He was a son of John and Nancy (Wright) 
Heizer, of Augusta county, and his father was a distiller. About his 
earliest recollections are of taking corn to the distillery on horseback, 
when he was so small that his legs weren't long enough to hold him on 
the sack, that is, to balance him and weigh him down properly in obed- 
ience to the law of the line of direction familiar to all adepts in natural 
philosophy. His parents were both members of the Presbyterian 
Church and he was brought up in that faith, of which he has ever been 
a worthy exponent. He was elected an elder in the church away back 



378 HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 

in 1838. Mr. Heizer was reared in Augusta county and remained 
there on the homestead farm until after his father's death, which 
occurred in 1821. On the 2d of September, 1824, he was married to 
Miss Nancy Hannah, and then removed to Augusta county, Va., where 
he resided for about 12 years, or until his immigration to Missouri. 
He came to this State in 1836, making the trip by wagon teams and 
being eight weeks on the road. He bought 80 acres of land, a part of 
the place where he now resides, which had a cabin on it and a sort of 
a cleared place where corn had made an amateur effort to grow a year 
or two before. The cabin had an apology for a board, roof on it, held 
on with weight poles, that is the alleged roof was, but it was so 
tesselated with embrasures through which the light and air could enter 
that when it snowed it required a natural measurement to determine 
whether the snow was deeper on the outside of the house than in it. 
However, Mr. Heizer was young and hardy then, and he went to work, 
nothing daunted by the outlook, to fix himself and family comfortably 
in life. As the years rolled away, he succeeded in making a good 
home, and was soon as comfortable as one of sober tastes and desires 
would wish to be. His farm grew into a fine place of over 300 acres 
of land, and a large, comfortable house was built and other conven- 
ient improvements were made. Providence kindly prospered him in 
his family and blessed him with worthy children, namely : John, who, 
after he grew up, married Miss Nancy Carter, and now has a family of 
children of his own ; he resides on the homestead and has charge of the 
farm, making a specialty of stock-raising, in which he is quite success- 
ful ; Nancy v., who married Jackson Hickman, but died in 1873, leav- 
ing a family of children, and Margaret married Daliel Kerr. Mr. 
Heizer has 17 grandchildren and 10 great-grandchildren. 

JOHN A. HICKMAN 

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, ^anta Fe). 

Mr. Hickman was thirteen years of age when his parents, Hugh A. 
and Barbara (McNutt) Hickman, came to Monroe county from Vir- 
ginia. Mr. Hickman's father was a miller and trader by occupation, 
and when he came here he bought the Peter Stites mill, near Santa 
Fe, which he ran for about two years. He then settled on what is 
now known as the Hickman farm, where he made his permanent 
home. He continued to run the mill, however, for many years after- 
wards. In 1831 Mr. Hickman's father. Major Penn and Dr. Kenyon 
laid out the town of Florida and John A., then a boy 14 years of age, 
carried the stakes for them whilst at the work, for which he received 
as compensation a set of store marbles, then a great rarety among the 
boys of this new country, and worth readily a sow and pigs or a good 
calf. Young Hickman grew up on his father's farm and received a 
good common school education in the schools of the period. At the 
age of 25, on the 15th of March, 1842, he was married to Miss Susan 
Cowherd, formerly of Kentucky. He then settled on the farm where 
he now resides. Here at first he had 160 acres, which he improved 



HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY. 379 

from the condition of raw land. Since then he has added to his farm 
until he now has 330 acres of well improved land. He has made 
farmin^^ and stock-raising his only industries and has had good suc- 
cess, as the above facts show. During the war he took no part in the 
struggle, but his brother, vEsculapius, was one of the first who joined 
the Southern forces in Missouri, and is believed to have been the first 
one to fire a hostile shot on the side of the Confederacy, in this part 
of the State, at least he bears that reputation, and it has never been 
questioned. On the 3d of September, 1881, Mr. Hickman had the 
misfortune to lose his wife. She had borne him 12 children, namely : 
Samanthy, Rebecca, Philander, Mary, Julia, Benjamin, Elizabeth, 
Emma, Ella, Lillie, Gallatin and Hugh. The mother was an earnest 
member of the Baptist Church and died in the full faith and hope of 
the Redeemer, our Lord and. Savior, Jesus Christ. Mr. Hickman 
remembers very distinctly the time that the so-called prophet, Joseph 
Smith, of the Church of the Latter Day Saints, the second in the 
line of Prophetic succession in that church, camped on the prairie in 
this vicinity, and drilled his men every day as an army is drilled for 
action. 

CLAY WEBSTER JUDY 

(Dealer iu Drugs, Medicines, etc., Santa Fe). 

Mr. Judy comes of several well known and highly respected fami- 
lies of both this State and Kentucky. A sketch of his ancestry is 
given on pages (307 and G08 of the " History of Audrain County," 
of which county his father is a prominent citizen and stock man, so 
that it is hardly necessary to take the space here to repeat what is 
stated there. The Judys came to Kentucky in an early day, and 
there Mr. Judy's grandfather, John Judy, wa